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niSC'PLIAN.A V~"* ny 

Ashtitisriri j »»J CHRsS i !Ai\3 V i 


With leference to those pases of " Phrenoloarv Proved, illustrated, and Applied." Li 
TFbicb. will be found a fall and correct delineation of the intellectual Rn<i moral 
character and mental manifestations of the above-named individual. 


Stailium "AnliusG mT/r, est cuam corporis. **— C ;a. 




x a 1350. 


Bsr—- — = 


— — i 

Domestic Propen. 



10.U. 16.20. 

1. Amativeness, 











2. Philoprogeni. 











3. Adhesiveness, 





10 14.21 




4. Inhabitiveness 













5. Concentrative. 









Selfish Propensi. 





A. Vitativeness, 





6. Combative. 








7. Destructive. 







8. Alimentive. 








9, Acquisitive. 











10. Secretiveness, 




~~ 98 

S. 12.15.20 





Selfish Sentiments 








1 1. Cautiousness, 










12. Approbative. 







13. Self-esteem, 










14. Firmness, 










Moral Sentiments, 








15. Conscientious. 










16. Hope, 









17. Marvellous. 









18. Veneration, 











19. Benevolence, 




i K 







Semi-intel. Senti. 



20 Constrictive. 
81. Ideality, 

B. Sublimity, 249. 
22 Imitation, 

23. ■Mirthfulness, 
Intellectual Facul. 
Perceptive Facul. 

24. Individuality, 

25. Form, 

26. Size, 
27 Weight, 

28. Color, 

29. Order, 

30. Calculation, 

31. Locality, 

32. Eventuality, 

33. Time, 

34. Tune, 

35. Language, 
Reasoning Organs 

36. Causality, 

37. Comparison, 

C. Suavitiveness, 

D. Human Nature 




Very large. 



mill i 

160, 163 



















171 171 






175 1 176 








5.6.7.II.40! 20 





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184 133 1 165 







188' 169 

8 - 9 ° 





3 91 i 191 



5! 1.40 

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196 197 

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210 21! 





























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. ( 247| 

The written figures indicate the relative size of the organs in your head. 

The larger printed figures refer to the pages of "Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, 
and \pplied," where your" description of character will be found; and the sjeALLae 
figures, to accompanying cuts. 


The proportionate size of the phrenological organs of the individual 
examined, and, consequently, the relative power and energy of his primary 
mental powers ; that is, his moral and intellectual character and manifesto' 
Hons, will be indicated by the written figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7: figure 1 sig- 
nifying VERY SMALL ; 2, SMALL ; 3, MODERATE ; 4, AVERAGE ; 5, FULL } 

In order to make the indications still plainer, these figures will be written 
opposite to those lines which describe the individual examined ; and at the 
end of these lines, figures are placed which refer to those pages of " Phreno- 
logy Proved, Illustrated, and Applied," in which will be found a full descrip- 
tion, as well of his individual characteristics as of the results of feelings, 
character, talents, capabilities, &c. produced by the combined operation of bis 
faculties in that degree in which he possesses them. 

Explanation of the Cuts, (abbreviated c.) Cut 1 shows the location, 
number, and abbreviated name of the organs : 2, their general divisions or 
classification ■• 3, 4, present occipital and frontal views of the organs : 
5 is a profile cut of Washington : 6, of Franklin : 7, of Herschel : 8, 9, of 
Le Blanc, the murderer of Judge Say re and family, of N. J. : 10 represents 
a well balanced, or perfect head : 1 1 is a cut of a highly intellectual female, 
and one endowed with great versatility of talents: 12, 13, are cuts of 
Me-che-Ke-le-a-tah, the celebrated war-chief of the Miami Indians : 14 is 
a cut of Aurelia Chase, murderer of Dr. Durkey's wife, Bait. : 15, of Black 
Hawk: 16, 17, of an Indian chief: 18, of De Witt Clinton: 19, of Bru- 
nell, engineer of the Thames tunnel, Eng. : 20, of Philip, a notorious thief 
and liar, (p. 320) : 21, 27, of a skull found on the British lines at York 
town, Va. : 22, 23, of a remarkably intelligent monkey : 24, 32, of a hyena 
25, 26, of a N. A. Indian : 28, of an idiotick child : 29, of a full-grown idiot 
30, 37, of an ichneumon : 31, 36, of a fox : 34, crow : 37, 43, of a very cun 
ning and roguish cat : 40, of Shakspeare, from an English portrait, said to 
be the most correct extant: 41, of Robert Hall : 42, a New Zealander. 

[The small figures (second row,) placed before the names of the organs, 
are the numbers of Spurzkeim.] 

Definitions. — 1, or Vert Small, means almost wholly wanting ' 
2, or Small, feeble and inactive ; 3, or Moderate, signifies rather below 
mediocrity ; active only in a subordinate degree ; and having only a limited 
influence upon the mind and character : 4, or Average, means fair, oi 
between moderate and full, and includes the general analysis of the 
faculties : 5, or Full, signifies respectable, though not marked or control- 
ling : 6, or Large, applied to an organ, shows that its corresponding 
faculty has a powerful and an energetick influence upon the capabilities 
and feelings, if not conduct : 7, or Very Large, means predominant, 
especially over the less energetick faculties ; constituting and giving tone 
and direction to the character and talents ; easily excited, and powerful in 
action ; and quite liable to perversion and abuse. 

The sign + , (plus, or more,) placed before or after a figure, shows that 
it is larger than it is marked, yet not enough so to require the next larger 
figure : the sign — , (minus, or less,) that it is not quite as much as it is 
marked. These signs add and diminish nearly one-half of a degree. 

The printed figures in the margin, refer to the number of their respective 
faculties, or the order in which they are described, and the figures in the 
cuts, to the location of the corresponding faculties in the head, except the 
figures under, or in the open parts of the cuts, which refer to their numbof 



Poikts out those connexions and relations which exist between ths con- 
ditions and developments of the bhaijt, and the manifestations of the. 
hind, discovering each from an observation of the other. Its one distinctive 
characteristic feature is, that each class of mental functions is manifested by 
means of a given portion of the brain, called an organ, the size of which is 
the measure of the power of function. Thus the benevolent feeling is mani- 
fested and indicated by means of brain in the frontal part of the top of the 
head, (see cuts,) and in proportion to the development of brain here, will 
be one's spontaneous flow of kind, obliging feeling, and so of every other 
quality of mind. 

Its classification of the mental faculties also furnishes a complete system 
of intellectual and moral philosophy, by resolving all the operations of the 
human mind, whether simple or complex, into their primary elements or 

That these phrenological relations either do, or do not exist, and there* 
fore, that phrenology is either fundamentally true or else untrue, is a self 
evident proposition ; and by applying to it, as we proceed, the following philo- 
sophical axioms, which are the proper tests and touchstones of the truth of 
any and every science, the truth of phrenology, or its want of it, can be 
speedily and certainly ascertained. 

Axiom 1. If phrenology is fundamentally true, it forms an important 
part of this great system of things called the universe, developing those 
laws and unfolding those principles, physical, intellectual, and moral, in ac- 
cordance with which " God created man," and also the whole range of 
animated beings. Consequently, as every portion of the universe originated 
in the same Divine Mind, and as each part of it is adapted to every other 
part, phrenology, if true, is adapted to, and must therefore perfectly har- 
monize with, every other fact and principle in nature with which it is capa- 
ble of being compared. 

But if it be erroneous, then, since God is the author of nature, and man 
of phrenology, the two will clash with each other, because man could never 
devise a system of facts and principles capable of dovetailing with the laws 
and operations of nature. Truth will always harmonize with truth, but 
with truth only. Error cannot tally with truth, nor with error. Hence, 
by comparing phrenology with the known principles and operations of na- 
ture, its truth or erroneousness can be ascertained from its harmonizing 
with them, or being in opposition to them. 

2. If true, its origin is Divine, and, like every other portion of the Crea- 
tor's works, its own inherent beauty, simplicity, perfection, and naivete, 
will stamp it with the Divine impress ; but if not true, it is human in its 

* Derived from the two Greek words " Phren," which signifies mind* and 
" Logos," discourse ; the two together signifying the science of mind, or its awfl 
and phenomena as manifested and indicated through the brain. 




•ngin, and therefore necessarily a bundle of imperfections and absurdities 

3. If true, it develops tne constitutional principles, and analyzes all the 
phenomena of the human mind, beautifully unravelling the whole web of 
thought and feeling, and fully explaining the vast and entire range of the 
mental manifestations, besides unfolding the laws of physiology ; but if 
untrue, its fallacy can easily be detected by its inability to accomplish these 
ends. To effect these otherwise unattainable objects is, "par excellence" 
the peculiar prerogative of phrenology ; and its success or failure here, is 
the certain criterion of its truth or erroneousness. 

4. But if phrenology be partly true and partly false, if the Deity made 
one part, and man imagined the balance, then, "like a house divided 
against itself," its own inherent absurdities and self-contradictions will con- 
stitute its own refutation. 

Definition of a Faculty. 

A mental faculty is a primary power of the mind which exercises one, 
and but one, distinct and homogeneous class of functions, having for their 
object some specific end in man's physical or mental constitution, such as 
iove of offspring, memory of occurrences, appetite for food, &c, and 
which is exercised by means of a given portion of the brain, called its 

The following are a few of the facts and arguments, briefly stated, which 
establish the truth of phrenology. 

I. The BRAIN is the organ of the MIND, on the PHYSICAL 
INSTRUMENT of thought and feeling. 

First. That there exist a most intimate connexion and relation between 
the thinking, feeling principle of man and his body, is a matter of observa- 
tion and sensation; the state of each reciprocally affecting that of the 
other. That this connexion must be manifested cither directly through the 
medium of the body as a whole, or else by means of some particular por- 
tion of it, is also self-evident. But every other portion of it except the 
brain, is exclusively occupied in performing other functions than the men 
tal, whilst the location and structure of the brain, its connexion by means 
of the nerves with every portion of the system, and also every thing apper- 
taining to it, point. it out as the "dome of thought," "the palace of the soul." 

Second. The blood is the great medium for the re-supply of vital energy, 
it being most abundant wherever the greatest re-supply of this energy is 
required. Now the exercise of mind, besides being the chief end of man's 
existence in this world, and a source of much more intense pleasure and 
pain than the exercise of his muscles, causes a far greater expenditure of the 
vital energies than the exercise of the latter. If therefore the brain were 
the instrument of the mind, it would use up much more blood in proportion 
to its size than any other portion of the body. Accordingly, we find that 
from ten to twenty times more blood is sent to the brain in proportion to 'ts 
size, than is sent to any other equally large portion of the system. 

Third. A slight pressure upon the brain suspends the mental operations, 
rendering the patient unconscious of every thing ; and by the removal of 
this press'ure the mental powers are instantly restored, whilst this eiled 
cannot be produced by pressing upon any other portion of the system. 

Fourth. Injuries and morbid states of the brain palpably affect the ope- 
rations of tfao mind, as we shall see hereafter, whilst this effect can/st he 


piwduced by wounding or .nflaming &ny other portion of the body, except 
by sympathetically affecting the brain. 

For additional proof of this proposition, see " Phrenology Proved Illus- 
trated, and Applied," pp. 7 — 10. This work will hereafter be frequently 
referred to as follows, P. P. pp. 7 — 10. 

Corolla. A plain inference deducible from this proposition is that there 
can be no exercise, no manifestation of the mind, without a corresponding 
exercise and action of the brain, and, vice versa, that every action of the 
brain must produce an exercise of mind, every change and condition of each 
producing a corresponding affection of the oilier. 

All the operations of nature are uniform throughout. If a particular 
organ exercises a single function of a given class, it exercises every function 
of that class. The eye sees, and does all the seeing, and nothing else, so 
of the stomach, lungs, and every organ and function of the body, and indeed 
of nature thioughout. Consequently, if the brain exercises a si?igle function 
of the mind, if a single thought or emotion is manifested through the me- 
dium of the brain, then is every emotion, every thought, every mental opera- 
tion manifested by means of the same brain. Either the relation between 
the two is perfect, and complete, and entire throughout all their most minute 
phenomena, or else there is no relation, no mutual exercise, no dependence 

II. The mind consists of a plurality of independent faculties 
powers, each of which exercises a distinct class of functions. 

Since our design is to show what phrenology is, rather than to prove 
its truth, and since fully to establish this fundamental proposition would 
require more space than we can devote to it, we will only state briefly the 
facts and arguments which support it. 

First. A plurality of mental powers would allow much greater variety 
and perfection of the mental operations than could be attained if. the mind 
were a single power. 

Second. If the mind were a single power, it could be doing only one 
thing at the same time, but if it be a compound of several powers, each could 
be in simultaneous action. Our own consciousness assures us that vie. can 
attend to more things than one at a time — that we can be looking and 
thinking, walking and talking, feeling and acting, &c, all simultaneously 

Third. Were the mind a single faculty, it must necessarily be equally 
asleep or awake upon all subjects at a given instant, which would preclude 
the possibility of dreaming ; but if composed of several, one might be par- 
tially active, and another dormant, at the same time, which would produce 

Fourth. In case the mind were a single power, and had become wea- 
ried by one kind of action, it could no more obtain rest by turning to some- 
thing else, than a man who had tired himself out by walking east, could 
rest himself by walking north. But the mind is relieved by changing ita 
studies, pursuits, &c, and therefore consists of a variety of powers, whicii, 
by acting in turn, spell each other, and thus rest one another. 

Fifth. Different kinds of memory, or a retentive recollection of coun- 
tenances and a poor one of names, or a good memory of ideas, and an indif- 
ferent one of details, or an accurate one of places, and a deficient one of 
colours, establish the same point ; because, if all kinds of memory were per* 
♦brined by the same power, it would be equally retentive of every thing. 

Sixth. Insane persons are often deranged only upon a single subject, 
whilst they are sane upoa every ether. Now were the mind a single powei^ 



and the bram a unity, sanity upon one subject, and insanity upon another, 
could not co-exist; whereas, were it a plurality of powers, and the brain, 
of organs, a given organ, and with it its power, might be deranged, whilst 
the others remained in a healthy state. See axiom 3. 

Seventh. Were the mind a single faculty, it would be equally powerful 
when applied to every thing, in which case partial genius, or a talent for 
one thing and not for another, could not exist together, but every one would 
be equally gifted with mathematical talents, and poetical talents, and mecha- 
nical talents, and so of every species of intellect, but if the mind were a plu- 
rality of powers, one power might be, and would be likely to be, weak, and 
another strong, which would produce just that diversity of disposition and 
talent which actually exists among men. See axioms 1 and 3. 

I will relate a single fact illustrating this point, which occurred at a public 
test-examination in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, December, 1837, before an 
audience of over two hundred persons. It being a blindfold test-examina- 
tion, some anti-phrenologists had gone several miles to procure for the occa • 
sion a mathematical fool. After having examined Captain Beimel, and 
ascribed to him superior talents and moral worth, this fool was sent up as a 
contrast. At first I hesitated, saying, "Ladies and gentlemen, you must 
indeed excuse me from proceeding." " Go on, go on," was the unanimoua 
response. I replied, " Well, if I must, I must, but I tell you what, if I do, I 
shall make a big hit or a great mistake ; that is all. First, then, his reason- 
ing powers are small, so that he cannot think, or reason, or understand any 
thing. He is a natural fool, and destitute of the moral organs at that. Se- 
condly, but here is large calculation. He delights and excels in reckoning 
figures in his head." 

Here Dr. Sawyer interrupted, by asking " how he could be a fool, and yet 
excel in arithmetic. This is contrary to reason." I replied, " Reasonable 
or unreasonable, it is the fact. I appeal to those who know him if it is not." 
" It's so, it's the fact," responded several who knew him. " He is a perfect 
master of arithmetic, and will sit up half the night propounding and solving 
sums, and takes the greatest pleasure in it ; but doesn't know enough to 
take care of himself," said one who knew him well. I replied, " You see, 
doctor, what the fact is. Now, will you have the goodness to explain how 
this is, for you are under just as much obligation to do so as I am." It was 
a poser. He gave up beat, " Now, sir," said I, " I will explain this matter. 
The mind consists of a plurality of independent faculties, each of which is 
exercised by means of particular portions of the brain. In this case, causali- 
ty, which thinks, is small ; hence he is a fool; but calculation, which is in- 
dependent of it, and reckons figures, is very large, and he is great in figures. 1 ' 

III. The BRAIN consists of as many diffeiient PORTIONS 
called ORGANS, as the MIND does of FACULTIES. 

To suppose that the mind consists of a plurality of powers, and yet that 
each power uses the whole brain in succession, is a palpable absurdity 
Throughout all the operations of nature, we find a distinct instrument or 
organ for every class of functions, and also every distinct class of functions 
to be exercised by its particular organ. Thus, instead of our seeing, and 
hearing, and tasting, and smelling, and feeling, all by means of one and the 
same apparatus, each is performed separately by its appropriate instrument. 
This arrangement is universal, and the plain inference is that the same is 
true of each of the other mental powers, including the organs of the brain. 

These two last propositions might have been stated in one, the truth of 
each being inseparable from, and established by, that of the oti«r, and ths 



two together constituting the very essence and substance — both the founda- 
tion and the superstructure, as also the characteristic feature, of phrenclogy. 
Establish either, and you thereby establish the other, and with it the truth 
of phrenological science ; overthrow either, and you thereby overthrow tha 
other, burying the entire science in the fall. 

If the brain be a unity, then the pathological or diseased condition of any 
portion of it must affect the brain as a vjhole, and prove injurious to tha 
mind as a whole, affecting equally its every function and operation ; but in 
case the brain is an assemblage of parts or organs, it is plain that the injury 
of one of them will affect that particular class of mental functions which is 
exercised by it. and that only. Now, since this class of facts is of that po- 
sitive, <; ad hominem," knock-down character which will at once establish 
or refute the doctrines of phrenology, and the force of which no candid or 
reflecting mind can gainsay or resist, the author will narrate a few which 
have fallen under his own observation. See cover, and also Am. Phren. 
Journal, vol. II., No. 11, pp. 508, and also P. P. pp. 18 and 19. 

IV. These faculties are possessed originally in different 


same individual. See an account of the mathematical fool, p. 8, and 
P. P. pp. 20 — 24, where this proposition is discussed. See also, the endless 
diversity of talent and disposition existing amongst men. 

V. Other conditions being eq_ual, the size of the brain, and 


Though this proposition is an important and a fundamental one, yet it is 
not my purpose to discuss it here. I will just observe, that since the brain 
is composed of a plurality of distinct organs, as just shown, each of which 
exercises a distinct class of functions, the supply of blood to these several 
organs is proportionate to their volume and exercise combined. In other 
words, the more you exercise the feelings of benevolence, of cautiousness, 
or causality, for example, the more will you exercise the organs of bene- 
volence, or cautiousness, or causality, (see Corolla, on p. 7 ;) and this 
exercise will cause an increased flow of blood to these organs, which blood is 
freighted with matter which it deposits wherever it goes, in proportion to 
its abundance, and this causes an enlargement of the organs proportionate 
to the exercise of their respective faculties. This principle of increase by 
exercise, and decrease by inaction, is familiar in its application to the hands 
of the labourer, sailor, &c, to the foot of the expert dancer and the pedestrian, 
to the chest of the rower, the right hand compared with the left, &c. And 
since the brain is governed by this same physiological law, why should not 
its effect be the same upon the organs of the brain "? It is for our opponents 
to show that this is not the case. 

VI. But phrenology is mainly proved by physical facts. It 
was discovered, and has thus far been perfected, by the true Baconian 
method of inductive philosophy — by an observation and a classification of 
facts. See the method by which each organ was discovered. In P. P 
pp. 26 — 34, v/ill be found a chapter on the phrenological developments of 
men and animals, compared with their characters, in which the brute crea 
tion are shown to have the animal organs only, and to be destitute of the 
moral and the reasoning organs, whilst these organs are largely developed 
in man. The woild is emphatically full of phrenological facts, but our 
limits do not allow even a bird's-eye glance at them. The reader is referred 

em to Gall and Spurzheim's works, to the chapter of facts, P. P. pp* 
• and to the open volume of nature. Read for yourselves. 



We're not ourselves, 
When nature, being oppressed, commands the mind, 
To suffer with the body. — Shakspeare. 

The first great and fundamental principle of phrenology, namely fhat 
* other conditions being the same," the size of the brain and of its organs 
ig the measure of their power of function, receives important modifications 
from these " other conditions,"* the most important of which is the phy- 
siology, or the organization and condition of the body, which embraces 
the temperament, the parentage, health, physical habits, diet, exercise, ex- 
citement, education, sleep, medicine, &c. 

I. The Temperaments. 

Phrenologists employ this term, (though that of apparatus, which the 
author will often use as a substitute, would convey their meaning much 
better,) to designate those classes of organs of which the body is composed, 
their predominance or deficiency indicating the relative vigour with which 
these physical functions are performed. Thus the lymphatic or phlegmatic 
temperament produces dulness and laziness ; the sanguine or arterial', love 
of physical action, with powerful passions ; the bilious or fibrous, gives 
great strength and endurance; and the nervous, intense feelings and deli- 
cate sensibilities. See Combe's description of the temperaments, in his Sys- 
tem of Phrenology, p. 30. 

But these terms are often misunderstood. Sanguine is mistaken for 
buoyancy of spirits ; bilious, for a tendency to bilious diseases ; and ner- 
vous, for a derangement of the nervous system. Hence the necessity of 
changing them. 

Much as has been written upon this most important department of phre- 
nological science, little that is instructive or satisfactory has yet been pro- 
duced. Dr. Caldwell's work on thp temperaments, and his article in No. 
11. vol. i. p. 393 of the American Phrenological Journal, are decidedly the best 
extant, yet these embody general principles rather than descend to details. 
Phrenologists give the amateur rulps for ascertaining the temperaments, and 
require him to pay particular attention to them, yet say little or nothing 
concerning the several qualities of mind, and kinds of disposition and 

* Phrenologists are often unjustly accused of making these "other conditions" 
scape-goats for their alleged errors. This charge is groundless; because, first, 
the rules of science allow us to state just as many conditions as we please, all of 
which the reasonable objector is bound to take into account: and, secondly, tlie 
temperament and other conditions of the several organs in the same head, are 
much the same. Let anti-phrenologists, and especially the redoubtable Dr. Sewall, 
measure five hundred heads, or sculls, in which particular organs, say cautiousness, 
or benevolence, are large or small, and the mental manifestation of half of them is 
the reverse of the measurements, and he will thereby overthrow pnrenology, and 
close every back door of escape, far more effectually than by measuring fourteen 
diseased sculls. This will be subjecting phrenology to the only f • 'oper tesS. 



ta!«it which accompany these temperaments respectively. Yet this is tk" 
only essential point involved in the doctrine of the temperaments. 

That the relations existing between the mind and body are most iirti 
mate, and that the influences of each upon the other are reciprocal and most 
powerful, all admit, yet 110 one has descended to particulars, or shown 
what conditions of the one produce given states of the other. Hence, so 
far 9.5 concerns the practical application of this doctrine to the observation 
or production of given states of mind, we are as yet left mostly in the dark. 
£'t is upon these points that the author hopes to throw much additional 

The ideas that the temperaments are indicated by the build and shape 
of the body, instead of by the colour of the eyes, hair, and the other signs 
usually given, and also that particular temperaments give, rise to, and ac- 
company, the predominance of certain classes of phrenological organs, and 
thereby of certain qualities and states of mind, of certain dispositions, talents 
and moral as well as intellectual qualities, and therefore, that the build and 
form of body indicate the qualities of the mind, the author believes to be 
new and original suggestions. They are the result of much observation 
and experience, and though by no means perfect, they strike out a new 
field of investigation to be perfected hereafter. 

For some time after the writer commenced the practice of phrenology, 
he followed his predecessors in the matter of the temperaments, until his 
own experience taught him effectually, by the repeated mistakes into which 
they led him, that they were in error, particularly in regard to the lym- 
phatic temperament; which they described as being a bad, dull, lazy, ease- 
loving, listless, anti-thinking and anti-feeling temperament, but which he 
often found coupled with superior talents, as in Chief Justice Gibson, De 
Witt Clinton, and many others. He then adopted the theory, that as every 
thing appertaining to man is good and attains a good end, the lymphatic 
temperament must be not only beneficial, but even essential,* by inducing 
that ease-loving state of the system called rest, which lays in and husbands 
those vital resources required for expenditure by the other temperaments. 
For years, however, both in his lectures and practice, he has regarded this 
temperament as a state of disease rather than as a distinct temperament, as 
an accumulation of gross fat, which does more harm than good. 

The following classification and naming of the temperaments is both 
more simple and more comprehensive, and less liable to be misunderstood, 
than those now in use. Man, as an organized being, has a body which is 
made up of three, instead of four, classes of organs, namely, 

1. THE VITAL Tjoipeiiament, or the nutritive apparatus. Tins 
embraces those organs employed in manufacturing vitality, and in creating 
and sustaining animal life ; viz., the digestive apparatus, the heart, lungs, 
blood, viscera, &c, including all the internal organs. This corresponds in 
part to the sanguine and lymphatic temperaments. 

* In G. Combe's familiar lecture upon the temperaments, in Philadelphia, at 
which he requested his class to ask questions and propound difficulties, the writer 
obtained leave, and put the following questions : First, l: What precise function in 
the animal economy does the lymphatic temperament perform V Second, "How 
the statement just made by the lecturer, that 'this was a had temperament,' could 
be reconciled with the well-established phrenological doctrine, that every faculty 
and function were not only good, but necessary to man's existence V So far from 
answering- the first, cr solving the difficulty presented in the last, he treated both 
the questions a nd their proposer any thing but kindly, and reflected severely on tha 
latter tor putting them, thereby evincing that l.e was nonplussed 



8, THE MOTIVE APPARATUS. This includes the bones 
muscles which constitute the frame-worh of the system, and corresponds 
with the bilious temperament. 

3. THE MENTAL APPARATUS. . This embraces the brain and 
nervous system, which are the instruments employed in the production and 
exercise of thought and feeling, and is similar to the nervous temperament. 

In taking for my cabinet the busts of our great men, I was struck with the 
fact that they all had amply developed chests. Finding some difficulty in 
adjusting the apparatus to the head of S. Southard, on account of his depth 
of shoulders, he remarked that he measured under the arm-pits as much aa 
a common barrel. In taking the busts of the Rev. Dr. Bascom, Judge 
Daggett, Preston, and others, the same difficulty was experienced from the 
same cause. I had observed the same amply developed chest in Webster, Clay, 
Adams, Marshall, Gibson, Frelinghuysen, De Witt Clinton, Alex. Hamilton, 
N. P. Tallmadge, Asher Robbins, Thaddeus Stephens, Govs. Wolf, Porter, 
Ritner, Seward, Edwards, Vesey, and others ; Drs. Beecher, Griffin, Hum- 
phrey, and Packard, and a multitude of others, besides those below enu- 

Indeed, every distinguished man whom I had seen, or whose bust I had 
taken, was found to have this amply developed chest. Hence I was natu- 
rally led to conclude that it was as much an accompaniment of greatness as 
a large forehead ; and that intellectual greatness was the product of both 
large vital organs to manufacture the vital stamina, and large intellectual 
organs to expend this vital power intellectually instead of muscularly. 

In Bridgeport, CGnnecticut, in a blindfold examination, I ascribed supe- 
rior talents to a man who was deficient in intellect. When the error was 
pointed out and the request made to re-examine, I replied that his head was 
a good one, all that I had described it to be, but that he had but a feeble 
heart to nourish and invigorate his brain. His chest was small and narrow, 
his arms set forward and near together, the abdomen small, the person bent 
forward, the chest as it were caved in, and the pulse extremely feeble. The 
next day, his son, who was also simple, and another lad came into my office 
from their play. The simpleton's pulse beat only half as fast and not half; 
as strong as the other';. I had made thousands of similar observations, 
which I now recollected, and had often said that Benton owed his talents 
more to his chest and habits than to the size of his brain. 

The conclusion was thus forced home upon me that greatness depended 
quite as much upon the development of this class of organs, as upon that of 
the brain, or, rather, upon both united. Not that every man with large in- 
ternal organs is a great man, for his power may be expended physically, but 
that every great man has this class of organs large. 

From this time I abandoned the notion of the lymphatic temperament 
altogether, and adopted the classification here suggested. These conclusion 
were arrived at in 1838, and since that time have regularly formed a part 
of my courses of lectures. 

1. The Vital Temperament, or Nutritive Apparatus. Apply 
the tongue to the larger end of a good egg, and it will be perceptibly 
warmer than any other part, because the vital property of the chick is 
located there ; but if this part is cold, fife is extinct, and the egg spoiled. 
Subject this egg to the process of hatching for a short time, and remove 
the coverings from this end, and you will see the heart palpitating, and the 
blood vessels formed, the yolk supplying the heart with the required nutri- 
tion, whilst the other portions remain vet unorganized. The first portion 


of the animal economy formed is the heart and its appurtenances, or tho 
internal system of organs, and through them, matter is deposited here and 
there for the formation of the balance of the body. This same vital 
apparatus also supplies the materials required for the growth and nutri- 
tion of all the parts requiring either, and is far more active during infancy 
and youth than any other part of the body, as is indicated by their pulse, 
appetite, and love of physical action. Life is also extinguished sooner by 
a blow on the pit of the stomach than anywhere else, and the blood, in- 
stead of coagulating, remains liquid, all evincing that this is the centre of 

This apparatus not only originates vitality, but also sustains the whole 
animal economy. It constitutes the fountain head of animal power and 
vital energy ; manufactures the animal heat ; resists cold and heat, disease 
and death ; and re-supplies the brain, and nerves, and muscles with those 
vital energies which they are compelled to expend whenever they are ex- 
ercised. It is to the man what the fire, and wood, and water, and steam 
are to the engine — the " vis animae" — the "primum mobile" — the alpha 
and the omega of the animal economy. 

It includes the entire system of internal organs located in the thorax and 
abdomen, namely, the heart, lungs, stomach, blood, liver, viscera, &c. Its 
predominance may be known, not so much by red or chestnut hair, blue 
eyes, &c, as by the shape of the body. It gives a stout, square built, thick 
set, stocky build ; depth and breadth, and often roundness of shoulders, and 
thus a capacious chest ; arms far apart and set well back ; well developed 
abdomen ; a full strong pulse ; large and strong lungs ; powerful voice ; 
short, sound, and well set teeth ; plump person ; wide nostrils ; abundant 
flesh ; red face, and indeed the skin everywhere showing a great supply and 
flow of blood; hair abundant, and often curly; a capacity for enduring 
fatigue, and privation, and exposure ; a tough, iron constitution, or what is 
called bottom, which is erroneously attributed to the bilious temperament ; 
a great love of physical action, of amusements, of fresh air, and out-of-door exer- 
cise, though not of hard work ; a restlessness which cannot endure confine- 
ment in-doors ; and a desire to be all the time doing something to work off 
the constantly accumulating energies of the system. Generally, though not 
always, the hair and whiskers will be red, or sandy, or chestnut, abundant, 
and often curly ; the face flushed or suffused with blood ; the countenance 
florid, and often handsome ; the limbs, neck, &C, short, and thick set, and 
large in circumference; and the whole person, head included, built on the 
short, and broad, and thick set, instead of long and tall, principle. 

This temperament gives a tough, strong constitution ; great powers of 
endurance ; a great amount of animal life and vigour to be worked off, either 
by the muscles in physical action, or by the brain in thought and feeling ; 
great ardour of desire ; great zeal and enthusiasm ; powerful feelings, pas- 
sions and impulses, and a susceptibility of high excitement, as well as sensi- 
tiveness to the influence of both mental and physical stimuli ; a hearty 
relish for food, particularly animal, for condiments, sleep, &c, and a great 
enjoyment of animal life and pleasure as such. 

Persons in whom this temperament predominates, show their talents in 
business, natural shrewdness, and management, more than in hard study, or 
direct reasoning, or fondness for books. They have usually more practice.' 
common sense than book learning ; and of general information about me 
and things, such as they pick up from observation, conversation, newspa 




pers, &c, rather than accurate scienfifr c knowledge, or depth and power of 

Its decided predominance is accompanied by a round head, well developei 
at the base, large amativeness, acquisitiveness, alimentiveness, benevolence, 
and language ; large organs of the animal propensities generally ; a rapid 
widening of the head from the corners of the eyes to the tips of the ears ; side 
head spherical and well filled out ; forehead generally full or square and 
broad rather than high ; perceptive organs large ; and ail the organs short 
and broad rather than long or pointed. 

This temperament predominates in Thos. H. Benton, Martin Van Buren, 
Levi Woodbury, Win. C. Preston, of S. C, N. Biddle, Rives, Dr. Bethune, 
Orville Dewey, David Paul Brown, Rohley Dunglison, Samuel Southard, 
Garret D. Wall, Felix Grundy. Jesse R. Burden, Edwin Forrest, F. 
Wemyss, J. R. Scott, Ex-Sheriff Parkins, of the royal family of England, 
Jas. Watson Webb, Commodores Chauncey and Kennedy, Lord Byron, and 
many other public characters. The Indian Chief Keokuk affords one of its 
uest examples, and every one of the thirty Indian chiefs taken by O. S. & L 
N". Fowler show a development of chest truly remarkable, exciting astonish 
ment by their size, and admiration by their beauty. In Indians generally, 
and also in Africans, this is a leading temperament, combined with the mo- 
tive, but with less of the mental. In the Irish, Dutch, Germans, and 
Jews, it also predominates. See their build. 

Men of this temperament predominant generally dislike hard work, and 
hence choose somei occupation in which they can get their living without it, 
such as agents, overseers, cashiers, aldermen, captains, landlords, tftders in 
live stock, butchers, speculators, lawyers, politicians, public officers, con- 
tractors, &c. &c. _To employ a trite saying, they generally " know on which 
side their bread is buttered ;" turn every thing, especially bargains, of 
which they are usually fond, to their own account ; always feather their 
own nests ; look out for themselves, and take care to get their own part of 
every thing. In short, this is the animal temperament, both physically and 
phrenologically, and necessary in order to give force of character, and that 
selfishness which, in the present state of things, is a leading requisite to suc- 
cess in almost every thing. It feels and acts out the sentiment, '"every man 
for himself," and is more apt to be connected with roguery and vice, than 
any other organization. 

One with this temperament fully developed resists powerfully the action 
of disease, yet when attacked, is usually taken suddenly, becomes very sick, 
and is brought at once to the crisis. The diseases to which it predisposes 
are apoplexy, gout, fevers, inflammatory rheumatism, plethoric complaints, 
flowing of blood to the head, asthma, &c. Upon it health and long Ufa 
mainly depend. 

Bad men will be found to have this temperament, though not c Cij ona 
in whom it predominates is a bad man. This is the predominant tempera- 
ment of the lower animals. One of its best examples occurs in the lion, 
and the extraordinary height, and breadth, and size of his chest and fore- 
shoulders, his terrific roar, length of life, colour, and development of the ani 
rnal organs, all evince its prodigious development. The motive is also 
almost equally powerful. See also the bull-dog, mastiff &c. 

2. Thk Motive Apparatus. This embraces the osseous and fibroin 
portions of the system, or the bones, muscles, smews, tendons, and every 
organ of the body employed to give bodily motion of any k'nd ; including 
walking, labouring, and every kind of corporeal movement. . It also gives 


Brascular strengti., and constitutes the frame-work of the system giving it 
its build, shape, and form ; and is to the man what the timbers are to the 
house, or the hulk to the steam-boat. 

THrmgh the bones and muscles differ so widely from each other in almost 
every respect, yet they are here classed together ; because each is adapted 
to, and useless without the other, and both together perform motion. 

The bones constitute the foundation on which the muscular superstructure 
is built, are articulated at their ends by the joints, and firmly bound to- 
gether by ligaments, yet allowed free motion. Towards the middle of these 
bones, the muscles are firmly attached, so that when they contract, they 
give motion to the end of the bone opposite the belly of the muscle. 
These muscles constitute the lean meat, or red flesh of all animals, and arc 
made red by the immense number of minute blood-vessels which are rami 
fied upon every fibre of every muscle in order to re-supply that vital power 
which is expended by its exercise. The contractile power of these muscles 
ts truly astonishing, as is evident from the wonderful feats of strength and 
agility of which man is capable ; and that too, though these muscles act 
under a great mechanical disadvantage. 

One in whom the motive apparatus predominates, has a person lean and 
spare ; usually of good size and height ; an athletic build ; strongly marked 
features; a large, Roman nose ; high and large cheekbones ; large and broad 
front teeth ; and all the bones of the body large and projecting ; a deep, grum, 
base voice; distinctly marked muscles, and blood-vessels; large joints; hard 
flesh ; great muscular power, or physical strength ; ease of action, and love 
of physical labour, of lifting, working, &c. ; dark, and often coarse, stiff, 
abundant, and perhaps bushy hair; a black, and heavy beard ; dark skin 
and eyes; a harsh, expressive visage; strong, but coarse and harsh feelings; 
the movements like those of the draught horse, siow, but powerful and 
efficient; with much force and energy of character. 

The mental qualities of this temperament take their complexion entirely 
from its combinations, which will presently be considered. 

3. The Mental Temperament, or the Nervous. Apparatus —This em- 
braces the brain and nervous system, or that portion of the body called into 
action in the manufacture and exercise of thought, feeling, sensation, Sec. 

A.t first, the brain consists of a mere ganglion of nervous matter, formed 
at the top of the spinal column. To this, successive additions are made 
upwards and forwards, forming, successively, the brains of various animals, 
from that of the fish and toad, through that of the dog and monkey, up to 
the- perfectly developed brain of the adult man. Let it be observed that the 
base of the brain, or the animal organs, which alone can be exercised by 
the infant, are developed first, whilst benevolence, amativeness, veneration 
constructiveness, and some others which cannot be exercised by the infant 
ere not developed for some time in the heads of infants. See their heads 

The construction of the brain is fraught with more interest than that of 
any other portion of the system. Its internal portion is fibrous, whilst its 
outer is soft and gelatinous. It is folded up into layers or furrows, called 
convolutions, which are expanded by dropsy in the brain, into a nervouB 
sheet or web. These convolutions allow a much greater amount of nervoiw 
matter to be packed up in a given compass, and their depth and size are 
proportionate to the amount of mind and talent. Thus in animals and 
idiots they are small and shallow; in mer of ordinary talents, much deeper; 
whilst the dissectors of the brains of 3uvier, Lord Byron, aiid other 
great men, have remarked with astonishment upon the size and depth 



of their convolutions ; and Dr. G. M'CIellan, the distinguished surgeon in 
Philadelphia, remarked to the writer, in reference to a recent dissection of 
the brain of one of the most talented men of Delaware, that he never saw 
the convolutions so deep and large — the furrows being an inch in depth. 

Some writers say five times as much blood is sent to the brain in propor- 
tijii to its volume, as is sent to any other portion of the system; some say 
eight times as much ; others fifteen ; and one twenty ; but all agree as to 
the general fact. The difference between them is doubtless owing to the dif- 
ference in the talents of those operated upon, intellectual subjects having 
the most. The distinctness and protrusion of the veins in the heads of out 
great men, as also the immediate filling up of these veins when one laughs 
or becomes excited, lead to the same conclusion. 

Through the medium of the spinal column, and by means of the nerves 
that go off from the spinal marrow through the joints of the back bone, the 
brain holds intercourse with every part of the body, the nerves being rami- 
fied upon every portion of its surface, so that not even the point of a needle 
can penetrate any portion of it without lacerating them, and thus producing 
pain. This spinal marrow is composed of four principal columns, the two 
anterior ones exercising voluntary motion, the two posterior ones, sensa- 
tion. Let the nerves that go off from the two posterior columns, be severed 
at their root, and the parts on which they are ramified will be destitute of 
sensation, not feeling any thing, though able to move; but on severing the 
nerves that go off from the two anterior columns, though the patient will feel 
the prick of the needle, he will be unable to move the limb to which the 
nerve goes. Now observe, that these two anterior or motive columns 
are in direct connexion with the frontal portion of the brain, in which the 
intellectual organs are located, so that each can communicate freely with 
the other, whilst the two posterior columns, or those of sensation, are in 
connexion with the back part of the brain, in which the organs of the feel- 
ings are located. 

These two classes of nerves are united, near their origin, in one common 
sheath, but let them be severed in any part of their course, and the portion 
below will be destitute of sensation or motion according to the nerve severed, 
whilst the parts above will retain them unimpaired. They are most abun 
dant on the outer surface of the body, and accordingly, the skin and adjacent 
flesh is the seat of much more intense pain from wounds than the internal 

One in whom the mental temperament greatly predominates, will bi 
characterized physically by a small stature ; light build ; small bones ant 
muscles ; a slim, tall, spare, sprightly person ; quickness of motion ; grea 
physical activity, too much for his strength ; sharp features ; thin lips ; ? 
small pointed nose ; teeth sharp and liable to early decay ; all the bone 
pointed ; the head usually uneven, and the phrenological organs sharp ; th 
voice sharp, shrill, high-keyed, and often soft and flexible, and its intom 
tions evincing fervour and tenderness ; the hair light, fine, and thin ; a fin* 
clear, soft, and delicate skin ; extreme sensitiveness to physical suffering 
a keen, light, intelligent, and sparkling eye ; a speaking countenance, ind 
eating sensibility ; a small narrow chest and abdomen ; and the shouldei 
set forward and brought near together ; thus producing a stooping, bending 
attitude. The diseases to which it predisposes are consumption, dyspepsia 
liver complaint, and brain fever ; nervous affections , a flowing of blood to th 
head, with wakefulness at night; and a tendency to partial or entire menfa. 



He will be characterized mentally by a predominance of mind over that of 
the body, so that its state will affect that of the body more than that of the 
body will the mind. He will be in the highest degree susceptible to the 
influence of stimuli and of all exciting causes ; be refined and delicate in 
feeling and expression, and easily disgusted with any thing coarse, vulgar, 
or oat of taste : when he enjoys, will enjoy in the highest degree, and when 
he suffers, suffer with equal intensity ; be subject to extremes of feeling 
have his disgusts, sympathies, and prepossessions easily excited ; experience 
a vividness and intensity of emotion, and a clearness, pointedness, and rapi- 
dity of thought, perception, and conception, and a love of mental exercise, 
imparted by no other temperament; aad have a deep flow of pure and virtu- 
ous feeling, which will effectually resist vicious inclinations. His desire3 
will be intense, and his efforts to obtain his ends correspondingly vigorous. 
Hence he will be eager in all his pursuits, and feel that his en«ls are of the 
utmost importance, and must be answered now, and thus liable to overdo, 
and prematurely exhaust his physical powers, which at best are none too 
good. He will also be very fond of reading and study ; of thinking and rea- 
soning; of books and literary pursuits; of conversation, and of all kinds of 
information, and apt to lie awake at night, thinking, or feeling, or reading. 

This temperament gives mind as mind, and literary rather than business 
talents. One with this temperament predominant should choose some pro- 
fession, or light mental occupation, such as a clerk, merchant, teacher, or if a 
mechanic, should choose that of a goldsmith, or some similar business requir- 
ing much light action, but not hard lifting, where he can get his living by his 
head instead of his hands. He should also avoid close application ; take much 
pleasurable recreation and exercise ; live more at his ease than he is inclined 
to do ; avoid all kinds of stimulants, wines, tea and coffee included ; use 
vegetable food mostly ; endeavour to enjoy existence ; and avoid being 

These temperaments are always combined, each existing in a greater 01 
less degree in every individual. They are sometimes equally balanced, but 
generally one predominates, another is secondary though well marked, and 
a third moderate or weak. The effects produced by their combinations is 
one of the most important points connected with the manifestation of mind. 
The author does not expect to do it justice, but only to advance a few im- 
portant hints. This kind of knowledge can be derived from observation 
alone, not from books and descriptions, which can do no more than to put 
the observer upon the right track. 

The vital apparatus expends its energies first in forming the body, se- 
condly in consolidating and perfecting it, and lastly, in perfecting the brain 
and nervous system, which develop mind. In infancy, childhood, and 
youth, it greatly predominates over the others, especially the menial, which 
ripens last and. holds sway longest. Hence, long after the physical powers 
begin to wane, the mental retain all their pristine vigour, yielding last to 
enfeebling old age. Hence the proverb " old men for counsel." 

Again, our smartest men were often very dull boys ; giving little promise 
of talent till twenty or even thirty years old. This is explained by the 
physiological law just stated. In early life, the vital apparatus was mostly 
expended in forming a powerful constitution, and laying in a great reservoir 
of Altai stamina. Such are " late ripe, late rotten " — the winter apple, 
improving with age, and keeping well. They have amply developed chests ; 
»n excellent muscular organization ; the vital motive temperament predorai« 


. ft 


Dating in youth, with a large amount of the elements of the mental, so that, 
when their energies reach the brain, mind assumes the ascendancy, convert- 
ing their powerful resources into mental greatness. 

j Precocity, is the opposite of this, the mental apparatus being toa ""'"Wand 
too powerfully developed, thus using up the energies of the system, and 
causing an early death. The minds of such should never be stimulated, but 
always be checked, and their vital and motive temperaments cultivated. But 
parental fondness often takes the opposite course in order to exhifc.1 ftis pre- 
cocity, which hastens their ruin. 

In accordance with this principle, death prostrates the extremities first; 
/he physical before the mental powers ; the base of the brain, or the animal 
propensities, such as appetite, hatred, love of money, &c, next ; and finishes 
with the moral organs. Hence, after " the world and the love of it " have 
vanished, the spiritual man, or the organs in the top of the head, are often 
vigorously exercised upon a future state. 

Since the vital apparatus manufactures the vital resources to be expended 
either by the muscles in physical action, or by the brain in the exercise of 
mind and feeling, according to the demand, its ample development is indis- 
pensable to the labourer, to the intellectual man, to the business man, in 
short, to any and every man, woman, and child ; and when deficient should 
by all means be cultivated. 

The vital motive apparatus. One having this temperament predomi- 
nant, will be of good size and height, if not large ; well proportioned ; broad 
shouldered ; muscular ; nose and cheek-bones prominent ; visage strongly 
marked ; features often coarse and homely ; countenance often stern and ; face red ; hair red or sand}', if not coarse, and movements strong, 
but often awkward and seldom polished. He will be best adapted to soma 
laborious occupation, and enjoy hard work more than books or literary pur' 
suits ; have great power of feeling, and thus require much self-government, 
possess more talent than he exhibits to others ; manifest his mind more in 
his business, in creating resources and managing matters than in literary 
pursuits or mind as such; and improve with age, growing better and mora 
intellectual as he grows older. 

One with the vital mental temperament predominant, with the motive 
moderate or small, will have a double augmentation of fervid feeling — of ani- 
mal feeling from his vital, and of elevated mental and sentimental feeling 
from his mental apparatus, being hardly able to contain himself, s'jch will 
be their intensity. His flow of sympathy will be great, so that he will 
easily receive and communicate impressions; be too much influenced by 
his impulses, likes, dislikes, first impressions, &c. ; have his hobbies ; bo 
enthusiastic ; throw a great amount of feeling into all he says and does t 
use strong and hyperbolical expressions ; be fond of company, if not forward 
in it ; have a qinck, clear, sharp, keen, active mind and good business talents; 
a ready flow of ideas and a talent for communicating them, either on 
paper or in social conversation ; show taste and refinement and delicacy in 
every thing ; have an under-current of pure virtuous feeling which will pre- 
vent the grosser manifestation of animal passion, and give the intellectual 
and moral man the ascendency, sinning only under some sudden and power- 
ful excitement, for which he will be very sorry ; be fond of reading, particu- 
larly poetry, novels, tales, light and sentimental pieces, belles lettres, news- 
papers, &c. ; be inclined to attempt this kind of composition ; have a r&« 
tentive memory ; shrewdness ; smartness ; and enough of selfishness to tafc» 


eare of number one, yet not enough power or momentum of mind and cha- 
racter to become great or pre-eminent. This is the eloquent* temperament, 
and also the poetical, though in poets the mental often predominates ovei 
both the others. In singers it also predominates, though the vital general^ 
assumes the lead, giving both the love of music and a powerful voice. 

Its predominance is indicated by small bones ; moderate stature ; light 
and thin hair and eyes ; rather thick set, stout build ; round shoulders ; full 
chest; full face; handsome figure; genteel address; beautiful features; 
small, short, and sharp nose ; a sprightly walk ; considerable colour in 
the cheeks and face; and that exquisiteness of feeling which enjoys and 
6ufFers in the extreme. Hence its possessor will live a very happy, or 
unhappy, or else chequered life, according as his organs are agreeably 
or disagreeably affected. 

Auburn hair is the product of this temperament, which is no less the 
accompaniment of beauty of mind and feeling, than it is of face and figure. 

The motive mental temperament. One having this temperament, 
with the motrve predominant, and the vital average or full, will be of good 
size; rather tall and slim; lean and rawboned, if not homely and awkward; 
poor in flesh ; bones and features prominent, particularly the nose ; have a 
firm and distinct muscle, and a good physical organization; a keen, piercing, 
penetrating eye; the front upper teeth rather large and projecting; the 
hands, fingers, and limbs all long; a long face, and often a high forehead; 
i\ firm, rapid, energetic walk ; and great ease and efficiency of action, accom- 
panied with little fatigue. 

He will have strong desires and much energy of character ; will tako 
hold of his projects with both hands, and drive forward in spite of obstacles, 
and hence is calculated to accomplish a great deal ; is not idle or lazy, but 
generally prefers to wait upon himself; will move, walk, &c, in a decided, 
forcible and straight-forward manner ; have strong passions ; a tough and 
wiry brain and body; a strong and vigorous mind ; good judgment; clear 
head, and talents more solid than brilliant; be iong-headed, bold, cool, ca\ 
culating, fond of deep reasoning, and philosophizing, of hard thinking, and the 
graver and more solid branches of learning. This is the thorough-going 
temperament ; imparts business powers ; predisposes to hard work, and 

♦ True eloquence consists, not in strength of argument, vor in gigantic power of 
thought, not in deep, powerful, conclusive reasoning, nor the observation of rheto- 
rical rules, but in the spontaneous gushings or the impassioned burstings of deep 
feeling and intense emotion, transmitted to the audience not so much by words as 
by the melting, thrilling, soul-stirring intonations of the voice ; by the looks and at- 
titude of the man, which take captive the citadel of feeling by storm, and melt the 
soul in sympathy. Hence eloquence can never be written, never placed on paper. 
It must be seen and heard and felt. This temperament is productive of eloquence 
in two ways : first, by creating a gushing fountain of sympathy and a spontaneous 
flow of feeling in the speaker, and secondly, by giving a large pair of lungs, which, 
in speaking use up great quantities of air, by which the blood is sent to the brain 
in great abundance and highly charged with vitality, thus producing pathos The 
organs of language, individuality, eventuality, comparison, ideality, imitation, and 
some others are also necessary, and this same temperament in the hearer imparts 
the feelings to be operated upon. This temperament predominates in the Iter. Dr. 
Boscom, whom Clay pronounced the greatest natural orator he ever heard ; in Ilevs. 
Bethune, Burcbard and Maffitt ; in David Paul Brown, Judge Conrad, William B. 
Read, ex Attorney-General of Pa.; Alvan Stewart of Utica, N. Y. ; Ely K, 
More, ex U. S. Representative from N. Y., whose natural untutored eloquence 
Durst forth meteor-like in such dazzling splendour as to astonish and overpower his 
hearers, and Boon literally overcame and prostrated his physical energies, and many 
others who might be named. Indeed I know no one remarkable for oratory or music 
in whom this temperament, and especially the vital, does not predominate. We 
triumphantly appeal whether phrenology does nor. thus furnish a better descrij/iasa 
find analysis of eloquence than can be found in works on this subject. 



is indispensable v© those who engage in great undertakings, or who would 
rise to eminence. 

One having the mental temperament predominant, the motive full or 
large, and the vital average to full, will differ in build from the preceding 
description only in his being smaller, taller in proportion, and more spare. 
He will have a reflective, thinking, planning, discriminating cast of mind ; a 
great fondness for literature, science, and intellectual pursuits of the deeper, 
graver kind ; be inclined to choose a professional or mental occupation ; to 
exercise his body much, but his mind more ; will have a high forehead ; 
good moral faculties ; and the brain developed more from the root of the 
nose, over to philoprogenitiveness, than around the ears. In character, 
also, the moral and intellectual faculties will predominate. This tempera- 
ment is seldom connected with depravity, but generally with talent, and a 
manifestation, not only of superior talents, but of the solid, metaphysical, 
reasoning, investigating intellect ; a fondness for natural philosophy, the 
natural sciences, &c. It is also the temperament for authorship and clear- 
headed, laboured productions. It predominates in Revs. Jonathan Edwards, 
Wilbur Fiske, N. Taylor, E. A. Parke, Leonard Bacon, Albert Barnes, 
Oberlin, and Pres. Day ; Drs. Parish and Rush ; in Vethake, Hitchcock, Jas. 
Brown the grammarian, ex U. S. Attorney General Butler, Hugh L. White, 
Wise, Asher Robbins, Walter Jones, Esq., of Washington, D. C, Franklin, 
Alex. Hamilton, Chief Justice Marshall, Calhoun, Jno. Q. Adams, Percival, 
Noah Webster, Geo. Combe, Lucretia Mott, Catharine Waterman, Mrs. 
Sigourney, and nearly every distinguished author and scholar. 

But if the mental temperament decidedly predominates, the motive 
only fair and the vital weak, he will be very tall, slim, long-boned, lank, 
small chested,, slender built, very active and smart for business, but too light 
for any thing requiring great strength of mind, or force of character. He 
is best fitted for some light, active business, such as mercantile, writing, 
book-keeping, &c, or if a mechanic, for a silversmith, tailor, &c. Artists 
generally have this temperament, and often poets. The muscles being too 
small to relish or endure much hard work, they take too little vigorous 
exercise ; have feelings too refined and exquisite for this rough and selfish 
age, or for coarse, dirty work ; are often sentimental, hypochondriacal, and 
d} r speptic, and predisposed to consumption and an early grave. This build 
and temperament generally predominate in our first cut dandies and double 
refined ladies, who are usually more fashionable than sensible or useful. It 
is by no means a desirable one, especially for wives and mothers, notwith- 
standing it is now all the rage, and much cultivated by artificial pressure. 
It generally predominates in our city and village masters, misses, ani 
children, and also in precocious children, who seldom amount to much, and 
usually die young. Consumptive families are mostly very smart, out verj 
elim, poor in flesh, and sharp-favoured. 

One having the vital predominant, the motive fair or strong, and the men ■ 
tal deficient, when really roused, and pressed into service by powerful mo- 
tives, will be able to accomplish much, yet will love ease, and do no more 
than he is compelled to. His passions will be strong, and his temptations 
powerful, with some tendency^ to merry company, if not the- excitement of 
drink. He will not be inclined to books, or hard study, or close application, 
but will be able to do much hard work, and less disgusted with coarse or 
filthy kinds of labour than one more delicately organized. Hence it is desi- 
rable that the " hewers of wood and the drawers of water," scavengers, col 
liers, &c, should have this temperament. One with the mental temperameiiJ 


would be incapacitated both mentally aiu\ physio-dlly for these kinds of 
dradgery. £ . . 

The motive predominant, mental great, and vital full, is the one for power- 
fill and sustained mental effort, and great power in any department, espe- 
cially that of mind as mind, or of swaying a commanding influence over 
mankind, or for taking the lead in a large business ; whilst one with tha 
mental predominant, the vital full, and the motive weak, though he may be 
smart, he cannot be great ; though his feelings may flare up, and his talenta 
ehine forth with brilliancy, they will be momentary, and too flashy, vapid, 
and quickly spent to be permanently useful. The former is the solid wood 
or the anthracite coal, making a slow but powerful and continuous heat 
whilst the latter resembles the fire made by pine shavings, intense but mo- 

Having described clearly the three primary temperaments and their prin-> 
cipal combinations, the reader is left to his own observation for the interme- 
diate shades of character produced by the others. 

Balance o r . temperament. But the best temperament, the one most 
favourable fir; true greatness and a general genius, for balance and consis- 
tency of character, and for perfection in every thing, is that in which each is 
strongly marked, and all about equally balanced. Is there too much of the 
motive, there is power, but nothing to rouse it to effort, and the talents lie 
dormant. Does the vital motive greatly predominate ovor the mental, 
though there is physical power and enjoyment, there is too little of the men- 
tal, too little sensibility, too much grossness and coarseness, too little intel- 
lect and too much of the animal. If the mental predominates, there is too 
much mind and sensibility for the body, too much feeling, and that too exqui- 
site for this coarse world, together with a green-house precocity, and too 
much sentimentalism and refinement. They might be aptly compared to 
the several parts of a steamboat. The vital is the wood, water, fire, steam, 
and engine ; the motive, the hulk ; the mental, the freight and passengers. 
When the vital predominates, it manufactures more steam, more vital energy 
than the others can work off, and there is a restlessness, a pressure, an over- 
flowing of feeling and passion, and a liability to burst. If there is a de- 
cided predominance of bone and muscle, there is too much hulk ; she will 
move slowly, and if the mental is also weak, she is too light freighted to be 
worth running, or to secure the great objects of existence. But if the men- 
tal is greatly predominant, she is overloaded, in danger of sinking, and 
incapable of being properly managed. 

But when these temperaments are equally balanced, when there is an 
abundant supply of vital energy, a proportionate supply of the motive to 
impart physical strength and the love of labour requisite to give exercise, 
and also of brain to impart mental capacity and enjoyment, health and lorcg 
life, and a high order of talent will be the delightful result. 

Every form of disease, and a premature death, are caused mainly by a pre- 
dominance of one or more of these temperaments, or the weakness of others, 
or their exhaustion or want of action. When any one has assumed the 
ascendency, its tendency is to become still mere predominant, and thereby 
to withdraw the strength from the others, on the principle that an overloaded 
stomach withdraws the strength from the brain and muscles, which is the 
?ery reverse of what should take place. This uses up the weaker tempera- 
ments, and they go by the board, canying health and life with them. 

The inquiry then becomes a most important one, 



How can their balance be. preserver? or regained? The ready ansr^r is, \ 
By their -respective exercise and cultivation. 

Has your mental apparatus become too powerful and active, and your mus« 
cu'ar too weak, stop those sedentary or mental pursuits which have induced 
this state of things ; suspend business ; remove care and anxiety ; take things 
easily ; take much physical exercise, and even moderate labour will be of 
great service to you, or rather, is indispensable; avoid stimulants of all 
kinds and degrees, for they excite the nervous system which you wish to 
remain quiescent; retire early, first taking care to make yourself sleepy; 
rise early, but sleep enough ; banish care from your pillow ; give your food 
ample time to digest, and let it be of a cooling nature ; avoid animal food, 
tea, coffee, wines, porter, &c, the effect of which is highly irritating to the 
nerves ; in short, keep your brain and nerves free from excitement, and exer- 
cise your muscles as much as they will bear, but no more, and that mode- 
rately, and the equilibrium will soon begin to be restored, and you to amend, 
4nd then keep on. 

Are your muscles strong, but mind dull, and feelings obtuse, work less, 
but read, and think, and feel more. In short, exercise your brain more and 
muscles less. Have you too much blood, and a tendency to corpulency, and 
an aversion to both study and labour, eat less, and work, and think, and study 

But observe, no one can change or improve your temperament for yr^, 
any more than they can eat or sleep for you. Nor can you purchase them, 
nor can the physician give you medicines to change them except for the 
worse. First stud}* the nature and precise functions of each temperament, 
and secondly the means of changing them, and then apply these means vigo- 
rously, and you will have it in your power to increase and decrease each 
at pleasure. And if physicians would apply this kind of remedy to a ma- 
jority of diseases, they would often effect surprising cures where all their 
medicines only make their patients worse. 

But if your business is of too pressing a nature to allow you the proper 
time and means to effect this change, go on as you are ; but remember, you 
must find time to die the sooner. 

The plain fact is, that the effect of the habits of men, and of the institu- 
tions of society, is most unfavourable for the preservation of this balance of 
the temperaments. The farmer, mechanic, and labouring classes general!}' 
exercise their muscles mainly, to the neglect of their minds, if not of their 
nutritive apparatus, whilst the inhabitants of our cities and villages, our 
merchants, book-keepers, brokers, professional men, artists, and mechanics 
of the lighter kinds of business, and especially our gentlemen of leisure, oui 
dandies and fashionable ladies, exercise their nerves and brains almost 
exclusively, to the utter neglect of their muscles, meanwhile overloading 
their digestive organs and breathing impure air, not to mention their pre- 
venting the free circulation of the blood at that. The former, and some of 
the latter, plead that they have no time to cultivate their minds, and the 
latter certainly have little disposition to take sufficient physical exercise. 
Hence, in the inhabitants of our cities and villages, the mental temperament 
greatly predominates, and the vital is weak, as is evinced by their sharp 
features, thin faces, and haggard looks, whilst those of the country and our 
working classes generally, have finely developed heads, with but little culti- 
vation, that is, they have much natural talent, with but little acquired learn- 
ing. This explains that sickly delicacy, that poor, scrawny, homely, sharp- 
fevoured, dyspeptic, and nervous state of the body, which is so fashi\>uablfl 



m out cities and villages. Indeed, to be " sickly," and " unwell," and " 5n 
delicate health," and " quite poorly," and to be " troubled with the dyspep- 
sia," or the " liver complaint," or " flatulence," or " pain in the stomach," 
or a "sour stomach," or "indigestion," to have the "head-ache," or the 
" tooth-ache, ' the " side-ache," or the "back-ache," to be "troubled for want 
of breath," or to have a " bad cold," &c. &c. &c, are as indispensable to a 
fashionable, and especially a lady, as is tight-lacing. No one can be a gen- 
teel lady without having some complaint. Good health is a sure indication 
of a want of refinement. But if mankind will violate nature's laws, they 
must take the consequences, and most dearly are they paying for the whistle 
of their fashionable folly. 

Mankind have no more right to be sick than to commit suicide, and sick 
persons are to be blamed, not pitied. God made us all to be perfectly 
}*ealthy and perfectly happy, from the cradle to the grave, and to live twice 
as long as we now do ; and if we lived as we should live, and obeyed 
the organic laws of our creation, we should never be sick, and never die till 
ripe old age crept slowly and imperceptibly upon us, like the gradual de- 
parture of evening twilight, our powers gradually weakening till, like the 
expiring lamp, life went out of itself, "without a struggle or a groan." The 
same principle applies to the sickness and death of children. To suppose 
that the Creator has rendered this shocking and heart-rending mortality ot 
one-half of all our children necessary, is "charging God foolishly." No ! 
parents, by not keeping your own and your children's temperaments duly 
balanced, and by your wanton violation of every law of physiology, 

" You give yourselves the wounds you feel." 

Sickness is not a providential affliction nor a judgment, but the natural, legi- 
timate, inevitable effect of violating those laws of physiology, including 
those of the temperaments, under the government of which man is placed. 
Sickness and health are as much causes and effects as the rising of the sun 
or the fall of rain. The causes are in our own hands, and the effects 
(diseases) show how we apply them. The one .."eat end of man's exist- 
ence is enjoyment. Every organ and function of bis body, every faculty 
of his mind, man throughout, is every way adapted to enjoyment of the 
richest kind, and to an extent inconceivable by us as we now are. What a 
world of real pleasure is there in childish sports, and in the flow of 
" youthful blood," and buoyant, elastic spirits ; in the full, uninterrupted 
enjoyment of life, and health, and strength ; in eating, sleeping, and muscu- 
lar exercise ! Yet, what are all these compared with the highe~ t«i.' cf 
mind, of glowing friendship, of the domestic feelings, of pure and elevated 
connubial love, of the still higher mora! and religious feelings, of disinte- 
rested benevolence to man, and adoration cf God, not to mention the still 
more exalted delight springing from studying the worics and operations of 
nature, from the exercise of mind as mind, which, more than any thing else, 
calls into harmonious action, and that, too, in a higher degree, the gieates* 
number of faculties! The perfection of man's nature consists in the harmo- 
nious and agreeable exercise of these and all his other faculties and powers. 
But man, in his eager chase after riches, does not give himself time to reap 
any of these golden fruits thus strewed by the God of nature in his path. He 
Bpends nearly all his time, all his energies, his whole existence upon hia 
body, in amassing wealth, in getting something to eat, and drink, and weai; 
and live in, and show off with. In doing this, he Uurries, and drives, 
and toils, as though he had but a week to live, thereby breaking down bis 



constitution, inducing disease in all its forms, and hurrying himself into an 
early grave. This cannot be the natural order of things. So noble a being 
as man was certainly never made merely to eat, and sleep, and flutter in 
the fashions, and heap up money. Had God designed that he, like the 
other animals, should expend his whole existence upon his body, he cer- 
tainly would never have endowed him with the higher qualities of morality 
and intelligence. Life and probation are worth too much to be all swal- 
lowed up in merely gratifying our physical animal wants. The body is 
only the servant of the mind, and for us thus to use up both the mind and 
body upon the latter, is to make ourselves mere brutes, and to throw into 
the back-ground all that is noble, and moral, and intellectual, and godlike in 
man. Yet all this the mass of mankind do. Only here and there one 
spend their time in the exercise and enjoyment of mind, and moral feeling 
as such. How small a proportion of time is spent in studying the won- 
derful works of God, in admiring the beauties of nature, examining her 
operations, or studying and applying her laws and phenomena ! No ! 
man has no time to bestow upon these trivial, foolish matters ! He does not 
take time even to eat and sleep, but must swallow down his food half mas- 
ticated, and nearly untasted, thus deranging his stomach, and doubly 
abridging the pleasures of his palate. The same is true of all his enjoy- 
ments. He ruins his health in making money, an»'. completes that ruin in 
spending it! 

But the order of nature evidently is for man to exercise every part of his 
body, every faculty of his mind, in due proportion. 

" Nature's wants are few but loud." A few hoars' labour each day, say 
from five to eight, will earn all the necessaries and the comforts of life, arti- 
ficial wants and extravagances excepted, and to every man, rich and poor, 
literary and in business, this amount of exercise is indispensable for pre- 
serving his health. The labouring classes, instead of consuming their 
whole exist&ice in working, should be better paid for their labour, and 
thus allowed time to cultivate their intellects, and exercise their finer 
feelings. The present arrangements of society tend to make the rich 
man richer, and the poor man poorer. This is certainly not the or- 
der of nature. The possession of great wealth is not right, because 
its possessor cannot enjoy it; and because wealth is only the time of 
man, his life, and flesh, and blood, and earthly existence, thrown into that 
form. If "time is money," then money is time, and for one man to con- 
sume, to put into his pocket, to expend upon his individual gratification, the 
time and lives of one, or five, or twenty, or hundreds, or thousands of his 
fellow-beings, as is the case with those who have different degrees of wealth, 
is contrary to the original arrangement of heaven. That arrangement is, 
for every man to have the disposal and the full avails of his own time ; for 
every man to have property enough to supply his real necessities and wants, 
but no more, and to expend the balance upon nobler pursuits, upon the ex- 
ercise of his intellectual and moral powers, and when men transgress these na- 
tural laws, they experience rebuke at the hand of nature, in the very line of 
their transgression. If they become too rich, they fail in business, *hese 
reverses always falling upon the most wealthy; or their children squander it, or 
they get cheated out of it, so that, " nolens, volens" they are compelled to 
keep within certain limits. And the nearer they keep to " neither povertj; 
nor riches," the better it is for them, mentally and physically, for time aw 



ft e haw said that money is time. We will illustrate and apply this 
idea The capitalist employs twenty men at §2 per day. They each earn 
him $4 per day ; and this nett profit re-augments his wealth. But this wealth 
is nothing more nor less than the life, and Wood, and strength, and sinew, 
and being of these labourers put into his pocket. Let him pay them ali 
they earn, namely, the two dollars for half a day's work, and let them spend 
the other half of each day in cultivating their mental temperaments, in exer- 
cising their minds and moral feelings, in literary societies, religious exercises, 
the study of nature, &c. and though he might not, thereby, amass his tens 
of thousands, yet he would be just as well off, and they vastly better. It 
would even benefit him to work half the day, and thus earn his own living. 

Instead of this, he employs these men to build and furnish, in splendid 
style, a house at an expense of §25,000. Probably just as comfortable 
a house could be built and furnished for §5,000. Here, then, are 10,000 
days of man's existence thrown away upen extras, for the mere sake of 
looks. Now the time men spend in labour, deducting lost time, would net 
probably average more than ten or twelve years each, but we will say fifteen, 
and we have more than the entire earthly existence of two human beings 
thrown away upon the mere extras of that single house, which do no one 
*ny real good, but simply gratify the rich owner's approbativeness and ac- 
quisitiveness. If he owns a dozen such houses, or their equivalent, he uses 
up in his own gratification the entire lives of twenty-four beings as good 
as himself. And who is this rich nabob, this " great Caesar," that he should 
monopolize, cr rather sacrifice upon the altar of his selfishness, all the lives 
of ali these human beings 1 Why he is a rich man ! that is all. Let 
the wages of the labouring classes be doubled, and trebled, and quadrupled; 
build the comfortable house for §5,000, but pay out the §25,000 for it, and 
let the 10,000 extra days be spent in reading and mental culture, and 
men will not only be more healthy and happy, but live longer ; for it is a 
well established physiological principle that the due exercise of the mind is 
eminently productive of health and long life* by keeping this balance of the 

We have named but a single item of extra expense, and designedly under 
rated even that. How many thousands of furnished houses are there that 
cost §30,000, §50,u00, and even §100,000., and how many more that ap- 
proach §20,000. How many thousands and millions of lives are thus swal- 
lowed up in this one vast, vortex of extravagance ! 

If y ou say that all this circulates money, and gives employment to tne 
poor; I reply, cut off these extras, and yet pay just as much for the balance, 
and you will circulate just as much money, be just as well off yourself, and 
save a vast amount of time for mental culture. You give too much employ- 
ment, and too little for it. In a republic like ours, where every thing de- 
pends on the intelligence of the people, this arrangement is indispensable 

Tea and coffee also consume a vast amount of human existence. The 
time expended in earning the money to pay for the vast consumption of 
these articles, the time taken in cultivating and curing, in transporting and 
selling them, in paying for, and setting, and cleansing the china sets, and above 
all, the two or more hours' time of one person for each of the 2,000,000 fami- 
lies in the U. S. spent daily in preparing these articles, would, of itself, make 
from ! ,200 to 1 ,500 years, or some thi htt lives consumed ever* tiay just 
Ul the one single item of cooking these worse than useless drugs. Now ad-*. 

* .See an atticli; on " Mental Exercise as a means of Health," in Vol. II. pp. V. ini 
170 ut the American Phrenological Journal, and "Madd-ji's infirmities of Gen'us." 



atl these items together, and extend the estimate to all that uie them, antf 
what a vast consumption of human existence is thus brought to view, which 
might otherwise be expended upon the exercise of the moral and intellectuai 
faculties I • Let tea and coffee drinkers never complain of a want of time foi 
mental culture. 

These decidedly injurious drugs are also a more prolific source of headache* 
and nervous affections than any other. An inveterate tea or coffee drinkei 
is sure to be dreadfully afflicted with the headache, and often the sick head 
ache. Another dose may indeed give temporary relief, but it is only to re- 
double the headache when its stimulating effect subsides. 

They also decay the teeth, causing that terrible malady the toothache, 
besides opening the pores and exposing to colds, thus inducing fevers, con- 
sumption, &c, and thereby increasing the waste of human existence by 
shortening life. 

A still better example, first of the unnecessary wasting of existence, and 
secondly of the shortening of life, might be adduced in the use of tobacco, 
that vilest and filthiest of narcotics. To see beardless boys strutting aboul 
sucking segars, betokens an early grave. A young or forming constitution 
canr ot stand tea, or coffee, or tobacco. True we occasionally see old people 
who have long used them, and also ardent spirits, but they did not begin till 
theii bodies were fully matured, besides having originally powerful consti< 
tutions, which few young people can now beast of. If the public health de- 
clines for fifty years to come, as fast as it has for fifty years past, we shall he 
a weakly, miserable race indeed, and be surely supplanted by those who hawt 
not yet used these enervating, time-destroying, soul-and-body-killing fash 
ions, luxuries, and extravagances. 

What finite mind can measure the vast amount of human existence swal- 
lowed up in the manufacture, sale, and drinking of ardent spirits, wines., 
beer, &c, and the fearful ravages on the life, happiness, virtue, and intellect* 
of men resulting from their use, besides producing a feverish morbid action 
of the body, and thus a rapid consumption of the physical energies, and alse 
preternaturally exciting the organs located in the base of the brain, thusi 
withdrawing the strength from the moral and intellectual organs.* It is nof; 
so much the money thrown away as it is the vast consumption of the time 
or life of man, and the abridgment of human existence which forms the 
chief item to be considered. 

This needless consumption of man's existence is equally applicable to a 
thousand artificial wants and useless extras now deemed indispensable. 
Mankind probably expend two-thirds or three-fourths of their time upon 
what does no one any good, including the sickness and premature death 
thereby induced. What a vast, an inconceivable amount of time, is wasted 
in being fashionable, in giving splendid parties, in manufacturing, making 
and altering splendid dresses, suits, &c, in dashing out in splendid style 
and equipage, and in nicely adjusting the attire before the toilet. 

Men also trade vastly too much, buy too much, consume too much, just 
to gratify their artificial wants, have too much to pay for, thus inducing 
these "hard times," besides rendering themselves vexed and unhappy in a 
great variety of ways. Far too much time is spent in government, which 
is now prostituted to the selfish ends of those in office, more than it is made 
conducive to the public good. Men will do that as politicians, which, if they 
did as men, would blast their characters and banish them forever from virtu« 

f *The writer is preparing for the press an essay on Temperance considered phr«. 
»ologically and phvsioloaicallv , which will be shortly issued. 


oua society. " All is fuir in politics," be it lying, or cheating, or the meanest 
trickery, or the grossest defamation, and " the spoils of office belong to those 
who conquer" by these disgraceful means. Unblushingly are these prin- 
ciples proclaimed and acted upon. Politics swallow up a vast amount of 
time, and money, and public virtue. I speak as a philosopher and not as a 
politician, for I should feel myself disgraced by voting either ticket till these 
Augean stables are cleansed of their selfishness and moral pollution. 

Having named a few of the items on which the life of mankind is worsa 
than wasted, and by which it is shortened, the observation and reflection of 
each reader will be left to carry out the principle for himself. Let it be observed 
that the crime of murder is considered so horrible as to be punished with the 
heaviest penalty of the law, only because it shortens the earthly existence of 
the one murdered. Now wherein consists the difference in the criminality 
of murdering a man out-right, or in another's appropriating that existence 
to himself, as we have illustrated in the case of the houses. There is a dif 
ference, but it is less than is supposed ; for in both cases the higher ends of 
man's creation are cut off. And what is the difference between committing 
suicide, and doing what induces diseases and a premature death 1 — there is 
none. And wasting our time upon tea, coffee, and the fashions as we have 
illustrated, is nearly as bad. Life and health are the treasure of treasures — 
the all of mortals, and should be made the most of. Each of us has but a 
single life to live. Hence, not only should not a single hour or moment of 
it be wasted, but it should be spun out as long as the laws of nature will 
allow, and every thing which tends either immediately or remotely to induce 
disease or shorten life, is, to all intents and purposes, murder or suicide. 

Again, our cities and villages, besides being great maelstrooms for engulph- 
ing and consuming the public health and morals, besides sending out a pes- 
tiferous influence throughout the entire length and breadth of our land, be- 
sides being sinks of sin and pollution, and literally rotten with depravity, 
and being " the sores of the body politic," have originated and still perpetu- 
ate these fashions, and bad habits, and wrong arrangements to which we 
have alluded, as so destructive of the lives, and health, and virtue of man- 
kind. They create most of those artificial wants by which so much of man's 
existence is both consumed and cut off. They engender and inflame that 
speculating spirit which causes our " hard times," besides confining multi- 
tudes to the counting-house and the parlour, and preventing that exercise 
which is indispensable to heaith, virtue, happiness, and long life. 

Let but our cities and villages be emptied out upon the country ; let our 
land be better tilled ;* let our politicians and many of our public officers go 
to work ; let every man labour, and thus improve his motive temperament ; 
but let none overdo ; let every man cultivate his mind ; let the fashions be 
buried, and nature studied, especially human nature as developed by phreno- 
logy and physiology, and man's happiness would be augmented a thousand 
fold, his diseases and sufferings diminished ten thousand fold, and our world, 
now a bedlam, would become the garden of Eden. In creating a being every 
way so noble and godlike as man is, in adapting to his use and happiness so 
perfect a world as this, and in subjecting him to the operation of a system of 

*The following amount of produce was raised on thirty-eight acres of originally 
oor land by Jonathan Jenkins of Camden, Delaware, in 1837, namely two hundred 
ushels of wl'.eat, three hundred and twenty-five of corn, two hundred and fifty of 
oats, one hundred and fifty of potatoes, and forty of turnips, besides thirty-five ton3 
of hay, pasturing four cows, and fattening one thousand pounds of besf. Query, 
Hew many persons would this sustain one year 1 It is a sin against Heaven to sea 
■o much land uncultivated, and so much more but poorly tilled, especially whea 
tU cultivatien vf 3,u!d do our citissss so much goo& 



laws, menlaJ and physical, the most perfect imaginable, the Deity has dona 
Ais part. He now allows men to obey these laws, and be perfectly happy, 
or to violate them, and thus to bring down their painful penalty upon his 
own head — to cut his own throat if he pleases, but if he does, he is com 
pelled to die in consequence of it. Our destinies are mostly in our own 
hands, especially after we are old enough to choose or refuse the good or eviL 
If this is called radicalism, agrarianism, loco-focoism, the real levelling 
principle, putting the rich and poor on an equality, be it so ; it is the order 
of nature. Mankind have tried "the good (1) old way" quite long enough, 
and suffered quite enough thereby. That every thing as it now is, is all 
wrong, is fully evinced by the hard times, the bad health, the misery and 
vexation, and the premature death of all classes. Man cannot change for 
the worse. He must follow the order, and obey the laws of his nature, or 
take the consequences.* 

The Pabextage. 

The parentage has also a powerful influence upon the manifestations of 
the mind. Not only are the several organs propagated from parent to child, 
but the particular form of manifestation of particular faculties is also trans- 
mitted. Thus if the large conscientiousness or benevolence of the parent is 
exercised in a religious channel, not only will these organs be large in the 
child, but they will run in a similar channel, instead of other channels. If 
the alimentiveness of the parent fastened upon oysters, or ardent spirits, or 
other kinds of food or drink, that of the child will crave the same kinds of 
food and drink, each organ in the child taking not only its size but also it3 
particular direction and form of manifestation from those of the parents. 

Having barely stated this general principle, the author leaves it, because 
he cannot enlarge upon nor defend it here, but is now preparing a work 
upon this general subject, in which will be discussed, first, the marriage rela- 
tions, and the phrenological rules given for their formation, and for adapting 
the conduct of each to the phrenological organs of the other; and, secondly, 
the principles which regulate the transmission of both physical and mental 
qualities from parents to children through successive generations, illustrated 
by a vast amount of facts drawn from the history of the first settlers of this 
country and their descendants down to the present time, showing that the 
original characteristics of the parents are still stamped upon their descend 
ants. He has now in his employ a gentleman more intimate with this class 
of facts, and better calculated to ferret them out, than any other man in this 
country. The work will be issued in the fall or winter. 

One single mind can observe only a few of the vast amount of facts bear 
ing upon this subject, which are constantly occurring in all parts of the 
country. The writer therefore solicits the communication of well authenti- 
cated facts, in reference to the relations between parents and children, and 
the hereditary transmission of mental or physical qualities. The names of 
both subject and communicator must be given in order to give authenticity 
to the facts, though the latter, and often both, will be omitted in the work. 
He solicits all who know any facts bearing on this subject, and physicians 
in particular, to aid in this most important task, by communicating them to 
him at Philade'phia, at his expense. Let all obtain the histories and cha- 
racters of their ancestors from their aged parents and grand parents, and 

s* The writer is still collecting and arranging the materials for his work on the 
evils of sor.iety as it is, and their remedy by the application of phrenological piinwi" 
tdes. See note on P. P. p. 404. 


record them so that they may be used hereafter. It will be more usefui than 
the genealogy of our horses, which is so carefully recorded. 

The Influences of Habits. 

The influence of habits in modifying the manifestations of the organs is 
also prodigious, often changing the whole character of the man, as is the 
case with intemperate persons. We can advert to the influence of only a 
few, and to these few only very briefly. 

1. Exercise. However splendid a head and temperament a man may 
possess, without a great amount of exercise, of vigorous, daily, muscular exer- 
cise, without much hard work he cannot become a great man. Scarcely a 
single intellectually great, or even eminent man or woman, either of this or 
any other age can be named, who did not lay the foundation of their great- 
ness in hard muscular labour, and perfect the superstructure by the same 
means ; that is, who did not work hard in their early days, and continue this 
labour, or at least take much vigorous, daily exercise through life. A long 
list of names, illustrating this point, might easily be adduced. 

When I visited Washington to take the busts of our great men, I was 
forcibly struck with the fact that they all took a great amount of phy sical ex- 
ercise. Speaker Polk habitually rose about daylight, and took a walk of 
two hours before breakfast, and frequently a ride after adjournment, and the 
amount of mental labour which he performs is astonishing. John Q. Adams 
informed me that he uniformly rose before the sun to take his exercise, and 
to a friend of mine he expatiated eloquently upon the benefit and delight 
which he experienced in bathing every suitable morning in the Potomac. 
"Here," said he, pointing to his bathing place, "I come whilst others are 
asleep, to take my morning swim. You cannot imagine how delightful it is 
for an old man like me to take this exercise (without which I cannot live) in 
the cool water, and without getting my blood heated." 

Benton told me that he required his servant to spend all his strength in 
rubbing him at least two hours daily, with the stillest, hardest brush he 
could find, besides taking much additional exercise. By these means it is 
that his health has even improved, in spite of his great and constant menial 
exertion for the twenty years in succession of his congressional career ; and 
to these same means does he owe most ot his prodigious influence. 

Frequently, as I was going out to take my walk, have I met Webster re- 
turning from his. Many similar facts, collected not only at Washington 
but connected with the history and habits of every distinguished man, so 
far as I know, establish fully the fact, that physical exercise is as indispen- 
sable an accompaniment of greatness as is the development of the intelleo« 
tual organs. And one principal reason why so many men, having all th 
phrenological indications of greatness, do not distinguish themselves, is c 
want of physical exercise. 

Both whilst in college, and in my professional visits to our principal co.<- 
leges since my graduation, I have observed it as a uniform fact, that those stu 
dents who had been brought up without having laboured, never took a high 
intellectual stand, except in parrot-like scholarship. They always showed I 
want of mental vim and pith, and the powers of tough, close, hard thinking 
After they enter upon the business of life, their ease is still worse. For them 
to rise to eminence is impossible. If I am thankful to God and my father 
for any thing, it is that I was made to work hard and constantly on a farm, 
till 1 8 years of age, when I began to prepare for college. I left home with 
only four dollars in the world, with my all upon my, on a journey on 
r ooi of four hundred miles. I worked my way to college, and through 



college. Instead of earning my money by teaching school, I supported 
myself by sawing, splitting, and carrying up the wood of my felkw-stddents, 
three and four high flights of stairs ; improving in this way every hour, 
except study hours ; and often portions of the night. My fellow-students 
laughed at me then, but now the boot is on the other foot. I thought it a 
hard row to hoe, but a rich harvest has it yielded me ; and you, reader, owe 
to this same cause, whatever of delight, or benefit, my lectures, writings, 
and examinations afford you. 

Diet. By the truly wonderful process of digestion, food and drink are 
converted into thought and feeling — aie manufactured into mind and soul. 
Is it then unreasonable to suppose that different kinds of food produce dif- 
ferent kinds of mind 1 Reasonable or unreasonable, it is nevertheless the 
fact. Oysters are proverbial for exciting a certain class of feelings propor- 
tionately more than other feelings, or the intellect. Other kinds of food 
are known to have a similar effect. Rollin, the celebrated historian, says, 
that in training the pugilists for the bloody arena, to whom a ferocious 
spirit, and great physical strength, were the chief requisites, they were fed 
exclusively on raw flesh. Will not this principle explain the ferocity of 
beasts of prey ; the mildness of the lamb and the dove ; the blood-thirsty, 
revengeful spirit of the savage Indian ; and the mild and pacific disposition 
of the Chinese and Hindoo. Ardent spirits and wine excite the animal 
organs, located in the base of the brain, more than they do the intellectual 
or moral faculties. This is unquestionably the fact with every thing heat- 
ing in its nature; such as condiments, flesh, tea, coffee, and high-seasoned 
or highly stimulating food of any kind. And it will probably be found, 
that animal food, by keeping the body in a highly excited, not to say fever- 
ish state, is calculated unduly to excite the animal organs, thereby with- 
drawing strength from the top and front of the brain, but imparting physical 
strength, and concentrating the energies of the system, thereby wearing it 
out the sooner ; and also that vegetable food, by reducing the inflammation 
of the blood, and keeping the system cool ; promotes clearness of thought, 
quietness of feeling, placidity of mind, and moral and elevated feeling; 
and develops the nervous temperament, thus producing a tendency to intel- 
lectual pursuits. 

This subject opens up a vast field for observation, and nothing but facts 
can guide us to the proper results. Let observations be made, experiments 
instituted, and the results recorded ; and a vast amount of good will flow 
from them. If you wish to distinguish yourself intellectually, you must 
regulate the quantity and qualky of your food and drink in accordance 
with the established laws of physiology, or }'our wings of fame will be 
melted in cne heat of animal indulgence. 

Health. In consequence of different degrees of health, the talents of 
the same individual often vary several hundred per cent. Upon its import- 
ance, and the means of preserving and obtaining it, and of regaining it when 
impaired, I cannot enlarge here. Observe the influence of disease upon the 
manifestations of the mind — the irritability, and sour temper, and debilitated 
intellect and moral feeling which often accompany it. Observe how totally 
changed is the dyspeptic from what he was before, and your impressions as 
to the influence and importance of health will be quite as distinct as by any 
thing that can be said here. But alas ! how few retain their health thirty 
vears. The midnight darkness, and total ignorance of the laws of life and 
nealth which pervade the community is both astonishing and heart-sicken- 
ing. In this respect, man is infinitely behind the brute creation, who never 


acken, unless when caused by man. Yet man's organization is vastly tba 
most perfect, and least liable to disease. But mankind are nearly all 
wiicides — downright sell-murderers of soul and body. They seem to be de- 
jermined neither to live long, nor to enjoy life whilst they do live. A per 
ectly healthy man knows neither fatigue nor pain, yet men love both, and 
court and woo them, making them their constant attendants from the cradle 
to the grave. But it is right enough to allow them to choose their com- 
panions. Let them have them, but do not blame the world in which you 
live for the result of this choice. If you wish either to enjoy life or to> exer- 
cise your minds, you must keep your health. 

Medicines. The brains of thousands of men, and tens of thousands 
af children have been debilitated, and their minds clouded with a thick 
mist, and in many cases, totally darkened by those powerful, life-killing 
thrugs, employed as healing agents. How many mothers, in order to make 
aleir little ones sleep, have blunted their moral sensibilities, and rendered 
ftieir intellects obtuse, by dosing them with laudanum, " Godfrey's cordial," 
and other medicines. If men would observe the laws of life and health, 
they would never require medicine, and in most cases where they take it 
hey would do better without it, if they would begin in season to practise 
abstinence, and not carelessly and ignorantly augment the disease. And if 
our physicians, instead of confining themselves to the cure of diseases, 
would lecture and inform the people how to preserve their health, though 
they might make less money, they would save suffering humanity a vast 
Bmount of misery and premature death. " An ounce of prevention is worth 
* pound of cure." 

But, owing to the bad organization of society alluded to in the close of 
the chapter on temperaments, men have no time to attend to their health 
in consequence of which the violated laws of nature compel them to find 
time to be sick, and to die sooner than they otherwise would. 

Education - . For remarks upon the influence of education in modify 
the direction of the faculties, see P. P. p. 40 ; and for remarks upon its 
•influence in changing the relative size of the organs and power of thefacul 
ties, see a chapter on the utility of phrenology, appended to the last edition 
of P. P. pp. 421, and also to this work. 

For th* 1 effects of the combined action of the faculties, which constitute 
oy far the most important portion of phrenology, or, rather,'.its very essence, 
imd without a knowledge of which no correct estimate of character can be 
formed, the reader is referred to " Phrenology^Proved," &c, the main design 
of which is to present this hitherto neglected, but all-important, feature of 
this subject. 

A description of the organs in this isolated state, furnishes so lame and 
jmywrllM;; w ?w of the character, that unless those who have their heads 
examined up 1 this chart, make the references here indicated to P. P., and 
there read those combinations that apply to them, they need not expect a 
correct or satisfactory description. But decidedly the best method of record- 
ing the descriptions is to have them written out by the examiner. 

The succeeding descriptions, and also those referred to in " Phrenology 
Proved," &c, are predicated on the supposition that the brain is full or 
large in size — the organization sound — health fair or good — activity full or 
great ; and that the faculties have not been ??izs-directed. 

We have already encroached largely upon the space allotted to the analysis 
of the faculties, and mubt therefore close this department of our subject, 
"•wiving additional remarks for another place. 


Phtsiogjjtoty as connected wite Phrenology. That there is so ore 
truth in some of the leadingdoctrines of physiognomy, and that the features 
and general expression of the countenance do furnish some index of charac- 
ter and talent, is a generally admitted fact, yet in its details, and as a sys- 
tem, it cannot be relied upon. As far as it is true, there exist relations of 
cause and i Jf'"t between its signs and phenomena, yet none maintain that a 
long or prominent ncse causes superior talent, or that the talents give shape 
to the nose, and s ) of its other signs. Instead of a given shape of the fea- 
tures causing or b ing caused by the disposition or talents, both are the pro- 
duct of the tempei iment and organization. A sharp nose is said to indicate 
a scold, because wlen the nose is sharp, the teeth, bones, voice, phrenologi- 
cal organs, feelings, perceptions, every thing about them, including the tem- 
per, are also sharp, the whole man, mind and body, being constructed upon 
the angular principle, which gives rise to great mental as well as physical 
activity, and to intense feelings. It is a law of the animal economy that every 
part of every individual should be proportionate to every other, and correspond 
with it. Thus the length of every bone is in proportion to that of every 
other, so that from the length of any one of them we can ascertain that of 
every other, and also the height of the person. Long arms are never found 
with short legs, but if the person is stout and square built, the phrenological 
organs will be short and broad, and the head wide instead of high. In tall 
persons the organs are all long, and the head higher and thinner. If there 
is a great amount of bone in the limbs, the scull also will be thick. If the 
person is small boned, his scull is thin, the system maintaining uniformity 
of construction throughout. 

Again, the qualities of the mind correspond with the build of the body, 
If the latter is beautifully formed, well proportioned, handsome, &c, not only 
will its motions be easy and graceful, but the feelings will be exquisite, the 
mind well balanced, and a beauty, perfection, taste, refinement, elegance, 
and good sense will cheracterize every thing he says or does. But if the 
body is coarse, the build strongiy marked or peculiar, the features striking 
or prominent, and countenance unusual, the mind will also be eccentric, the 
remarks new and striking, and as homely as the body, and the character 
odd, differing from the common run of people. Webster is a Webster in 
his walk, looks, and features as well as in his speeches, both mind and 
body beeing cast in the same mould. This accounts for the fact that men 
great in a particular line generally have a remarkable build, walk, counte- 
nance, manner of thinking, expression, and action. Energetic men have a 
rapid, energetic, decided walk, whereas the exquisite dandy, without brain, 
without sense, and with all his mind upon his back, will have a soft effeminate 
manner of speaking and acting, a mincing, affected, artificial walk, as though 
he was stepping on eggs, and so of the other mental qualities. 

The natural language of the organs. Nearly related to this sub- 
ject will be found that of the natural language of the organs, or the posi- 
tion into which the organs, when active, throw the head and body, which, 
besides furnishing strong evidence that phrenology is true to nature, and 
forms a part of it, is really amusing when properly presented. The prin- 
ciple is tLu : every organ, when active, throws the head into a line with it- 
self, and so happens that in every instance the position of the head pro- 
duced by the activity of any organ, is perfectly expressive of the state of 
mind imparted by the faculty. Thus active causality projects the upper por- 
tion of the forehead, and deep thinkers, like Franklin and Webster, always 
hold their heads in this way." This subject will hereafter be carried out and 
illustrated ov cvis. 


la our descriptions of the temperaments, much more reference should 
perhaps have been made to the influence of the different sizes of the brain, 
in combination with the different temperaments and degrees of activity ; 
but instead of confusing the mind of the reader or amateur by mingling the 
two together, it was thought best to make the general remark here that in 
these and many similar cases, he is left to make the allowances in his own 
mind, because descriptions cannot be made sufficiently minute to reach 
them. Having the principal landmarks before him, he is left to fill up ths 
intermediate spaces by compounding the influences of the two in propor- 
tion as each is found in the heads of those examined. 

The writer values measurements less than most phrenologists do, because, 
I ., when one is tall, his organs are long and slim, but when he is short and 
thick set, they will be short and broad ; see chapter on physiognomy ; and, 
2., the practised eye and fingers discover elevations and depressions too mi 
nute for any measure to reach, and also estimate both proportionate and 
absolute size here, as in various mechanical operations, in making little glass 
birds, toys, &c, far more accurately than any instruments. The most va 
luable measures are, 1., the circumference, 2., from ear to ear over firmness, 
which measures force ; 3., do. around comparison, and also individuality. 

I. The size of the braijt, other conditions being equal, is found to be 
the measure of the aggregate amount of the mental power ; and the rela- 
tive size of the several organs of an individual, indicates the proportional 
etrength and energy of his corresponding faculties. 

It should, however, be remembered, that the amount of one's mental 
power, depends even more upon these "other conditions," such as his 
organization, or the vigour of his constitution, the condition of his nutri- 
tive organs, the state of his health, his temperament, the amount of 
excitement under which his various faculties act, his education^ habits, 
diet, &c, than upon the size of his brain alone. Accordingly, in conse- 
quence of different degrees of health, rest, fatigue, excitement, &c, the 
manifested quantity or amount of a man's mental power, will vary twenty, 
forty, and even eighty per cent., whilst the kind or quality will differ 
little if any. Hence, both in proving phrenology, and also in applying its 
principles, the province of the phrenologist is to point out the character 
or kind of talents and mental power, rather than their precise amount ; 
and yet, if he is informed as to these " other conditions," (and it is not 
only his right to know them, but preposterous in him to pronounce with- 
out such knowledge,) he can ascertain very nearly the amount, as well 
as the kind, of intellect and feeling. 

Average. — One having an average-sized brain, with activity only 
average, will discover only an ordinary amount of intellect ; be inadequate 
to any important undertaking ; yet, in a small sphere, or one that requires 
wily a mechanical routine of business, may do well : with activity great 
v very great, and the organs of the propelling po\vers and of practica 
intellect, large or very large, is capable of doing a fair business, and may 
pass for a man of some talent, yet he will not be original nor profound; 
will be quick of perception ; have a good practical understanding ; will du 
well in his sphere, yet never manifest any traces of greatness, and out 
■if his sphere, be common-place : with moderate or small activity, will 
fiardly have common sense. 

Full. — One having a full-sized brain, with activity great or very greet?, 
Mid the organs of practical intellect a; id cf the propelling powers, large ot 



very large, although he will not possess greatness of intellect, nor a icep, 
strong mind, will be very clever ; have considerable talent, and that so dis- 
tributed that it will show to be more than it really is", is capable of being 
a good scholar, doing a fine business, and, with advantages and applica- 
tion, of distinguishing himself somewhat, yet he is inadequate to a great 
undertaking ; cannot sway an extensive influence, nor be really great : with 
activity full or average, will do only tolerably well, and manifest only a 
common share of talents : with activity moderate or small, will neither 
be nor do much worthy of notice : c. 15. 43. 

Large. — One naving a large-sized brain, with activity average, will 
possess considerable energy of intellect and feeling, yet seldom manifest it 
unless it is brought out by some powerful stimulus, and will be rather 
too indolent to exert, especially his intellect : with activity full, will be 
endowed with an uncommon amount of the mental power, and be capable 
of doing a great deal, yet require considerable to awaken him to thai 
vigorous effort of mind of which he is capable ; if his powers are not 
called out by circumstances, and his organs of practical intellect are onlj 
average or full, he may pass through life without attracting notice, or 
manifesting more than an ordinary share of talents .' but if the perceptive 
faculties are strong or very strong, and his natural powers put in vigorous 
requisition, he will manifest a vigour and energy of intellect and feeling quite 
above mediocrity ; be adequate to undertakings which demand originality 
of mind and force of character, yet, after all, be rather indolent (c. IS) : with 
activity great or very great, will combine great power of mind with great 
activity ; exercise a commanding influence over those minds with which 
de coires in contact ; when he enjoys, will enjoy intensely, and when he 
suffers, suffer equally so ; be susceptible of strong excitement ; and, with 
Ihe organs of the propelling powers, and cf practical intellect, large or 
very large, will possess all the mental capabilities for conducting a large 
business ; for rising to eminence, if not to pre-eminence ; and discover 
great force of character and power of intellect and feeling : with activity 
moderate, when powerfully excited, will evince considerable energy of, 
intellect and feeling, yet be too indolent and too sluggish to do much 
.ack clearness and force of idea, and intenseness of feeling ; unless lite- 
rally driven to it, will not be likely to be much or do much, and yet actu- 
ally possess more vigour of mind, and energy of feeling, than he will 
manifest; with activity 1, or 2, will border upon idiocy. 

Very Large. — One having a veTy large head, with activity average or 
f ull, on great occasions, or when his powers are thoroughly roused, will 
be truly great; but upon ordinary occasions, will seldom manifest any 
remarkable amount of mind or feeling, and perhaps pass through life with 
the credit of being a person of good natural abilities and judgments, yet 
nothing more: with activity great, strength, and the intellectual organs 
the same, will be a natural genius ; endowed with very superior powers 
of mind and vigour of intellect; and, even though deprived of the advan- 
tages of education, his natural talents will surmount all obstacles, and makd 
him truly talented (c. 7) : with activity very great, and the organs of prac- 
tical intellect and of the propelling powers large or very large, will possess 
the first order of natural abilities; manifest a clearness and force of intel- 
lect which will astonish the world, and a power of feeling which will carry 
all before him ; and, with proper cultivation, enable him to become a bright 
star in the firmament of intellectual greatness, vpoit which coming age* 


n\ay villi delight and astonishment. His mental enjoyment will be 
most e<q\ «ite, and his sufferings equally excruciating: c. 5. 6. 40. 41. 

Moderate. — One with a head of only moderate size, combined with 
great or vt r y great activity, and the organs of the propelling powers and 
of practical intellect, will possess a tolerable share of intellect, yet appear 
to possess mueh more than he docs ; with others to plan for and direct 
him, will perhaps execute to advantage, yet be unable to do much alone ; 
will have a very active mind, and be quick of perception, yet, after all, 
have a contracted intellect (c. 10. 26) ; possess only a small mental calibre, 
and lack momentum both of mind and character: with activity only average 
or fair, have but a moderate amount of intellect, and even this scanty 
allowance will be too sluggish for action, so that he will neither suffer nor 
enjoy much : with activity moderate or small, be an idiot. 

S.mall or very Small. — One with a small or very small head, no 
matter what may be the activity of his mind, will be incapable of intellect- 
ual Sort; of comprehending even easy subjects; or of experiencing much 
pair, or pleasure ; in short, will be a natural fool : c. 28. 29. 

II. The Strength of the System, including the brain, or what is 
the same thing, upon the perfection or imperfection of the organization. 
Probably no phrenological condition is so necessary for the manifestation 
of mind, as a strong, compact constitution, and energetick physical powers 
Even after a violation of the laws of the organization has brought or 
disease, a naturally vigorous constitution often retains no small share of its 
lormer elasticity and energy, and imparts the same qnnlities to the mental 
operations (c. 5. 6. 7. 12. 15. 18. 40. 41. 43) ; but, in proportion as thi 
is defective, weakness and imbecility of mind will ensue. 

III. The Degree of Activity. — In judging of the manifestations of the 
mind, the activity of the brain is a consideration quite as important as its 
size. Whilst size gives power or momentum of intellect and feeling, acti 
vity imparts quickness, intensity, willingness, and even a restless desire, t£ 
act, which go far to produce efficiency of mind, with accompanying effort 
jnd action. Under the head of si,.r. however, the effects of the different 
degrees of aztivity were presented, and need not to be repeated here. 

IV. Upon the Excitability. — Sharp, or pointed and prominent 
organs, always accompany a nervous and very excitable temperament; 
moderate or average sized head; sharp teeth and pointed; spright- 
liness of mind and body, &c. 

Pointed oh Very Pointed. — One with a head uneven, or very un» 
even, peculiar in shape, and having a great many protuberances and de- 
pressions, or hills and valleys on it, has an equally peculiar, eccentrick 
sui-generis character; presents many strong and weak points of mind and 
character; is too much the sport of circumstances; lacks uniformity and 
consistency of character, opinion, and conduct; is likely to be driven back 
and forth by strong excitements and counter-excitements, and thus to hava 
s. rough voyage through life ; to experience many remarkable incidents, 
hair-breadth escapes, &c. ; in short, to do and say many singular things. 

Moderately Smooth. — One with a round even head, is likely to 
manifest uniformity and consistency of character ; to have good sense and 
judgment; to have few excesses or deficiences ; and, like the poet's goow 
man, "holds the even tenour of his may," passing smoothly through life. 


Amativeness : — Reciprocal Attachment and Love of the Sexes as such/ 
with Adhesiveness, Connubial Love, and the Marriage Relations. 

Adaptation. To prevent the extinction of our race, some provision for 
its continuance became necessary. Propagation and death are arrangements 
necessarily connected with man's earthly existence. The former has its coun- 
terpart in this faculty. 

It creates all those relations and reciprocal feelings existing between the 
sexes s,s such, and results in marriage and offspring. It originates those re- 
ciprocal kind offices and tender feelings which each sex manifests toward* 
the other, refining and elevating each, promoting gentility and politeness, 
and greatly augmenting social happiness. So far from being grosr or ex • 
ceptionable, its proper exercise is pure, and chaste, and even desirabj a, The 
son who loves and obeys his mother, is always tender and faithful to his 
wife, and the endearing recollections of his mother and loved ono, are hia 
most powerful incentives to virtue, studv, &c, as well restraints upon 
his vicious inclinations. The mother dotes upon her sons, and the fathei 
upon his daughters. All this class of feeiings and pnenomena originates in 
this faculty. In cities it is larger than ir f he country, because so constantly 
excited by caresses bestowed even upon cmldren by the opposite sex, bu 
being already too strong, it should be excited as little as possible. 

Average. One having this organ average, will treat the other sex ten 
derly, and enjoy their society, yet not hi enchanted with it, nor allow it to 
divert him from graver pursuits ; will find this feeling more active, intense 
and excitable, than powerful and enduring, and be capable of experiencing 
much connubial love ; yet its amount and qualities will be determined by 
his temperament and combinations. If adhesiveness, conscientiousness 
and ideality are large, and activity great, his love will be tender and intense, 
yet pure and chaste ; partake more of pJevated friendship than animal feel- 
ing, and be refined and virtuous ; he will have more friends than lovers among 
the opposite sex ; be disgusted with vulgarity in them ; in case his love is 
well placed, will enjoy the marriage Gelations much, and with the moral and 
intellectual organs also large, and the mental temperament predominant; 
can love the refined and intellectual only ; but if ideality is moderate or small; 
will disregard merely personal beauty, and choose a useful companion : with 
cautiousness vesy large, will mature his love slowly, hesitate much, and 
perhaps, make no choice at all : with cautiousness and secretiveness large 
or very large, will express less love than he feels, and th-at equivocally anu 
by piecemeal, and even then not until his loved one is fully committed' 
with conscientiousness and approbativeness large or very large, can love 
only one whose morals are pure and unblemished, and will value the virtue 
asd moral purity of the other sex as the pearl of greatest price, being parti 
cularly disgusted with this species of immorality : with cautiousness, con 
scientiousness, approbativeness, and veneration large or very large, and 
self-esteem moderate or small, will be very bashful in the society of the op 
posite sex, and of both sexes, yet enjoy the company of a few of the formei 
much : with adhesiveness and benevolence large or very larg*>, and ideality 
and approbativeness moderate or small, will he really kind and affectionate 
towards the other sex, yet not polite, or refined, or urbane, or merely nomi- 
nally attentive, &c. 

Full. One having amativeness full, will experience the same feeling* 
in kind, but in a still greater degree of activity and power, with those de- 
scribed under amativeness average, due allowance being made for its in» 
creased power, but & his activity nd excitability are both great, ae will 



lead his description under amativeness large, by selecting those combination* 
that apply to himself. 

Large. One who has amativeness large, will be alive to the personal 
charms and accomplishments of the other sex ; a great admirer of their 
beauty of form, elegance of manners, &c. ; on account of the reciprocal 
influence of this faculty, can easily ingratiate himself into their good will, 
become acquainted, exert an influence with them, and kindle in them the 
passion of love, or, at best, create a favourable impression, even if in som,3 re- ] 
spects disagreeable ; has his warmest friends among the other sex, and , 
when this feeling is strongly excited, finds its restraint extremely difficult. 
He should marry young, and his first love, if possible, especially if concen 
trativeness is large, because this feeling will be too powerful to be trifled 
with or easily diverted, and hard to govern. With adhesiveness also large, 
he will mingle pure friendship with devoted love ; " cannot flourish alone," 
but will be inclined to love and marry young, and be susceptible of ardent 
and intense connubial attachment ; will invest the object of it with almost 
superhuman purity and perfection ; magnify their personal charms and 
their moral and intellectual qualities, and overlook defects in either ; be de» 
lighted in their company, but unhappy when deprived of it ; fully un- 
bosoms every feeling, communicating and sharing every pain and pleasure, 
and having the whole current of the other faculties enlisted in their behalf : 
with ideality large or very large, and the mental apparatus predominant, will 
experience a fervour, elevation, intensity, and ecstasy of love, which will 
render it wellnigh romantic, especially the first love ; fasten upon mental 
and moral, more than personal charms, or rather blending the two ; can fall 
in love only with one who combines beauty of person with refinement, gen- 
teel manners, and great delicacy of feeling ; be easily disgusted with what 
is coarse, vulgar, improper, or not in good taste, in the person, dress, man- 
ners, expressions, &c, of the other sex, but equally pleased with the oppo- 
site qualities ; express his love in a refined, delicate, and acceptable manner ; 
be rather sentimental, fond of love tales, romances, sentimental poetry, &e. 
but if ideality be moderate or small, and the motive temperament predo- 
minant, will be the reverse ; with philoprogenitiveness also large, will be 
eminently qualified to enjoy the domestic relations of companion and parent, 
and take his chief delight in the bosom of his family, seldom straying from 
home unless compelled to ; and with inhabitiveness also large, will travel 
half the night to be at home the balance, and sleep poorly anywhere else : 
with firmness and conscientiousness large or very large, will be faithful and 
constant in his love, keeping the marriage relations inviolate, and regarding 
them as the most sacred feelings belonging to our nature ; with combative- 
ness large, will protect the object of his love with great spirit, resenting 
forcibly any indignity or scandal offered to their person or character • with 
adhesiveness and alimentivoness large, will doubly enjoy the meal taken with 
his family or loved one : with adhesiveness and approbativeness large 01 
very large, will praise them, like to hear them praised, and to be commended 
by them, and cut to the heart by their reproaches ; and if self-esteem is only 
moderate or small, and ideality large, too ready to follow the fashions de- 
manded by the other sex, (a combination too common in women,) and too 
fearful lest they should incur their censure : with secretivencss and cau- 
tiousness large or very large, will feel much more atfection than express, 
affecting comparative indifference, especially at first, and until the other 
■ide is fully committed, and perhaps not bring matters to a crisis till it is 
too iate ; but with secretiveneae moderate, will throw wide open the portal* 



of his heart, showing in his eye, his looks, and actions, all the love he fe lsj 
2Vii.ii adhesiveness, self-esteem, and firmness large or very large, though hia 
?ove may be powerful, he will not allow it to subdue him, nor humble him- 
self to gratify it, and bear its interruDtion with fortitude : but with self* 
esteem moderate or small, will break down sooner under blighted love . 
with a moderate or average sized head and causality, the vital mental tern- 
perament predominant, and adhesiveness, approbativer.ess, and ideality- 
large or very large, will prefer the company of the beautiful, accomplished, 
fashionable, dressy, gay, and superficial of the other sex, and love to talk 
small talk with them : with the moral organs predominant, will choose the 
virtuous, devout and religious : with the intellectual organs large or very 
large, can love only those who are intellectual, sensible, and literary, and 
almost adore them, but is disgusted with the opposite class : with the vital 
temperament predominant, ideality large or very large, causality only 
average, and conscientiousness moderate or small, will be less particular aa 
to their morals than their personal charms, and if concentrativeness is small, 
will lOTt the pretty face and figure best that he sees last, and have an attach 
ment ny no means exclusive, courting many, rather than being satisfied 
with individual attachment, and being strongly inclined to the animal grati- 
fication of this faculty ; and with large language, individuality, eventuality, 
and mirthfulness added, will take great delight in joking with and about the 
opposite sex ; often be indelicate in his allusions ; fond of hearing and re- 
lating obscene anecdotes about them, and of vulgar prints ; and with large 
tune added, of singing love songs of an objectionable character, if not prone 
to revelry and pn'iiigacy, and extremely liable to pervert this faculty, 
with adhesivener; and conscientiousness only moderate or average, and ac- 
quisitiveness, or very large, will marry quite as much for money or 
animal gratifi ation, as for connubial love, especially if his first attachment 
has been in» erupted : with an active temperament and large firmness, con* 
scientiousi jss, and cautiousness, will experience powerful temptations, yet 
resist the' 1 ; but with only moderate secretiveness and conscientiousness, and 
cautious .ess only full, will hardly be a Joseph, and should never trust to his 
resolu' on ; but if conscientiousness and approbativeness are large, in case 
he d' as yield, he will suffer the deepest shame, remorse, and penitence. 

7ne reverse of any of these combinations will produce opposite qualities. 

/ ery Large. One having this organ very large experiences its power 
a 1 d intensity to an almost ungovernable extent; is even passionately fond 
f the other sex ; should by all means be married; will place the highest 
Estimate upon them, and experience the feelings described under amative* 
ness large, and under those combinations which exist in his head, in a still 
higher degree of intensity and power, so that, making due allowances for 
*He increase of this feeling, he will read his character in this respect under 
this organ large, selecting those combinations which are found in his head. 

Moderate, will be rather deficient, though not palpably so, in love and 
attentions to the opposite sex ; with adhesiveness large, have more platonic 
affection and pure friendship than animal feeling ; with activity great, 
more ardour and excitability of this feeling than power, and be disgusted 
with vulgarity. This combination predominates in women. 

Shall, feels little connubial or sexual love, or desire to marry ; is less 
polite and interesting, and moie cold, coy, distant, reserved, &c , than one 
with this organ large, and the leverse of his description : p 59, e. '^S. 31. 

Vebt BMAr.L, is passively continent, never experiencing this> feeling : p. 80 


Si : Parental love ; attachment tc one's own off' 
spring ; love of children generally, of pets, animals, <£c. 
"To rear the tender thought, to teach the young idea how to shoot." 

Adaptation. For aught we know, man, like the fabled Minerva from 
the brain of Jupiter, might have been brought forth in the full possession of all 
his faculties both physical and mental, capable, from the first moment of 
his earthly existence, of taking care of himself and supplying his every 
want. But the fact is otherwise. He enters the world in a condition utter- 
ly helpless, and, but for the greatest parental care and anxiety, every infant 
child must inevitably perish, and our race soon become extinct. To this a. 
rangement or state of things, philoprogenitiveness is adapted, nor can any 
other element of man's nature accomplish the end attained by this faculty. 
The infant cannot be regarded as a friend, and therefore adhesiveness can- 
not be exercised upon it. Causality might devise the means requisite for its) 
relief but would not lift a finger towards executing them ; benevolence might 
do something, yet it would be far too little for their physical salvation or their 
mental and moral culture. How often do we find persons very benevolent 
to adults, but cruel to children. These vexatious and expensive little crea- 
tures are far more likely to array combativeness and destructiveness and ac- 
quisitiveness against them than benevolence or any other faculty in their 
favour : so that if parents had no faculty adapted exclusively to the nursing 
and training of offspring, their burden would be too intolerable to be sub- 
mitted to, whereas this faculty renders them the dearest of all objects to pa- 
rents, their richest treasure, their greatest delight, and an object for which 
they live and labour and suffer more than for any other, casting into the 
shade all the toil and trouble and expense which they cause, and lacerating 
the parent's heart with the bitterest of pangs when death or space tears 
the parent and child asunder. 

The numberless attentions demanded by the helpless condition of child- 
ren, require a much more vigorous action of the other faculties in their fa- 
vour than is demanded in reference to adults. Without the influence 
of philoprogenitiveness, the scales would be turned against them, whereas 
now, by exciting combativeness and cautiousness in their defence and pro- 
tection ; by awakening causality to plan and benevolence to execute ways and 
means for their relief ; by stimulating acquisitiveness to accumulate the means 
of educating and adorning them, it sets all the other faculties at work in 
their behalf. 

Moreover, the duties and relations of the mother to her offspring require 
a much greater endowment of this faculty in her than in the father, and ac- 
cordingly, we find much larger philoprogenitiveness in the female head than 
in the male. This adaptation of the organ in woman to the far greater 
power of the passion, and of both to the far greater demand made upon her 
by her offspring, is certainly an important evidence of the truth of phre- 

Average. One having philoprogenitiveness average, will take consider- 
able interest in children, especially when they begin to walk and prattle, 
and if a parent, exert, himself strenuously to provide for them ; place a high 
but reasonable value upon them; be sufficiently tender of them, yet not 
foolishly fond or indulgent ; be pleased with good cl ildren, yet not bear much 
fitorn those that arc troublesome ; and whilst be will value his own children 
higtiiy, and bear considerably from them, he will not care much about thoaa 
, of others oi bear much from them. 



One having philoprogenitiveness average, with adhesiveness large eg 
very large, will not manifest great fondness for infants, yet when his own 
children are capable of being made companions and friends, will prize them 
highly : with combativeness and destructiveness larger than philoprogeni 
tiveness, though tolerably fond of good children, will not bear with their 
mischief or childish whims, or their noise, and hence often scold if not pun- 
ish them : with well developed intellectual organs, will labour for their in- 
tellectual improvement, and give them good advantages fcr education : with 
the moral organs large, will seek their moral and religious improvement, 
and watch their moral conduct : with adhesiveness, benevolence, firmness, 
conscientiousness, and the reasoning organs large or very large, combative- 
ness and self-esteem at least full, will like children well, yet be far from 
spoiling them by over indulgence, and generally secure their obedience, yet 
not treat them with severity : with very large conscientiousness, will not , 
make sufficient allowance for their childishness, but censure their little 
thoughtless mischief as though it were a premeditated wrong, &c. 

Full. The descriptions and combinations under philoprogenitiveness 
full will be found under this organ average, the reader making due allowance 
for the increased influence of philoprogenitiveness, and will be a medium 
between those of this organ average and large. 

Lahge. One having philoprogenitiveness large, if a parent, takes a 
deep and lively interest in his children ; enjoys their company and childish 
sports, and perhaps often mingles with them ; easily gains their good will 
by paying them little attentions, and is thus the better qualified to govern 
and educate them; values his children above all price; cheerfully submits 
to parental care and toil ; spare no pains for them ; eagerly watches around 
their sick bed, regrets their absence, and experiences poignant grief at their 
loss ; if concentrativeness be also large or very large, will pore incessantly over 
that loss for years, but with concentrativeness moderate or small, though he 
will feel their loss keenly whenever he thinks of it, will be occasionally re- 
lieved by a change of occupation or subject of feeling : with combativeness, 
destructiveness and self-esteem full or large, and adhesiveness, benevo- 
lence, conscientiousness, firmness and the reasoning organs large or very 
large, corrects his children when their own good, and not his caprice, de- 
mands it; governs them by moral suasion mainly, and employs physical 
punishment only as a last resort ; is kind yet strict, fond yet not over-indul- 
gent; gratifies his children whenever he can do so without injuring them, 
but no farther, and is well qualified to discharge the duties of aparent: with 
the moral organs generally large or very large, regards their moral cha- 
racter and standing as of primary importance, and faithfully reproves their 
faults, &c; if a professor of religion, will interest himseif in institutions cal- 
culated to improve the morals of children, such as Sabbath-schools, Bible 
classes, &c, and with large cautiousness added, will have much anxiety 
touching this point : with the intellectual organs large or very large, will do 
his utmost to cultivate their intellects, and give them every advantage in his 
power for acquiring knowledge, with an active temperament, say the sanguine 
nervous, a moderate or average size brain, and large or very large comba- 
tiveness and destructiveness, and moderate or average causality, secretive 
ness and conscientiousness, will be by turns too indulgent and then 
woo severe ; pet them one minute and scold or punish them the next, 
not overlooking their childish foibles, and, with moderate or small stlf-esteem 
added, will fail to secure their respect or obedience, and allow them to tram- 
Die upon him with large or very large approbat. and ideal, added to tidier 



comb nation, will be. likely to educate them for show and effort rather than 
for usefulness ; to teach them the ornamental and fashionable, to the neglect 
of the more substantial, branches of learning ; to ornament their persona 
more than their minds, thus making them self-conceited fops and vain and 
gaudy belles, rather than useful members of society: but with a large brain, 
well developed moral and intellectual organs, and only average or full ide- 
ality and approbat., will seek their usefulness rather than their distinction , 
and give them an education more practical and substantial than ornamen- 
tal : with a full or large sized brain, and well developed moral and intellectua. 
organs, particularly large firmness, self-esteem, conscientiousness, individu- 
ality, eventuality, locality, form, language, order, calculation and comparison, 
will be eminently qualified for teaching scheol, and capable of both govern- 
ing and instructing them. 

This organ also fastens upon other objects of care and tenderness, such as 
domestic animals, particularly horses, dogs, cattle, birds, flower-pots, &c, 
creating in the farmer a love of rearing and feeding his live stock; in the 
hunter and man of leisure, a powerful attachment to his favourite horse 
and dog ; in the unmarried lady, a love of her kitten or lap dog or bird ; in 
the little girl, a fondness for her doll-babies, and with imitation and con- 
struct., skill in making and dressing them, &c. : combined with large or very 
large form, size, and ideality, this faculty admires the good points of a horse 
both of form and movement, and thus aids in matching and judging of 
horses, and with large acquisitiveness, leads to trading in them, (see acquis, 

Vert Large. One having philoprogenitiveness very large, will expe- 
rience the feelings described under this organ large but in the highest de* 
gree of intensity and power ; almost idolizes his children ; grieves immoder 
ately id their loss, refusing to be comforted, literally doting on and living for 
them ; with large or very large benevolence and only moderate or small de- 
etructiveness, can never correct children or see them punished, and with on- 
ly average causality, is in danger of spoiling them by petting and over-in- 
dulging - them : with very large approbativeness or self-esteem added, indulges 
parental vanity and conceit; prides himself upon his children, thinking them 
vastly smarter than those of others, and taking every opportunity to exhibit 
their attainments : with very large cautiousness, indulges a multitude of 
groundless apprehensions about them, always cautioning them, and thus 
likely to render the child either timid, or else disgusted with the foolish fears 
of the parent : with acquisitiveness moderate, makes them many presents, 
and is too ready to supply their every want, even though an artificial one : with 
large or very large moral and intellectual organs, whilst he indulges towards 
them indescribably tender parental fondness, will love them too weli to spoil 
them ; and love them, too, as intellectual and moral beings rather than as 
rrerely his children ; and employ his utmost powers in cultivating the 
higher and nobler qualities of man's nature, contemplating them with a fond- 
necs amounting to rapture. 

Moderate. One having this organ moderate, is not fond enough of child' 
Ten to bear much from them ; may love his own children, yet cares little lor 
those of others, and cannot please or take care of them, particularly of in- 
fants, nor endure to hear them cry, or make a noise, or disturb his 
Ihingii, and with an active temperament and full or large combativeness, i* 



yet with these organs large ; and combat, and destruct. only full, many do 
every thing necessary for their good, and never see them wronged or suffer. 
The combination and descriptions under philoprogenitiveness average will 
apply to this organ moderate, due allowance being made for the diminished 
influence of the feeliag. 
Small, feels little interest in even his own children, much less in those 
of others ; is liable to treat them unkindly : p. 64. c. 2b. 
Vert Small, has no parental love ; hates all children : p. 64. c. 30. 
8. 4* ADHESIVENESS.— Friendship ,■ social feeling ; love of society 
Average, is quite friendly, yet will not sacrifice much for friends. 
Full, is highly social, yet not remarkably warm-hearted : p. 66. c. 16. 
Large, is eminently social, an ardent, sincere friend ; enjoys friendly 
society extremely; forms strong, if not hasty, attachments : p. 65. c. 11. 
Vert Large, loves friends with indescribable tenderness and strength 
of feeling ; will sacrifice almost every thing upon the altar of friend- 
ship ; with amat. full or large, is susceptible of the most devoted con 
nubial love ; falls in iove easily : p. 65. c. 10. 14. 20. 21. 42. 
Moderate, loves friends some, yet self more ; quits friends often : p. 67, 
Small, is unsocial, cold-hearted, likes and is liked by few or none : p. 67, 
Vert Small, is a stranger to friendly social feeling : p. 67. c. 24. 32. 

4. 5. INHABITiVENESS. — Love of home as such ,- attachment to the 
place where one has lived ; unwillingness to change it ; patriotism. 
Average, forms some, though not strong, local attachments : c. 8. 12. 
Full, loves home well, yet does not grieve much on leaving it: p. 69. 
Large, soon becomes strongly attached to the place in which he lives 
loves home and country dearly ; leaves them reluctantly ; is unhappy 
without a home of his own: p. 68. 6. 12. 14. 15. 16. 21. 

Vert Large, regards home as the dearest, sweetest cpot on earth ; feels 
homesick when away; dislikes changing residences; is pre-eminently 
patriotic ; thinks of his native place with intense interest : p. 68. c. 5. 
Moderate, has some, but no great, regard for home as such : p. 69. c. 26 
Small or Vert Small, forms few local attachments ; cares little 
where he is ; makes any place home ; leaves and changes residents 
without regret: p. 69. *(The number according to Spurzheim.) 

5, CONCEiNTRATiVENESS. — Unity and continuity of thought md 
feeling; power of entire and concentrated application to one thing 
Average, possesses this power to some, though to no great, extent- 
Full, is disposed to attend to but one thing at once, ye; can tun? ra 
pidly from thing to thing; is neither disconnected nor prolix : p. 71. fr, 15/ 
Large, is able and inclined to apply his mind to one, and but one, sub- 
ject for the time being, till it is finished ; changes his mental operation* 
with difficulty ; is often prolix : p. 72. c. 12. 42. 

Vert Large, places his mind upon subjects slowly ; cannot leave them 

unfinished, nor attend to but one thing at once ; is very tedious ; ha 

great application, yet lacks intensity and point : p. 70. 

Moderate, loves and indulges variety and change of thought, feeling, 

occupation, &c. ; is not confused by them ; rather lacks application ; has 

intensity, but not unity, of the mental action : p. 71. c. 16. 

Small, craves novelty and variety , has little application ; tftinks and 

feels intensely, yet not long on any thing , jumps rapidly from premise 

to eoac usion ; fails to connect and carry out his ideas &c. : |»„ 71. 1. 14, 



Veht Small, is restless ; satisfied only by constant succession . p. 72 
This faculty is sui generis, and affects both feeling and intellect. 

SPECIES II. Selfish Propensities. These provide for the various 
animal wants ; have reference to the necessities, desires, and gratifications 
of their possessor ; and terminate upon his sensual interests and wants 
Large or Very Large, has strong animal desires ; is strongly tempted 
to gratify them ; prone to be selfish, unless the moral sentiments are still 
stronger ; and will take good care of number one : c. 8. 12. 14. 15. 16. 20. 
Moderate or Small, is not selfish enough ; easily trode upon ; need* 
to have some one to take care of him ; and cannot give himself up to 
low-lived, sensual pleasures : c. 10. 11. 12. 41. 

A. V1TATIVENESS. — Love of existence as such, dread of annihilation. 
Average, is attached to life, and fears death, yet not a great deal. 
Full, desires life, but not eagerly, from love of it and of pleasure : p. 74. 
Large, loves, and clings tenaciously to, existence, for its own sake; 
craves immortality and dreads annihilation, even though miserable : p. 74. 
Vert Large, however wretched, shrinks from, and shudders at the thought 
of, dying and beyig dead ; feels that he cannot give up existence : p. 74. 
Moderate, love3 life, yet is ©ot very anxious about living : p. 74. 
Small or Vert Small, heeds not life or death, existence or annihilation 

6. 6. COMBATIVENESS. — Feeling of resistance, defence, opposition ; 
boldness, willingness to encounter ; courage, resentment, spirit : p. 75. 
Average, is pacifick, but, when driven to it, defends his rights boldly 
avoids collision, strife, &c, yet, once excited, is quite forcible. 
Full, seldom either courts or shrinks from opposition ; when roused, ia 
quite energetick ; may be quick tempered, yet is not contentious : p. 78. 
Large, is resolute and courageous ; spirited and efficient as an oppo- 
nent ; quick and intrepid in resistance ; loves debate ; boldly meets, if 
he does not court, opposition: p. 75. c. 5. 15. 8. 16. 
Vert Large, is powerful in opposition ; prone to dispute, attack, &c. ; 
contrary ; has violent temper ; governs it with difficulty : p. 77. c. 12. 14. 
Moderate, avoids collision; is rather pacifick and inefficient: p. 78. 
Small, has feeble resistance, temper, force, &c. ; is cowardly : p. 79. 
Vert Small, withstands nothing ; is chickenhearted ; an arrant coward. 

T. I. DESTRUCTI VENESS. — Executiveness ; indignation,- force; 
severity ; sternness ; a destroying, pain-causing disposition : p. 82 
Average, has not really deficient, yet none too much, indignation. 19 
Full, can, but is loath to, cause or witness pain or death ; has sufficient 
severity, yet requires considerable to call it out : p. 83. c. 5. 11. 
Large, when excited, feels deep-toned indignation ; is forcible, and dis- 
posed to subdue or destroy the cause of his displeasure : p. 82. c. 5. 89. 
Vert Large, when provoked, is vindictive, cruel, disposed to hurt, take 
revenge, &c. ; bitter and implacable as an enemy; very forcible : p. 83 
c. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 24. 25. 26. 32. 33. 35. 42. 
Moderate, is mild ; not severe nor destructive enough ; when angry, 
lacks power ; can hardly cause or witness pain or death : p. 84. c. 10. 41. 
Small, would hardly hurt one if he could, or could if he would ; has 
so feeble anger that it is derided more than feared : p. 84. c. 21. 27. 
Vers Small, is unabie to cause, witness, or endure pain or death : c.48. 

8 * ALIMENTIVENESS. — Appetite for sustenance ; cause of hunger 
Average, enjoys food well, but not very well ; hence is particular : c. 41 
Full, has a good appetite, yet can govern it well » is not greedy: p.87 



Large, has an excellent appetite ; a heaity relish for food, drink, &c\ 
enjoys them much ; is a good liver; not dainty . p. 86. c. 5. 12. 14. 
Vert Large, sets too much by the indulgence of his palate; eats witb 
the keenest appetite ; perhaps " makes a god of his belly :" p. 87. c. 18 
Moderate, has not a good, nor very poor, but rather poor, appetite : p. 87 
Small or Vert Small, is dainty, mincing, particular about food ; eats 
with little relish ; hardly cares when he eats, or whether at all : p. 88. 
. 8. ACQUISITIVENESS. — Love of acquiring and possessing pro- 
perty as such ; desire to save, lay up, fyc; innate feeling of mine and 
thine, of a right to possess and dispose of things : p 9 <9. 
Average, loves money, but not greatly ; can make it, but spends freely. 
Full, sets by property, both for itself, and what it procures, yet is not 
penurious ; is industrious and saving, yet supplies his wants : p. 93. 
Large, has a strong desire to acquire property; is frugal; saving of 
money ; close and particular in his dealings ; devoted to money-making, 
trading, &c. ; generally gets the value of his money: p. 89. c. 5. 18. 
Vert Large, makes money his idol ; grudges it; is tempted to get it 
dishonestly ; penurious ; sordid ; covetous ; &c. : p. 92. c. 8. 9. 20. 26. 
Moderate, finds it more difficult to keep than make money ; desires it 
more to supply wants than lay up ; is hardly saving enough : p. 94. c. 7. 14 
Small, will generally spend what money he can get injudiciously, if not 
profusely ; lays up little ; disregards the prices of things : p. 95. c. 27. 41, 
Vert Small, cannot know nor be taught the value or use of money: p. 95, 

10. 7. SECRETIVENESS. — Desire and ability to secrete, conceal, <frc. 
Average, is not artful nor very frank; is generally open; can conceal. 
Full, can keep to himself what he wishes to, yet is not cunning : p. 99 
Large, seldom discloses his plans, opinions, &c. ; is hard to be found 
out ; reserved ; non-committal : p. 96. c. 5. 40. 

Vert Large, seldom appears what he is, or says what he means ; often 
equivocates and deceives ; is mysterious, dark, cunning, artful, given ta 
double-dealing, eye-service, &c. : p. 98. c. 8. 9. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17, 20 
25. 26. 22. 30. 31. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 

Moderate, is quite candid and open-hearted ; loves truth ; dislikes 
concealment, underhand measures, &c. ; seldom employs them: p. 100, 
Small, speaks out just what he thinks ; acts as he feels ; does not wist 
to learn or tell the secrets of others, yet freely tells his own ; is too plain 
spoken and candid : p. 101. c. 21. 27. 41. 

Vert Small, keeps nothing back ; has a transparent heart : p. 101. 
GEi^US III. Human, Moral, and Religious Sentiments : 102 
SPECIES I. Selfish Sentiments. In their character and objects, thest 
faculties partake more of the human, and less of the animal, than do tht 
selfish propensities, and although they terminate upon self, yet they hav 
no inconsiderable influence upon the moral character : p. 47. 103. c. 2 
Average or Full, has a respectable, though not great, regard for hi 
character, and desire to do something worthy of himself ': c. 21. 10. 11 
Large or Vert Large, thinks much of and about himself ; has a grea) 
amount of character of some kind : p. 51. c. 5. 6. 12. 14. 15. 16. IS. 40 
Moderate, Small, or Vert Small, has too little pride and weighs 
pf character and ambition to give manliness and efficiency : c. 20. 26. 

11. 10. CAUTIOUSNESS. — Carefulness ; provision against danger 
Average, has some caution, yet hardly enough for success e. 41. 
Full, has prudence and forethought! yet not too much : p. 105. c. 40 



Li hoe, is always watchful; on the look-out; careful; anxious; solici 
tous ; provident against real and imaginary danger, &c: p. 104. c. 5. 6. 15 
Vert Large, hesitates too much ; suffers greatly from groundless fears ; 
is timid, easily frightened, &c. : p. 105. c. 12. 13. 16. 17. 21. 26. 27. 31 
Moderate, is rather imprudent, hence unlucky ; liable to misfortunea 
caused by carelessness; plans too imperfectly for action: p. 106. 
Small, acts impromptu ; disregards consequences ; fears nothing ; ie 
imprudent; luckless, often in hot water: p. 106. 
Vert Small, is reckless, destitute of fear and forethought: p. 107. 
Circumspection. Propriety ; discreetness of expression and conduct 
Average or Full, has some, though none too much, discretion and 
propriety of expression and conduct ; sometimes speaks inconsiderately. 
Large or Vert Large, weighs well what he says and does; has « 
nice sense of propriety ; thinks twice before he speaks once. 
Mod br ate or Small, does and says indiscreet things : unascertained 
W. ll. APPROB AT1VENESS. — Sense of honour, regard for charac- 
ter; ambition,- love of 'popularity, fame, distinction, c\c. ; p. 107. 
Average, enjoys approbation, yet will not sacrifice much to obtain it. 
Full, desires and seeks popularity and feels censure, yet will neither 
deny nor trouble himself much to secure or avoid either: p. 110. 
Large, sets every thing by character, honour, &c. ; is keenly alive to 
the frowns and smiles of publick opinion, praise, &c. ; tries to show off 
to good advantage; is affable, ambitious, apt to praise himself: p. 108 
Vert Large, regards his honour and character as the apple of his eye ; 
is even morbidly sensitive to praise and censure ; over fond of praise, 
often feels ashamed, &c. ; extremely polite, ceremonious, &c. : p. 110, 
Moderate, feels reproach some, yet is little affected by popularity or 
unpopularity ; may gather the flowers of applause that are strewed in 
his path, yet will not deviate from it to collect them : p. 112. 
Small, cares little for popular frowns or favours; feels little shame; 
disregards and despises fashions, etiquette, <&c. ; is not polite: p. 112. 
Vert Small, cares nothing for popular favour or censure. 

'3. SELF-ESTEEM. Self-respect; high-toned, manly feeling ; innate 
love of personal liberty, independent, <f) C; pride of character ; p. 113. 
Average, respects himself, yet is not haughty : c. 21. 41. 
Full, has much self-respect ; pride of character ; independence : p. 116. 
Large, is high-minded, independent, self-confident, dignified, his own 
master ; aspires to be and do something worthy of himself ; assumes 
icsponsibilities ; does few little things : p. 114. c. 5. 6. 
Vert Large, has unbounded self-confidence; endures no restraint, 
takes no advice; is rather haughty, imperious, &c; p. 1 16. c. 8. 14. 15. ldw 
Moderate, has some self-respect, and manly feeling, yet too little to 
give ease, dignity, weight of character, &c. ; is too trifling: p. 116. c. 28 
Small, feels too unworthy ; says and does trifling thin " 5 ; puts him- 
self on a par; is not looked up to ; undervalues himself: p. 117. c. 11. 
Vert Small, is servile, low-minded : destitute of self-respect : p. 117 

14. .5. FIRMNESS. — Decision, stability, fixedness of character, c^e. 119. 
Average, has some decision, yet too little for general success : c. 10. 20 
Full, has perseverance enough for ordinary occasions, yet too little for 

f'eat enterprises; is neither fickle nor stubborn : p. 121. c. 21. 27. 
arge, may be fully relied on ; is set in his own way ; hard to be con- 
vinced or changed at all ; holds on long and h<*rd : p. 119. c 6. 



Vert Largi., is wilful ; and so tenacious and unchangeable of opi 
nion, purpose, &c, that he seldom gives up any thing : p. 120. c. 5. 8. 
12. 14. 15. 16. 17. 

Moderate, gives over too soon ; changes too often and too easily ; thua 
fails to effect what greater firmness would do : p. 122. c. 11. 26. 
Small on Very Small, lacks perseverance ; is too changeable and 
vacillating to effect much, or be relied upon : p. 122. 

SPECIES II. Moral awd Religious Sextimexts. These renda 
man a moral, accountable, and religious being ; humanize, adorn, and 
elevate his nature ; connect him with the moral government of God , 
create the higher and nobler sentiments of our nature ; and are the origin 
of goodness, virtue, moral principle and purity, &c. : p. 48. 123. c. 2. 
Average or Full, has moral feeling and principle, yet too little U 
withstand large or very large propensities : c. 8. 15. 21. 
Ljsrge or Vert Large, is morally inclined ; sentimental ; thinks and 
feels much on moral and religious subjects, &c: p. 52. c. 5. 6. 7. 11. 41. 
Moderate, Small, or Vert Small, has not strong moral or religious 
feelings; lets his larger faculties rule him: p. 52. c. 14. 17. 20. 26.42. 

15. 16. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS. — Innate feeling of duty, accounta- 
bility, justice, right, Sfc. ,■ moral principle ,• love of truth : p. 124. 
Average, has right intentions, but their influence is limited : c. 15. 
Full, strives to do right, yet sometimes yields to temptation ; resists 
besetting sins, but may be overcome, and then feels remorse : p. 130. c. 27. 
Large, is honest ; fiu/^ful ; upright at heart ; moral in feeling ; grate- 
ful ; penitent ; means well ; consults duty before expediency ; loves and 
means to speak the truth ; cannot tolerate wrong : p. 126. c. 13. 25. 11. 
Vert Large, is scrupulously exact in matters of right ; perfectly honest 
in motive ; always condemning self and repenting ; very forgiving, con- 
scientious, &c. ; makes duty every thing, expediency nothing : p. 129. 
Moderate, has considerable regard for duty in feeling, but less in prac- 
tice ; justifies himself ; is not very penitent, grateful, or forgiving ; often 
temporizes with principle ; sometimes lets interest rule duty : p. 131. 
Small, has few conscientious scruples ; little penitence, gratitude, re* 
gard for moral principle, justice, duty, &c. : p. 132. c. 20. 16. 17. 42. 
Vert Small, neither regards nor feels the claims of duty or justice. 

5S. 17. HOPE. — Anticipation; expectation of future happiness, success,Sfc. 
Average, has some, but generally reasonable, hopes; is seldom elated, 
Full, is quite sanguine, yet realizes about what he expects : p. 139. 
Large, expects, attempts, and promises a great deal ; is generally san- 
guine, cheerful, &c. ; rises above present troubles ; though disappointed, 
hopes on still ; views the brightest side of prospects : p. 137. c. 5. 6. 26. 
Vert Large, has unbounded hopes ; builds a world of castles in tha 
air ; fives in the future ; has too many irons in the fire : p. 138. c. 12. 13i 
Moderate, expects and attempts too little ; succeeds beyond his hope* ; 
is prone to despond ; looks on the darker side : p. 139. 
Small, is low-spirited ; easily discouraged ; fears the worst , sees many 
lions in his way ; magnifies evils ; lacks enterprise: p. 140. c. 17. 
Vert Small, expects nothing good ; has no hope of the future : p. 140 
7 18. MARVELLOUSNESS. — Belief in the supernatural creauhty 
Average, believes some but not much, in wonders, forewa rnings, &c 


Pen., is open to conviction ; rather credulous ; believes in spirits, divine 

Erovidences and forewarnings, the spiritual, &c. : p. 143. 
,arge, believes and delights in the supernatural, in dreams, and fhe[like • 
thinks many natural things supernatural: p. 142. c. 8. 12. 
Vert Large, is very superstitious ; regards most things with wonder. 
Moderate, believes but little that cannot be accounted for, yet is open 
to conviction ; is incredulous, but listens to evidence : p. 144. 
Small, is convinced only by the hardest ; believes nothing till he seea 
facts, or why and wherefore, not even revelation farther than a reason 
is rendered ; is prone to reject new things without examination : p. 145. 
Vert Small, is skeptical ; believoc little else than his senses : p. 146. 
28. 14. VENERATION. — The feeling of worship for a Supreme Being : 
respect for religion and things sacred, and for superiors : p. 147. 
Average, may feel religious worship, yet little respect for men. 10. 
Full, is capable of much religious fervour and devotion, yet is not habi- 
tually serious ; generally treats his fellow men civilly : p. 149. c. 1 1. 42. 
Large, loves to adore and worship God, especially through his works; 
treats equals with respect, and superiors with deference : p. 148. c. 6. 
Vert Large, is eminent, if not pre-eminent, for piety, heart-felt dev> 
tion, religious fervour, seriousness, love of divine things, &c. : p. 149. 
c. 5. 12. 15. 16. 26. 41. 

Moderate, disregards religious creeds, forms of worship, &c. ; places 
religion in other things ; is not serious nor respectful : p. 150. c. 21. 
Small, feels little religious worship, reverence, respect, &c. : p. 150 
Vert Small, seldom, if ever, adores God ; is almost incapable of it. 
1 9. 13. BENE VOLEIs CE. Desire to see and make sentient beings happy,- 
willingness to sacrifice for this end; kindness; sympathy for distress. 
Average, has kind, fellow feeling, without much active benevolence. 
Full, has a fair share of sympathetick feeling, and some, though no 
great, willingness to sacrifice for others: p. 158. 

Large, is kind, obliging, glad to serve others, even to his injury ; feels 
lively sympathy for distress ; does good to all : p. 155. c. 6. 7. 18. 21. 
Vert Large, does all the good in his power ; gladly sacrifices self upon 
the altar of pure benevolence ; scatters happiness wherever he goes ; is 
one of the kindest-hearted of persons : p. 157. c. 5. 10. I 1 40. 41. 
Mouerate, has some benevolent feeling, yet too little to prompt to much 
self-denial ; does good only when he can without cost : p. 158. c. 12. 20 
Small, feels little kindness or sympathy ; is almost deaf to the cries of 
distress; hard-hearted, selfish, &c. : p. 159. c. 8. 14. 15. 20. 42. 
Vert Small, is destitute of all humanity and sympathy : p. 159. c. 24. 

SPECIES III. Semi-Intellectual Sentiments. By creating a taste 
for the arts, improvements, polite literature, the refinements and elegancies 
of life, &c, these faculties greatly augment human happiness, and adorn 
and elevate human nature : p. 48. 159. c. 2. Large in c. 6. 11. 18. 

». 9. CONSTRUCTIVEXESS. Mechanical dexterity and ingenuity ; 
desire and ability to use tools, build, invent, employ machinery, fyc. 
Average, has some, yet no great, relish for, and tact in, using tools. 
Full, has fair mechanical ingenuity, yet no great natural talent or desire 
to make things-, with practice, will do well; without it, little : p. 163. 
Large, shows great natural dexterity in using tools, executing media* 
nical operations, working machinery, &c. ; loves them: jp. lfil. c. 18 



Vert Large, is a mechanick of the firs order ; a true genius ; lovea 
too well tc leave it; shows extraordinary skill in it: p. 162. c. 7. 19. 
Moderate, with much practice, may use tools quite well, yet dislikes 
mechanical operations; owes more to art than nature : p. 163. c. 14. 
Small, hates and is awkward and bungling in using tools, &c. : p. 163. 
Vert Small, has no mechanical skill or desire : p. 164. 

SI. 19. IDEALITY. — Imagination; taste ,■ fancy f love of perfection y 
poetry, polite literature, oratory, the beautiful in nature and art, t$c. 
Average, has some taste, though not enough to influence him much. 
Full, has refinement of feeling, expression, &c, without sickly delicacy , 
some love of poetry, yet not a vivid imagination : p. 1 68. c. 6. 7. 42. 
Large, has a lively imagination ; great love of poetry, eloquence, fiction, 
good style, the beauties of nature and art : p. 166. c. 11. 18. 41. 
Vert Large, often gives reins to his erratick imagination ; experiences 
revellings of fanc} r , ecstasy, raptuie of feeling, enthusiasm : p. 167. c. 40, 
Moderate, has some, but not much, imagination ; is rather plain in 
expression, manners, feeling, &c. ; dislikes poetry, finery, &c. : p. 168. 42 
Small, lacks taste, niceness, refinement, delicacy of feeling, &c. : p. 169, 
Vert Small, is destitute of the qualities ascribed to this faculty: p. 169. 

li SUBLIMITY. — Conception of grandeur ,• sublime emotions excited 
by contemplating the vast, magnificent, or splendid in nature or art. 
Average, sometimes, but not to a great degree, experiences this feeling. 
Full, enjoys magnificent scenes well, yet not remarkably so. 
Large, admires and enjoys mountain scenery, thunder, lightning, tem- 
pest, a vast prospect, &c, exceedingly ; hence, enjoys travelling: p. 249. 
Vert Large, is a passionate admirer of the wild and romantick; feels 
the sublimest emotions whilst contemplating the grand or awful in na- 
ture ; dashing, foaming, roaring cataracts, towering mountains, peals of 
thunder, flashes of lightning, commotions of the elements, the starry 
canopy cf heaven, &c. : p. 249. c. 11. 40. 41. 

Moderate, he" some, though not at all vivid, emotions of this kind. 
Small, or ter Small, discovers little in nature to awaken this feeling. 

t2. 21. IMITATION. — Disposition and ability to take pattern, imitate 
Average, copies some, yet too little to deserve or excite notice. 
Full, with effort, copies some, but not well ; cannot mimick; p. 171 
Large, has a great propensity and ability f o cepy, take pattern from 
others, do what he sees done, &c. ; needs but one showing ; gesticulates 
much ; describes and acts out well : p. 170. c. 41. 
Vert Large, can mimick, act out, and copy almost any thing; de- 
scribe, relate anecdotes, &c, to the very life; has a theatrical taste an-J 
talent; seldom speaks without gesturing: p. 171. c. 11. 40. 
Moderate, cannot mimick ai all ; can copy, draw, take pattern, &«, 
only with difficulty; describes, relates anecdote, &c, poorly: p. 171. 
Small, dislikes and fails to copy, draw, do after others, &c. : p. 172 
Vert Small, has little ability to imitate or copy any thing: p. 172. 

23. 20. MIRTHFULNESS;— Intuitive perception of the absurd ana 
ridiculous ; a joking, fun-making, ridiculing disposition and ability. 
Average, perceives jokes, and relishes fun, out cannot make much. 
Full, has much mirthful feeling ; makes and relishes jokes well : p. 175. 
Large, has a quick, keen perception of the ludicrous ; makes a great 
amount of fun ; too much for his own good ; is quick at repartee ; smiles 
often ; laughs heartily at joke*: p. 173. c. 11 18 



Vbbt Large, is quick and apt at turning every thing into ridicule , 
throws off constant sallies of wit ; is too facetious, jocose, &c. : p. 1 75. c. 6. 
Moderate, has some witty ideas, yet lacks quickness in conceiving, 
and tact in expressing them ; is generally quite sober : p. 176. c. 26. 
Small, makes little fun ; is slow to perceive, and still slower to turn 
joke»; seldom laughs; thinks it wrong to do so: p. 177. 
Very Small, has few if any witty ideas or conceptions : p. 177. 
GENUS III. Intellectual Faculties. These have to do with the 
physical and the metaphysical world ; with things in general, and there 
qualities, relations, &c. ; with the world and its contents : p. 49. 177. c 2. 
Average or Full, has sufficient intellect to get along in the world, 
yet not enough to render him eminent for talents : c. 10. 15. 21, 27. 
Large, is possessed of sufficient natural talent and power of intellect 
to enable him to take a high intellectual stand among men, yet their 
direction depends upon other causes : c. 18. 

Vert Large, is by nature a truly great man ; possesses the highest 
order of natural talents ; is capable of rising to pre-eminence : c. 5. 6. 

Moderate or Small, shows little talent , lacks sense : c. 8. 14. 20. 42. 
SPECIES I. The Senses ; sensation, sight, hearing, taste, smell. 178. 
SPECIES II. — Observing and Knowing Faculties. These bring 
man into direct intercourse with the physical world ; observe facts of 
all kinds, that is, the conditions, qualities, phenomena, and physical 
relations of material things : collect and treasure up information ; creata 
the desire to see and know things, &c. : p. 50. 183. c. 2. 
Average or Full, possesses fair perceptive powers : c. 6. 10. 11. 21. 
Large, with advantages, knows a great deal about matters and things 
in general ; is very quick of observation and perception ; has a practical, 
matter-of-fact, common sense tact and talent ; can show off to excellent 
advantage ; appear to know all that he really does, and perhaps more 
is capable of becoming an excellent scholar, or of acquiring and retaining 
knowledge with great facility, and attending to the details of business • 
and has a decidedly practical intellect: p. 50. c. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 25. 
Vert Large, is pre-eminent for the qualities just described ; seizes as 
if by intuition upon the properties, conditions, fitness or unfitness, value, 
&c, of things ; has wonderful powers of observation and ability to 
acquire knowledge ; has a natural taste and talent for examining and 
collecting statistics, studying natural science, &c. : p. 53. c. 5. 7. 12. 40. 
Moderate or Small, is rather slow of observation and perception , 
cannot show to be what he is ; acquires knowledge with difficulty , 
is slow in learning and doing things off-hand, &c. : p. 53. 
ii. 22. Individuality — Observing and individualizing power and 
desire ; curiosity to see and know ; disposition to specify, personify 
Average, has some, yet no great, curiosity, and desire to see things. 
Full, has fair observing powers, and desire to see things : p. 185. c. 6. 21 , 
Large, has a great desire to know, investigate, examine, experience, 
&c. ; is a great observer of men and things ; quick of perception ; seea 
what is transpiring, what should be done, &c: p. 184. c 8. 10. 11. 14. 25, 
Vert Large, has an insatiable desire to see and know every thing/ 
extraordinary observing powers; is eager to witness every passing 
event: p. 185. c 5 7. 12. 13. 15 22 23. 40. 41. 42. 


Moderate, is rather deficient, yet not palpably so, in observing powei 
and desire ; not sufficiently specifick: p. 185. 
Small, is slow to see things ; attends little to particulars : p. 186. 
Vert Small, sees scarcely any thing; regards things in the gross: p. 186 

25. 23. FORM. — Cognizance and recollection of shape, or configuration. 
Average, recollects forms, faces, &c, quite well, but not very well. 
Full, recognises persons, countenances, &c, well: p. 188. c. 9. 19. 
Large, notices, and for a long time remembers, the faces, countenances, 
forms, looks, &c, of persons, beasts, things, &c, once seen ; knows by 
sight many whom he may be unable to name : p. 187. c. 6. 18. 40. 26 
Vert Large, never forgets the countenance, form, &c, of persons and 
things seen; easily learns to read and spell correctly; reads and sees things 
at a great distance; has excellent eyesight: p. 188. c. 5. 7. 13. 17. 23. 39. 
Moderate, must see persons several times before he can recollect them •, 
sometimes doubts whether he has seen certain persons : p. 189. 
Small or Vert Small, has a miserable memory of persons, looks, 
shape, &c. ; fails to recognise even those he sees often : p. 189. 

26. SIZE. — Cognizance and knowledge of relative magnitude, bulk,d[C 
Average, measures bulk with tolerable, but not great, accuracy : c. 21. 27. 
Full, can measure ordinary and familiar distances well, yet shows no 
remarkable natural talent in it : p. 191. c. 6. 8. 9. 10. 14. 18. 
Large, has an excellent eye for measuring proportion, size, height, 
angles, perpendiculars, &c. ; quickly detects disproportions in them 
p. 190. c. 11. 19. 25. 42. 

Vert Large, detects disproportion, and judges of size, with wonderful 
accuracy, by intuition, and as well without as with instruments ; cannot 
endure inaccuracy : p. 1 91. c. 5. 7. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17. 40. 
Moderate, is rather deficient in measuring by the eye ; with practice, 
may do tolerably well in short, but fails in long, distances : p. 191. 
Small, judges of relative size, &c, very inaccurately : p. 191. c. 28. 29 
Vert Small, can hardly distinguish mountains from molehills : p. 192. 

27. "WEIGHT. — Intuitive perception and application of the principles 
of specifick gravity, projectile forces, momentum, balancing, resistance, 
Average, balances himself tolerably well in ordinary cases, yet has n€ 
great natural talent in this respect: c. 21. 27. 

Full, keeps his centre of gravity well, but ventures little : p. 194. 
Large, can walk on a high or narrow place ; hold a steady hand ; thro\1 
a stone or ball, and shoot, straight ; ride a fractious horse, &c, verj 
well : p. 193. c. 16. 17. 25. 26. 40. 41. 

Vert Large, has this power to a wonderful extent : p. 194. c. 7. 1 3. 15 
Moderate, maintains his centre of gravity, &c, rather poorly : p. 194 
Small or Vert Small, is unlike one with weight large : p. 195. c.2C 
18. 26. COLOUR. — Perception and recollection of colours, hues, tints, <$•£ 
Average, can discern and recollect colours, yet seldom notices them. 
Full, with practice, compares and judges of colours well ; without it, doea 
not excel: p. 196. c. 10. 11.41. 

Large, has a natural taste and talent for comparing, arranging, mingling, 
applying, and recollecting colours ; is delighted with paintings: p. 195 
Vert Large, resembles one with colour large, but excels him : p. 196, 
Moderate, aided by practice, can discern and compare colours, yet owe* 
less to nature than art ; seldom notices colours unless obliged to, and 
then soon forgets them '. 30 1 97 c 20 



8k ail, seldom observes the colour of one's hair, eyes, dress, &c. ; tan 
not describe them by what they wear, or compare colouis apart ; hardy? 
distinguishes the primary colours by candlelight, much less shades : p. 197 
Veby Small, can tell white from black, but do little more: p. 197. c. 1 
29. 28. ORDER. System physical arrangement ; a place for thkigs 
Avebage, appreciates order, yet not enough to keep it : c. 9. 10. 27 
Fcel, likes order ; takes much pains to keep things arranged : p. 20& 
Large, has a place for things, and things in their places ; can find, even 
in the dark, what he alone uses ; is systematick ; annoyed by disorder . 
p. 199. c. 6. 11. 15. 19. 40. 41. 

Very Large, is very precise and particular to have every little thing in 
its place ; literally tormented by disorder ; is fastidious : p. 199. c. 5. 7 
Moderate, likes, but does not keep order ; allows confusion : p. 201. 
Small or Very Small, is nearly destitute of order and system : p. 201 
JM). 29. CALCULATION. — Intuitive perception of the relations of num. 
bers ; ability to reckon figures in the head ; numerical computation. 
Average, by practice and rules, may reckon figures quite well : c. 10. 
Full, aided by rules and practice, may excel in reckoning figures, and 
do well in his head, but not without them : p. 204. c. LI. 27. 
Large, can add, subtract, divide, &c, in his head, with facility and 
correctness ; become a rapid, correct accountant ; delights and excels in 
vithmetick: p. 202. c. h. 13. 15. 19. 

f ery Large, has an intuitive faculty, to a wonderful extent, of reckoning 
«jven complicated sums of figures in his head ; delights in it: p. 203. c. 7 
Moderate, does sums in his head rather slowly and inaccurately : p. 204. 
Small, is dull and incorrect in adding, dividing, &c. ; dislikes it : p. 205. 
Very Small, can hardly count, much less go farther : p. 205. c. 2S. 29. 
31. 27. LOCALITY. Cognizance and recollection of relative position, looks 
and geography of places. 3(c.; desire to travel, see the world. <$rc.: p. 205. 
Average, has a fair, though not excellent, recollection of places : c. 27 
Fcll, remembers places well, yet is liable to lose himself in a city or 
forest ; ordinarily shows no deficiency ; seidom loses himself: p. 207. c. 8, 
Large, recollects distinctly the looks of places, where he saw things 
&c. ; seldom loses himself, even in the dark ; has a strong desire tc 
travel, see places, &c. : p. 205. c. 20. 25. 26. 

Very Large, never forgets the looks, location, or geography of anj 
place, or hardly thing, he has ever seen ; is even passionately fond of 
travelling, scenery, geography, &c. : p. 206. c. 5, 7. 12. 13. 16. 17. 40. 
Moderate, recollects places rather poorly ; sometimes gets lost : p. 207 
Small or Very Small, has little geographical or local knowledge o 
recollection ; seldom observes where he goes, or finds his way back : p. 208 

SPECIES III. Semi-perceptive Faculties. These have to do tvitk 
action or phenomena, and their conditions, and deal them out to th-) 
reasoning faculties : p. 50. 209. Large in c. 5. 7. 17 ; small in 6. 25, 

9i. 30. EVENTUALITY. — Recollection of actions, phenomena, occur 
rences, what has taken place, circumstantial and historical facts : p. 209 
Average, has neither a good nor bad memory of occurrences, &c; c. 8 
Full, recollects leading events, and interesting particulars, and has a 
good memory of occurrences, yet forgets less important details: p. 212 
Large, has a clear and retentive memory of historical facts, general news 
what he has seen, heard, read, &c, even in detail : p. 210. c. 5. 10. 16 
Very Large, nevei forgets any occurrence, even though it is trifling 


has a craving thirst for informatiori and experimen . literally devour 
books, newspapers, &c. ; commands an astonishing amount of informa- 
tion; p. 211. c. 12. 13. 14. 20. 

Moderate, recollects generals, not details ; is rather forgetful: p. 212. c. 6. 
Small, has a treacherous, confused memory of occurrences : p. 213. '» 
Very Small, forgets almost every thing, generals as well as particulars. 

83. 31. TIME. — Cognizance and recollection of succession, the lapse of 
time, dates, how long ago things occurred, <£c. .• p. 214. 
Average, notices and remembers dates, times, &c, some, but not well. 
Full, recollects about, but not precisely, when things occurred : p. 216 
Large, tells dates, appointments, ages, time of day, &c, well : p. 215. 
Very Large, remembers, with wonderful accuracy, the time of occur- 
rences ; is always punctual ; tells the time, day, &c, by intuition: p. 216. 
Moderate, has rather a poor idea of dates, the time ivhen, &c. : p. 216. 
Small, can seldom tell when things took place ; is not punctual : p. 217. 
Very Small, is liable to forget even his age, much more other things. 

34. 32. TUNE. — Tone,- sense of melody and musical harmony ; ability 
to learn tunes and detect chord and discord by ear propensity to sing 
Average, likes music ; with practice may perform tolerably well. 
Full, can learn tunes by ear well, yet needs help from notes : p. 220. 
Large, easily catches tunes, and learns to sing and play on instruments 
by rote ; delights greatly in singing ; has a correct musical ear : p. 218, 
Very Large, learns tunes by hearing them sung once or twice ; ia 
literally enchanted by good musick; shows intuitive skill, and spends 
much time, in making it ; sings from the heart, and with melting pathos . 
p. 219. c. 12. 

Msderate, aided by \_jtes and practice, may sing, yet it will be mecha- 
nically ; lacks that soul and feeling which reaches the heart : p. 220. 
Small, learns to sing or play tunes either by note or rote with great 
difficulty; sings mechanically, and without emotion or effect: p. 221. 
Very Small, can hardly discern one tune or note from another : p. 22i 
55, 33, LANGUAGE. Poiver of expressing ideas, feelings, S(c, by 
means of words, attaching meaning to signs, Sfc. ; verbal memory y 
desire and ability to talk: p. 222. 

Average, can communicate his ideas tolerably well, yet finds same 
difficulty ; uses common words ; can write better than speak. = r - 
Full, commands a fair share of words, yet uses familiar expressions 
is neither fluent nor the reverse ; when excited, expresses himself freely, 
yet not copiously : p. 227. c. 6. 

Large, is a free, easy, ready, fluent talker and speaker ; uses good lan 
guage ; commits easily ; seldom hesitates for words : p. 224. c. 5. 7. 20 
Very Large, has by nature astonishing command of words, copious 
ness and eloquence of expression, and verbal memory ; quotes witfc 
ease ; is an incessant talker ; has too many words : p. 226. c. 11. 40. 41 
Moderate, often hesitates for words ; employs too few ; may write well 
and be a critical linguist, but cannot be an easy, fluent speaker : p. 228 
Small, employs few words, and those common-place : in speaking 
hesitates much ; is barren in expression ; commits slowly : p. 223. 
Very Small, can hardly remember or use words at all, or read: p. 229, 
GENXJS IV. Reflective or Reasoning Intellect. This looks 
beyond mere physical facts and natural phenomena, and investigates 
their causes, abstract relations, analogies, great principle*, &c: jriginatea 


ideas ; ascertains and applies natural laws; contrives; invents, &c. ; p. 229, 
Large oh Vert Large, with perceptive intellect less, gives great depth 
without brilliancy of talent ; shows to be less than he is ; holds out well. 
86. 35. CAUSALITY. — Cognizance of the relations of cause and effect; 
ability to apply them, or to adapt means to ends ,• power of reasoning, 
drawing inferences from premises, discovering first principles, fyc. 
Average, has some, but no great, ability to plan and reason : c. 10. 
Full, adapts means to ends well ; has an active desire to ascertain 
causes, yet not a deep, original, cause-discovering and applying mind : 
p. 236. c. 21. 27. 

Large, plans well ; can think clearly and closely ; is always inquiring 
into the why and the wherefore — the causes and explanation of things • 
always gives and requires the reason ; has by nature excellent judgment, 
good ideas, a strong mind, &c. : p. 233. c. 5. 18. 19. 41. 
Vert Large, is endowed with a deep, strong, original, comprehensiva 
mind, powerful reasoning faculties, great vigour and energy of thought, 
first-rate judgment, and a gigantick intellect: p. 236. c. 6. 7. 11.40.41 
Moderate, is rather slow of comprehension ; deficient in adapting means 
to ends; has not good ideas or judgment: p. 237. c. 8. 12. 13. 15. 16 
Small, has a weak, imbecile mind ; cannot contrive or think : p. 238. 
c. 14. 20. 25. 26. 

Vert Small, little idea of causation : is a natural fool : p. 238. c. 28. 29. 
<7. 34. COMPAKISON. — Perception of analogies, resemblances, differ- 
snces ; virility to compare, illustrate, criticise, classify, generalize, 4-c. 
Average, perceives striking analogies ; illustrates tolerably well : c. 8. 21 
Full, illustrates, discriminates, &c, well, but not remarkably so : p. 243 
Large, has a happy talent for comparing, illustrating, criticising, arguing 
from similar cases, discriminating between what is and is not analogous, 
or in point, classifying phenomena, and thereby ascertaining their laws, 
&c. : p. 241. c 7. 12. 13. 15. 18. 19. 41. 

Vert Large, is endowed with an extraordinary amount of critical acu- 
men ; analytical, comparing, and illustrating power : p. 243. c. 5. 6. 40. 4.. 
Moderate, may discern obvious similarities, yet overlooks others : p. 244. 
Email or Vert Small, is almost destitute of this power: p. 244. c. 28. 29 
Having made numerous observations upon the following organs, and 
especially upon suavitiveness, the author considers them as highly pro- 
Sable, but not as ascertained. (See pp. 248-9.) He therefore places 
diem before the tribunal of facts, and awaits its decision, meanwhile 
summoning the phrenological world as witnesses. They were first 
pointed out by L. N. Fowler, brother of the author. 
£ SUAVITIVENESS. Ability to render one's self agreeable,- pleasant 

Average or Full, neither excels nor is deficient in this respect. 
Large or Vert Large, readily wins confidence and affection, even of 
enemies ; can say and do hard things without creating difficulty ; obtain 
favours ; get along well ; so say and do things that they take : p. 248 
Moderate or Small, is deficient in the power just described. 
D. This faculty is as yet without a name. One with this organ 

Large or Vert Large, perceives, as if by intuition, the character and 
motives of men from their physiognomy, conversation, &c. ; is suspicious, 
and seldom deceived ; naturally understands human nature : p. 247. 40 
rn ate on Small, seldom suspects others ; is easily imposed upon 
s human nature slowly ; does not know well how to take men : p. 247 




I openly avow my belief in Animal Magnetism ; first, because 
I have seen so many facts and experiments that I know it 
to be true, but mainly because the discoveries and improve* 
ments made in Phrenology by means of it, deserve the candid 
consideration of every student of Phrenology, as well as every 
lover of science. For many years, my practice in examining 
heads, satisfied me of two things ; first, that there was consi- 
derable unappropriated space between the organs, and, on this 
account, the organs are not wholly surrounded by those dotted 
lines which form their boundaries ; (see cut on page 54 of the 
Practical Phrenology ;) the open spaces showing portions of 
the head unappropriated. That cut was made in 1836, so 
that I discovered these open spaces between the organs, even 
at that early date. Secondly, I had also still further observed 
that portions allotted to many of the single organs, often con- 
tained a distinct protuberance at one part of them, but a de- 
pression at the other; and, in my private classes, have often 
shown the upper portion of Self-Esteem, next to Firmness, 
to be deficient, while the lower portion contained a marked 
protuberance ; and so of Secretiveness, Acquisitiveness, and 
several other organs. These observations prepared my own 
mind for new discoveries in regard to the organs ; and, no 
sooner had an application of Animal Magnetism been made to 
Phrenology,* than I eagerly embraced it, not only to test the 
truth of magnetism in regard to the organs that were fully es- 
tablished, but also, when satisfied on this point, to see which 
cf the doubtful organs stood being tested by magnetism, as 
well as whether new ones could be discovered. Accordingly, 
the Rev. Le Roy Sunderland, Dr. Sherwood, and myself, in- 
stituted a series of Phreno-Magnetic experiments, — - a sum- 
mary of that portion of the results which relates to Phrenolo* 

* In 1S37, I remarked to Dr. Underbill, in Cleveland, Ohio, that if 
Animal Magnetism were true, it might be applied to the Phrenological 
organs ; and, nothing but an excessive professional practice, prevented 
Ely doing it then. In May last, before any such application had been 
made, when my brother magnetised Miss Gleason, in Boston, I urged 
him to magnetise the organs. News of the death of his wife received 
that same morning, and his preparing to come to New York that day 
alone prevented his doing it 



gnj, is given. I have, in this connexion, room to give but a 
hummary merely; but, in a series of articles on this subject 
in the Phrenological Journal, I shall give these results in full. 
Nothing has ever interested me more than these experiments, 
and I felt that I could not put another edition of this work to 
press, though it was stereotyped, without giving at least a sum- 
mary of them.* I will just add, that I have examined hun- 
dreds, probably thousands, of heads, since these discoveries 
were made, with the view of seeing whether examinations 
made by means of them, coincided with the characters, and 1 
nd they do without the least perceptible variation. These 
^sults, then, are: 

1. Each of the internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, 
stomach, liver, &c. &c, has an organ in the head, which is 
large, small, healthy, or disordered, &c, according to the con- 
dition of the organ in the body. These organs are situated 
behind the ears, and bear the same relation to the internal or- 
gans, that Amativeness does to the genital. Their precise 
position, however, I have not so fully ascertained as is de- 

2. All, or nearly all, the oldt organs, are found to be a 
group, or family of organs ; each analogous to the old one, 
but differing from each other in their shades of function. 
Thus, Combativeness is found to be divided into Physical 
Courage, Dissatisfaction, and Resistance, or a contrary 
spirit ; Philoprogenitiveness, into Parental-Love, Filial-Love 
and Love of Pets; and so of most of the other organs. 

3, The location and function of all the old, or established 
organs, are fully confirmed, not a single variation of impor- 
tance in either having been observed. This will certainly 
prove highly gratifying to every lover of Phrenology, and 
does immortal credit to the minuteness and extent of the ob- 
servations of its founders, Gall and Spurzheim. 

4, These experiments have revealed the cause and instru- 
ments, as well as the " modus operandi''' of Physiognomy, 
and show how it is that the activity of each organ, imparts its 

* Similar observations and discoveries have been made by Dr. Bu- 
chanan, of Louisville, Ky. How the results of the two tally together 
remains to be seen, but such a comparison will be at least interesting 

t I employ this term for the want of a better, and mean by it the 
ones already established. By the term new organs, I mean those re« 
ttntly discovered. 



peculiar expression to the face. Men have long known that 
all the passions, such as anger, love, cunning, pride, decision, 
kindness, piety, fear, reflection, &c, were expressed in the 
countenance ; but no one has ever discovered the rationale of 
this, or shown how it was done. As all effects have their le- 
gitimate causes, and also their means, through the instrumen- 
tality of which they are effected, these expressions must have 
both their causes and instruments of expression. These, we 
think, we have discovered. It appears, that every organ of 
the body and brain, has a certain magnetic connexion with 
the face, or a place there for its indication. For the want oi 
a better name, we will call these places and connexions, the 
poles of the organs. Hence, when the organ is affected, that 
portic in of the face is drawn so as to cause the face to express 
the feeling or sentiment of the organ excited. This connex- 
ion existing between the organ and the pole, (for that is the 
term given to the termination of this connexion, while the 
term conductor is applied to the channel by which this influ- 
ence passes from the organ to the face,) is the same as that 
between the head and the hand, or any other part of the body, 
by which the limbs, muscles, &c, involuntarily obey the 
command, and fulfil the desires, of the mind and will. Thus, 
the poles of Self-Esteem are between the mouth and nose, 
about an inch and a quarter apart, and about an inch below 
the outer portion of the nose. Hence its action produces that 
curl of the upper lip which expresses scorn, contempt, pride, 
and self-sufficiency. 

The poles of Firmness, are about half an inch apart, near 
he edge of the upper lip, and in the hollow between the nose 
and mouth. Hence, its action produces that compression of 
the upper lip which is said to indicate decision of character; 
and hence, encouraging another to be firm, is expressed by the 
saying, "Now keep a stiff upper lip." The expression, 
'' That man carries a stiff" upper lip," is also in harmony with 
ihis supposed discovery. 

The poles of Mirthfulness, are just within and above the 
corners of the mouth, and hence its action, as when a joke is 
given and laughter excited, draws the mouth outward and up' 
ward. The poles of Approbativenoss are mostly horizontal 
with the comers of the mouth, a little above them, and about 
a quarter of an inch towards the lower part of the ear. Hence 
its action produces a smile, similar to that of Mirthfulness, as 



when a person is commended, or does or says something to 
elicit praise. Vain persons in their smiles say, "Am I not 
smart? Have I not said a witty thing ?" 

Philoprogenitiveness has its poles in the upper lip, about 
half an inch frOm the corners of the mouth ; and hence, moth- 
ers give their most affectionate kisses to their babes out of the 
sides of their mouth, instead of the middle. The poles of 
Amativeness are in the upper lip, about three-fourths of an 
inch apart, just above its edge, and nearly half an inch each 
side of the middle of it ; while the poles of Adhesiveness are 
between the last two mentioned. The poles of the reasoning 
organs are just below the edge of the lower lip, and those of 
the moral organs, still farther down, between the lower lip 
and chin. 

This harmonizes perfectly with the physiognomy of all 
great reasoners ; for, their under lip will be found to project 
and turn tinder, as it were, towards the teeth. Reasoners 
generally handle their under lip much, and whenever we 
think deeply, we naturally bite, or finger, or draw, or stick 
out the under lip. The coincidence between this discovery, 
or rather, between the position of these poles and that part of 
the face by which the functions of their organs are manifested, 
is most happy and striking; and it will soon lead to a correct 
system of Physiognomy. 

This brings us to the second point of interest connected 
with this portion of our subject, namely, that the poles of the 
organs are grouped in the face, much as the organs them- 
selves are grouped in the head / that is, the poles of those organs 
that are most likely to aid and accompany one another, are lo- 
cated near each other. Thus, it is a leading principle in Phre • 
nology, that the moral and reasoning faculties should co-ope- 
rate in directing and governing the actions of all the other fac- 
ulties, and in controlling nearly all the doings of life ; and, in 
accordance with this principle, the poles of these organs are 
near neighbors, just as are the organs themselves. 

This same principle of polarity, applies equally to all the 
organs of the body. Thus, the poles of the heart are in the 
chin, by exciting which the heart labors, and is raised to so 
violent a state of action as to prevent the circulation of the 
blood, and to all appearance, would cause death in a few 
seconds. The poles of the lungs are in each cheek — just 
where the hectic flush appears in consumption. Hence, the 



inflammation of the lungs excites these poles, producing that 
rosy redness of the cheeks which indicates and accompanies 
lung-fever. In the name of philosophy, I ask, if this coin 
cidence, does not indicate truth, and is not in harmony with 
nature ? And, beyond a doubt, this discovery, if founded in 
truth, will soon be employed in the cure of consumptive com- 
plaints, lung fevers, asthma, &c. The poles of the stomach 
are found to join Alimentiveness on its inner side. This 
shows how it is, that the excitement of the stomach by hun- 
ger, disease, &c, excites Alimentiveness, and through it Com- 
bativeness, Destructiveness, &c. &c. In other words, it 
shows why hunger produces a desire to eat, rather than to 
worship, or be kind — why the morbid and inflamed condition 
of the stomach, brought on by over-eating, (a disease called 
dyspepsy, liver-complaint, &c,) produces a craving, insatiable 
appetite ; the inflammation of the stomach being felt at the 
poles adjoining Alimentiveness, and thereby exciting the organ, 
and creating a desire for food ; and also ivhy and how hunger 
produces irritability, ill temper, &c , rather than kindness, 01 
penitence, &c. ; these poles of the stomach being close by 
Combativeness and Destructiveness, which partake of the ex- 
citement of the stomach through these poles. All the other 
organs of the body are found to have their poles in the face, 
and in all probability, when dormant, can be excited and cool- 
ed off when inflamed, merely by magnetizing their poles, 01 
by putting them to sleep. 

Let the reader not dismiss this subject with a sneer, ot 
treat it like a humbug, as Animal Magnetism has generally 
been treated ; for, it is not impossible, that on a careful exami- 
nation, he may find that he has been " entertaining angels un- 
awares." It may be true ; and if so, good will certainly grow 
out of it. Phrenologists should be the last to dismiss any 
matter unexamined which appeals to experiment. 

In giving a summary account of the organs supposed to 
have been discovered, I shall define instead of describe, be- 
cause, in this way, the function of the organ can be presented 
in a manner much more clearly and succinctly than by de- 
scribing them. Those about which the Author is iess certain, 
will be marked with a star ; and, in relation to all of them, he 
begs leave to make this general remark, that, although he is 
certain of the truth of Animal Magnetism, and of the existence 
and location of many new organs, yet his observations have 



not been as extensive and various as could be wished, and 
therefore subject to revision. Still, unless his confidence 
amounted almost to a certainty, this subject would never have 
found its way, either into the columns of his Journal, or the 
pages of this Work. These discoveries have induced him to 
re-number all the organs, beginning with the forehead, and to 
re-name most of the old ones ; the former, because such a 
course seemed necessary, and the latter, in order to do away 
with the mere technicalities of the science, and apply plain, 
English names which all understand, in place of those foreign 
names, with a scientific rather than a practical termination, 
which Spurzheim, in his misguided zeal to elevate Phrenology 
to a rank among the sciences, unwisely gave them. I have 
long been desirous of making this change, and this affords an 
fixcellent oonortunity to put it in practice. 


1 Individuality — Observation, curiosity to see things, the noticing 


2 Form — Recollection of things by their shape, of countenances, &c. 

3. Language — Three organs: one for expressing ideas, connec ed 

with Ideality; another for merely talking, without saying any 
thing, called garrulity ; and a third, for remembering names. 

4. Size — Cognizance and judgment of magnitude, bulk, proportion, 

large and small, &c. 

5. Weight — The balancing faculty ; application of the laws ol 


6. Color — Perception, appreciation, and judgment of colors. 

7. Order — System ; arrangement ; having a place for things, and things 

in their places. 

8. Number — Ability and disposition to count. 

9. Calculation — Mental arithmetic ; casting accounts in the head 

computing numbers. 

10. Eventuality — Recollection of facts, events, occurrences, experi- 
ments, history, news, information, circumstances, business trans- 
actions, &c. : two organs— one for remembering the scenes of 
childhood ; the other, for recol'ecting recent transactions and in- 

11 Comparison of physical things — Comparing those things of which 
the perceptive faculties take cognizance. 

12. Comparison of Ideas — Discrimination, power of analyzing, illus- 
trating, criticising, generalizing, reasoning by indication, &c. 

13. Causality — Power of thought; reasoning by inference ; percep- 
tion and application of the laws of cause and effect ; conception 
of ideas , investigation ; philosophical reasoning. 


14. Planning — Adapting means to ends ; contrivance , perceiving the 
shortest, surest way to effect purposes ; the committee of ways 
and means- 

15. Locality — Two organs : recollecting places, and love of travelling. 

16. Time — Recollecting when things occurred ; keeping time in the 
head ; the beat in music, dancing, &c. 

17. Tune — Disposition to sing ; catching tunes by rote, or by the ear 

18. Musical Harmony — Perception and love of the higher qualities 
of music. 

19. Wit— Repartee, perceiving and manufacturing jokes, retorts, etc; 
arguing by ridicule. 

20. Laughter — Merriment ; Laughing easily, much, and heartily. 
21 Suayity — Politeness ; disposition to say and do things agreeably 

22. Physiognomy — Discernment of character ; reading the characters 
of men from their countenances, conversation, &c. ; managing men 

23. Flattery — Disposition to praise, compliment, commend, &c. 

24. Kindness — Disposition to do favors, oblige, serve, &c. ; active be 

25: Pity — Sympathy for the distressed, commiseration. 

26. Gratitude — Grateful for favors received; a thankful, grateful spirit. 

27 Deference — Submission to superiors ; homage, respect fur age 

and worth ; diffidence ; dependence on the great and learned. 
£8 Veneration — Devotion ; worship of a Supreme Being ; religions 


29. Faith — Trust in Divine providence, and following its guidance. 

30. Credulity — Belief in wonders, fish-stories, the strange, novel, &c 
31 Imitation— Ability and disposition to copy, take pattern, draw ; 

imitate the ways of others ; do after them ; sketch ; learn by being 
shown once, &c. 

32. Mimicry — Ability to mock, caricature, represent, personify, &c. 

33. Sadness — The lonely, sad, sorrowlul, bad feeling, without cause * 

34 Taste — Refinement ; elegance of manners and expression ; neatness 
of person ; disgust of the coarse and vulgar ; sense of propriety ; 

35 Ideality — Imagination ; fancy ; conception of the beautiful ; the 
love of poetry, fiction, &c, and disposition to make them ; reverie. 

36 Cheerfulness — A contented, joyous, happy, cheerful feeling. 

37 Hope — Expectation ; anticipation ; enterprise ; looking at the bright 
side of the prospect; hoping against hope; counting chickens be- 
fore they are hatched ; never letting well enough alone. 

38 Conscientiousness — Justice; disposition to do right integrity; 
honesty ; fairness ; sense of moral obligation ; 

39 Sense of obligation and duty towards God. 

40 Firmness — Decision; perseverence ; stability; unity of purpose 

41 Self-Esteem — Self-confidence; self-assurance; ambition to do 
and be something great, noted, and extraordinary; aspiraticn after 
eminence; dignity. 

42 Self-Will — Love of liberty ; disposition to rule one's self; insub 
ordination; unwilliness to serve or obey, or be under another; 
desire to be in business for our-self ; assuming the responsibility 
of our own actions ; love of power ; a domineering spirit ; deter- 
mination to do as one pleases, and have his own way in spite a& 


43. Regard for Character, standing, honor, estimation, a good 
name, &c 

44. Love of Display, fashion, style, ettiquette ; splendor of equip- 
age, &c. 

45. Jealousy — Desire to be tht sole object of regard, affection, praise, 
&c. ; spirit of rivalry, emulation, &c. ; desire to excel others ; out 
6 all; L a . noticed, &c. 

46. Fruitful vess — This faculty makes the male sure in begetting, and 
the female go her full time 

A. Modesty — Bashfulness ; shame-facedness ; blushing easily. 

47. Continuity — Dwelling on and pouring over one thing; the plod- 
ding, prosing, continuous disposition ; patience in examining, col- 
lating, comparing, &c 

48. Physical Fear — Carefulness, caution as to dangers, losses, etc. 

49. Moral Fear— Fear of the consequences of doing wrong, offend* 
ing the Deity, &c. 

50. Guardedness, as to papers, expressions, &c. ; circumspection. 

51. Combination — Partnership; disposition to unite in business. (*) 


K. Money-Making — Trading; dealing largely ; driving a big business. 
53- Economy — Frugality; saving money; contracting expenses; 

hoarding ; husbanding for the future. 
64. Ingenuity — Dexterity in using tools, making things, turning off 

work, making and working machinery, etc. ; building; t slight of 

hand in all manual operations. 

55. Smell — Love of fragrant odors, and aversion to those that are dig 

56. Thirst — Disposition to drink ; love of the water. 

57 Appetite — Enjoyment of food ; hunger; relish for food. 

B. Taste — Love of richly-flavored and highly-seasoned delicacies. 

36. Sublimity — Love of the grand, sublime, and terrific in nature, 

mountain scenery, cataracts, &c. 
58. Retribution — Revenge ; disposition to punish or have satisfaction 
59 Destructiveness — Disposition to break, destroy; cause pair.,. 

hurt, teaze, tantalize, deface, &c. 

60. Anger — Resentment; spirit; contention. 

61. Resistence — Self-defence, self-protection; defence of rights. 

62. Courage — Self-possession and coolness in personal danger; intre- 
pidity ; bravery ; valor. 

63. Tattling — Telling the faults of others ; when ungovemed, slan- 
der, backbiting; evil-speaking; town-talk; gossip. 

64. Secretiveness — Management; artifice; keeping secrets; self- 
restraint; evasiveness; reserve. 

65 Dislike — Aversion ; dissatisfaction ; fault-finding ; peevishness ; 

6G. Love of Home — Attachment to the domicil of childhood and 
youth; love of the old homested — of "father's house," etc. ; desire 
to have a place of our own. 

67 Patriotism — Love of country, and a more recent habitation. 

68 Adhesiveness — Friendship; love of company; attachment to 
friends ; the companionable, social, cordial, warm-hearted feeling 

69. Love of Keep-sakes — Of presents, remembrances, etc. 

70. Parental Love — Attachment of parents to their own children 
desire to caress and pet them. 

71. Filial Love — Love of children to their parents, or those who 

provide for, watch over, and advise them. 

72. Connubial Love — Love of husbands and wives for each other. 

73. Love of Pets — Of horses, dogs, stock, etc., and desire to improve 
the breed ; the feeling of the shepherd. 

74. Caressing — Pure love between the sexes; disposition to hug, kiss, 
caress, fondle, etc. 

75. Physical Love — Animal passion ; the sexual impulse, lust. 

76. Love of Life — Enjoyment of existence; tenacity of life. 

77. Dread of Death— Shrinking from death and annihilation. (*) 

78 Buffoonery— Low, comical wit ; clownish sport ; revelry. 

79 Organ that controls the motion of the limb? (*) 

80 Organ of the Heart. 

81. Organ of Respiration. 

82. Organ of Digestion. 

83. Organ of Motion — The great center or common pole of all tike 
muaclrcs desire arrl ability to acl, or be doing something. (•) 



Whilst lecturing and practising phrenology in the city of New York, 
December 27, 1836, Dr. Howard, who then lived in Carmine street, 
called on me, and stated that the evening before, he had been called in 
great haste to visit a lady who was taken with a most violent pain in the 
head, which was so severe as in fifteen minutes entirely to prostrate her, 
producing fainting. When brought to, she had forgotten the names 
of every person and thing around her, and almost entirely lost the use of 
words, not because she could not articulate them, but because she could 
nofi remember or think of them. She could not mention the name of her 
own husband or children, or any article she wanted, nor convey her ideas 
by words, yet understood all that was said to her, and possessed every 
other kind* of memory unimpaired. " And where was this pain located," 
I eagerly inquired. " That is for you to say," said he. " If phrenology 
is true, you ought to be able to tell where it is." " Then it is located over 
her eyes" said I. He replied, " That is the place." The pain was seated 
there only. In other words, her phrenological organ of language had 
become greatly diseased, and the faculty of language was the only men 
tal power that suffered injury, all the others remaining unimpaired. 

Dr. MiHer, of Washington, District of Columbia, related to the author 
a similar case, which occurred in or near that city, accompanied by a 
pain in the same portion of the head, and there only. See also P. P. p. 18. 

Whilst examining professionally the head of a lawyer, Attorney 
General of one of the New England states, observing an unusual 
and feverish heat in his forehead, and particularly in the organs of 
the perceptive faculties, I observed, " Sir, the brain in your forehead is 
highly inflamed ; you have been studying or thinking too hard, or doing 
too much business of some kind, and if you do not stop soon, you will be 
either a dead ; man or a crazy one." He started upon his feet as if elec- 
trified, exclaiming, " Who has been telling you about me 1" " No one, 
sir." " But some one has been telling you." " Upon my honour and 
my conscience, sir, I neither know you nor your occupation, nor condi 
tion in life, nor one single thing about you, except what I infer from your 
phrenological developments," said I, pointing out to him the preternatu- 
ral heat of his forehead. He requested me to proceed, and at the close of 
the examination, stated that for several weeks he had been dreadfully 
afflicted with the most violent and intolerable pain in his forehead, parti- 
cularly the lower portion, and on that account, had requested my attend- 
ance, that his memory, which, up to that time, had been remarkably 
retentive, had failed him, and his intellectual faculties also sustained much 
injury, and that all this was brought on at a session of the Court in which 
his intellectual powers were employed to their utmost stretch of exertion 
for several days and nights in succession, upon very heavy cases, both for 
the state and for individuals. He was sixty years of age, had a powerful 
constitution, a most active temperament, and very large perceptive facul- 
ties, which the inflammation had rendered redder than the other portions 
of his forehead. 

After stating this class of facts at a lecture in Easton, Maryland, Mr. 
J. H. Harris remarked that he now could not help believing in phrenology 
because he had experienced its truth. He said that at one time, whilst 
extensively engaged in superintending a great amount and variety of busi- 

* N. B. This chapter should be read in connexion with the close of proposi- 
tion III. p. 9, and will be printed sometimes on the cover and sometimes in the 
body of the work. 




ness, including building, he was repeatedly seized with a most intense 
pain over his eyes, which was so powerful, that to obtain relief he would 
bave held his head still to have had it bored into, and that, whenever 
this pain seized him, he forgot every thing, and would drop the sentence 
he was speaking, unable to think of a single word or thing until the 
paroxysm abated. 

A Mr. C, of Boston, is subject to spells of violent pain in his forehead, 
and there only, (the seat of the intellectual organs,) which is accompa- 
nied with an irrepressible desire to read, think, study, write, &c. He 
often sits up whole nights indulging this intellectual mania. Nothing 
but sleep will relieve him, yet he is unwilling to seek rest because of the 
delight experienced in this exercise of mind, even though fully aware that 
he thereby aggravates the disease. 

At Carlisle, in June, 1837, I pointed out this same preternatural heat 
in the forehead of a student, who, entering his class poorly prepared, had 
overdone his intellectual organs. He had been compelled to suspend his 
studies on account of the pain in his forehead, and the morbid action of 
his intellectual powers. 

Eventuality. In April, 1837, Dr. Carpenter, of Pottsville, Penn 
sylvania, related to the writer the following. One of his patients fell from 
a horse, striking the centre of his forehead against the corner of a rock, 
on which portions of brain were found. I have seen the scar, and know 
that it was eventuality that was injured. As Dr. C. entered the room, 
the patient recognised him, as he did each of his neighbours, but he had for- 
gotten every fact and event, and them only. He asked what was the 
matter, and as soon as he was told, forgot, and asked again. To use Dr. 
C's expression, " fifty times over he asked what was the matter, and as 
soon as he was told, forgot, and asked again." He forgot that his brother 
was coming that day from a distance to visit him, and that he was then 
on his way to meet him. Every event was to him as though it was not ; 
yet all his other mental powers remained unimpaired. When depletion 
was proposed, he objected, and assigned his reasons, showing that his 
reasoning faculties were uninjured. After the brain had been re-sup- 
plied, he recovered, to a considerable extent, his memory of facts. This 
accident made him a believer in phrenology. 

Dr. Ramsey, of Bloorofield, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, reported 
the following case as having occurred in his practice : — About four years 
since, a patient of his, by his horses becoming frightened, was driven 
with great violence against a fence, the centre of his forehead striking 
against the corner of a rail. He recognised the Doctor as he entered, and 
asked him what all this fuss was about. As soon as Dr. R. had told him, 
he forgot, and asked again and again, for twenty times in succession, and 
to this day he has not the slightest recollection of this most important 
event of his life, except the mere fact that the horses were frightened. 

Another case anolagous to this, and affecting eventuality was narrated 
to the author by the Rev. S. G. Callahan, an Episcopal Clergyman and 
teacher of high intellectual and moral standing, in Laurel, Delaware. 
About twelve years ago, he was intimately acquainted with a Dr. Thomas 
Freeman, surgeon on board an English man-of-war, who, in an action 
with the Dutch, received a blow from a rope with a knot in it, which 
oroke in the scull in the centre of his forehead, " Here," said he, (putting 
his ringer upon the organ of eventuality,) " producing a cavity resembling 
the uuide of a section of the larger end of a hen's egg." The accident 



caused a loss of memory of facts only, which caused his dismissal mi 
half pay for life, whilst every other power remained unimpaired. Th\*i, 
if he went for wood, he was as likely to get any thing else, or nothing at 
all, as what he went for. Being employed to construct a vat for colouring 
broad-cloths, he constructed every thing right, his causality and con- 
structiveness remaining uninjured, but when he came to the chemical pro- 
cess of dyeing, with which he was as familiar as with his alphabet, he 
.ailed repeatedly, till they were compelled to employ another dyer, who 
pointed out the omissions which caused his failures. Although the doc- 
tor was an excellent chemist, and understood every part of the operation, 
yet he would omit one thing in one experiment, and another in another, 
and thus spoil every attempt. He could seldom succeed in any chemical 
experiment, though passionately fond of them, because of these omissions ; 
and yet, said my informant, start him on a train of thought, and he rea- 
soned as clearly, and logically, and powerfully as almost any one I ever 
neard. Now observe, that the only organ injured was eventuality, and 
this was the only faculty impaired. 

Robt. McFarland, a tavernkeeper, who, in 1837, lived in Carlisle, Penn 
sylvania, south of the Court-house, in consequence of a fall when abou* 
sixteen years old, had a deposition of watery matter which finally settled 
in the centre of his forehead, forming a sack between the scull and skin, 
which remained there for several years, until it became very painful, at 
last intolerably so, compelling him to have the sack removed, and the 
decayed portion of the scull on which it had formed, scraped twice a-day 
for twenty days in succession, by which the disease was arrested. Before 
his fall, his memory of circumstances, what he read, saw, &c, was so 
excellent that he was often referred to. This kind of memory, and this 
only, was destroyed by the disease. On this account he called on me for 
an examination, but did not state his object, waiting to see if I would 
detect it. On examining his forehead, I told him that his memory of faces 
was among the best that I had ever seen, but that I observed a scar in the 
centre of his forehead, where memory of facts is located, and that if the 
wound which caused it affected the brain there, his memory of incidents, 
every-day occurrences, what he read, and saw, and heard, &c, had been 
impaired. " That's a fact," said he. " If I see a man who called on me 
ten years ago, I know him instantly ; but if a customer wants any thing, 
and another calls for something else before I have waited on the first, I 
forget the first, and thus often give offence ; but I can't help it. And it's 
of no use for me to read any thing ; I forget it immediately." 

The intense pain caused by the dropsical deposit, shows an affection, 
long continued and severe, of the brain beneath it, and the location of the 
scar fixes it on eventuality, which was the only faculty impaired. 

A Mr. Camp, of New Haven, Connecticut, by the bursting of a gun, 
had the end of the barrel driven an inch or more into his organ of even- 
tuality, scattering the brain upon the stone wall against which he was 
leaning. By this accident, his memory of facts was so much impaired 
that lawyer Stoddard said he was frequently compelled, ©n this account, 
to suspend or give up his suits. I have often seen the scar, and also been 
a witness to his miserably defective memory of facts, appointments, &c. 

Mr. Alex. Nathan Dalby , potter, Wilmington, Delaware, is another exam- 
ple of the injury of the organ, and with it, of the faculty of eventuality, caused 
by falling from a horse, and striking his forehead upon a stone, and Dr. D., 
of Milton, Pennsylvania, furnishes another. 


Tune. Dr. Miller, of Washington, District of Columbia, reports the 
following in vol. I. No. 1, p. 24, of the American Phrenological Journal. 
A lad was kicked by a horse, " the point of the shoe striking him under 
(he left superciliary ridge, outer angle, fracturing the orbitar plate, and 
forcing the spicula of bone upwards and outwards, on the dura-mater, 
which was Wounded by them." As the wound was three-fourths of an 
inch deep, and penetrated the head in the direction of tune, reaching the 
borders of that organ, but not penetrating it, it would of course highly 
inflame it, which would produce a disposition to sing. This result fol- 
lowed. When the boy came to, he began to sing, and sang most when 
the wound was most inflamed. Both before and after this occurrence, he 
had never been known to sing, but now, lying apparently at the point of 
death, he would break out singing songs, and, to use his mother's expres- 
sion, " did nothing but sing." On account of his singing propensity, Dr. 
M. sent for Dr. Sewall, the anti-phrenologist, and Dr. Lovell, then Presi- 
dent of the Washington Phrenological Society, who reminded Dr. S. that 
this case went to prove phrenology, and yet, p. 57, of Dr. S.'s attack 
on phrenology, he says no cases analogous to the above have ever been 
known to occur. His memory of such facts must be rather short. 

A similar case occurred about 19 years ago, at Young's factory, on 
the Brandywine, five miles above Wilmington, Del., and was reported 
by Dr. Jacques, of W., attending physician. An Irishman, named Robert 
Hunter, having charged a ro:k with a blast which did not ignite, swore 
that he would make her go off, at the same time jamming his iron crow 
bar down among the p-jwder. It struck fire, and blew up, but did not 
split the rock. The cjwbar was sent no one knows where, both handa 
were torn off, and tha charge, coming up in a body, struck his head along 
the superciliary ridge, cutting a furrow in the scull, and carrying away 
portions of the dura-mater and brain. It took its course along the bor- 
ders of tune, but did not disorganize it. From his friends, Mr. and Mrs. 
White, at whose house he boarded and died, I learned its precise location, 
viz. along the superciliary ridge, externally of it. It also carried away 
a portion of the superorbitar piate, and terminated near mirthfulness. 

In fifteen minutes after he was taken to the house of Mr. W., " he fell 
to singing songs," and continued singing almost without interruption till 
his death, which occurred nine days after. I took down from the lips of 
Mrs. W. the following description of his singing propensity. " He sung 
the whole time after he was blown up till he died. He did not stop one 
hour, put it all together. Mr. W. began to read the Bible to him, but 
he broke out singing and stopped him. He was very musical, much 
more so than when he was of himself. I thought this very strange. It 
was not a quarter of an hour after he was brought in before he began to 
mng. He sung all the time till he died, and stopped only when some 
one went in to see him, and then began again directly. His principal 
song was " Erin go bragh," and he sung it with a better tune than I ever 
heard it sung before or since. It beat all how musical his voice was. 
He sung very loud, and seemed to take a great deal of pleasure in it." 
Dr. Jacques observed that what struck him most forcibly was to hear him 
eing with so much feeling, and pathos, and ecstasy. Several others bore 
their testimony to the same point. 

G. Combe, p. 416, of his large work, describes a similar case, and the 
American Phrenological Journal, VoL I. p. 243, still another ui Ga8 
and SpuTzh«im many others. 















• O. S. & L. N. FOWLER, 









Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1836, bv 

ia the Clerk's office of the District Court for the Southern District of 
New York. 


To Americanize whatever in science and the arts, is capable ot 
improving or adorning the mind, or of otherwise benefiting mankind, 
is no less the duty, than it would prove the glory, of every American 
citizen. Americans have had the genius and the moral courage to 
point out to the world the landmarks of civil liberty, and the true 
form and principles of free government, and, also, the highroad to 
national prosperity by improving and promoting agriculture, com- 
merce, and the arts ; but, with a deep sense of humility and abase- 
ment, it must be acknowledged, that hitherto they have rendered to 
foreign literature and foreign science, a far more degrading homage 
and submission than that demanded of our forefathers by political 
tyrants at the period of our Revolution. "We have nobly burst the 
bands of despotick rule, and raised a proud beacon of liberty and in- 
dependence whose light has penetrated and illumined the remttest 
corners of the earth; and yet, it cannot be denied, that we have too 
generally been content to receive our literary and our scientifick sup- 
plies by foreign importations — that we have too long degraded our- 
selves by tamely submitting to the dictum of transatlantick writers, 
and by servilely copying their works ; or, in other words, that our 
literary and scientifick dependence has brought a blush upon our po- 
itieal independence. 

In nothing has this spirit of literary servility been more strikingly 
manifested than in the works of our countrymen upon the science of 
Phrenology. Hitherto, no American work has appeared upon this 
rubject, stamped with originality of thought, or presenting new ana 
'vomprehensive views, or even imbodying, to any considerable ex- 
tent, facts produced by the soil and climate of equal rights ; but every 
thing phrenological in this country, has been either a reprint, or a 
substantial copy, of some foreign work. 

Why this dearth of talent in American authorship upon Phrenolo- 
gy 1 Is it because foreign writers have exhausted the subject; or bo- 
cause it is an exotick plant which no man of genius and learning 
dares to touch 1 or because we have not among us, minds sufficiently 
gifted in logical and critical acumen, to grapple with the subject, and 
to imbody and analyze the enormous mass of facts presented by the 
peculiar condition of the country in which we live 1 Surely, if the 
i genius of science ever demanded an advocate — if ever nature held 
out her hand, and invited her worshipper to sit down by her side and 
take her picture, here the votary of the one and the amateur of the 
other have inducements and allurements to step forth, which were 
never before proffered to mortal genius. In this land of plenty and 
equal rights, conscious of its liberty to exercise any and all of its 

Cowers, the human mind marches forth unfettered and free. Here 
uman nature displays itself in all its varying hHes of light and 
•hade. Here, then, if anywhere, we might expect to find, not only 
the greatest variety t but, also, the greatest extremes, of character and 


talents, as well as the most striking specimens of original genius, d 
all accompanied with corresponding phrenological developments. 
Among those who have become identified with the American soil, 
we find three of the five varieties of the human race, namely, the 
Anglo-American, the Aboriginal American, and the African ; be- 
sides an innumerable multitude of every other nation, kindred, 
tongue, and people, who are every day landing upon our prolifick 
shores : and, in short, here we have all the materials necessary for 
the most extensive, and interesting, and instructive phrenological ob- 
servations and experiments. Since, then, the grand basis of the 
phrenological system has been laid by Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, in 
the Old World, does it not behoove some American genius to step 
forward and lay hold of these ample materials thus placed by Provi- 
dence within his reach, and complete this beautiful structure, and 
thereby identify the American name with a monument which is des- 
tined to become the admiration of all future ages '? 

Phrenology, it is true, is yet in its infancy; and its warmest advo- 
cates do not deny, that, for years, it must totter along in its leading- 
strings. They do not espect, that, like the birth of Minerva from 
the brain of Jupiter, a science of so vast importance can spring at 
once into perfect form and maturity. They do not imagine, that, in 
the freshness of its tender youth, it can possess all the strength, and 
vigour, and compactness of manhood. They are not unaware, that 
centuries have rolled up their rich floods of discovery to aid in rear- 
ing to its present growth, the science of astronomy; and they believe 
that the fertilizing efforts of other centuries will be required to per- 
fect it : and they are sensible, too, that the same is true of botany, chyrn- 
istry, medicine, and, indeed, of all other sciences. Hence, they are 
not so unreasonable as to suppose, that two or three intellects, however 
gigantick, are capable of discovering and perfecting so comprehen- 
sive and profound a science as that of Phrenology; but they do be- 
lieve, that Phrenology is a noble and thriving plant — a germ of Irwt 
science, which has already taken deep root, and which requires noth- 
ing more than the fostering care of men of genius and learning to 
increase it to a stately tree, whose branches will wave over all na- 
tions, and whose fruit will gladden the hearts of all people. 

Of all the subjects in philosophy, that which pertains to the mind 
of man, is undoubtedly the most interesting and important. Everv 
discovery, therefore, in this imperfectly-explored region — every fresh 
ray of light cast upon this clouded tract, should be hailed with joy 
by every votary of science and by every friend of man. This volume 
is not designed to supersede the invaluable writings of Drs. Gall and 
Spurzheim, and of Mr. Combe, nor does it profess to be wholly original ; 
but it does lay claim to mam/ important improvements in the science 
of Phrenology. These consist mainly in presenting many new and 
(as the Authors conceive) useful views upon the subject ; in bringing 
forward many new facts and the result of many observations and suc- 
cessful experiments, which serve as new proofs of the truth of the 
science and illustrations of its principles and utility ; in supplying 
many gross deficiencies of the other writers upon the subject ; and, 
above all, in presenting the subject in a far more practical form than 
it has been heretofore given. These several improvements, how- 
ever, will be more clearly understood by giving a definite, numeri- 
cal statement of thenx 



The present work, then, differs from all others upon the same sub- 
ject, in the following important particulars: 

1. In order to obtain a clear and distinct idea of the character 
and analysis of the primary mental faculties, the student in Phre- 
nology requires, not only that the phenomena produced by them, 
should be described, but that those great principles in nature, in ac- 
cordance with which these various faculties are constituted, and to 
which they adapt the human mind, should also be presented and ex- 
plained ; for, without a knowledge of these natural laws, he could 
gain but a very imperfect idea of the nature and functions of the 
mental faculties. The faculty of Weight, for example, has to do 
with those great principles of weight, or gravity to which all material 
objects are subservient; Causality takes cognizance of the abstract 
principles of cause and effect, upon which, as far as we can perceive, 
the whole natural and moral government of God proceeds; Compari- 
son is adapted to those laws of analogy which enter into the whole 
system of things; and so of the rest. The omission of a more dis- 
tinct reference to these fundamental laws, the Authors consider as a 
radical defect in other phrenological works, which defect they have 
attempted to supply. 

2. The organs were discovered when developed in excess, which 
nas led many to an almost exclusive observation of their extreme de- 
velopments to the neglect of the medium and more common mani- 
festation of the faculties, as displayed in the ordinary transactions of 
life. In applying the principles of the science, the authors have al- 
ways practised giving the proportionate size of all the various organs, 
and of describing character as deduced from the combined manifest- 
ations of the faculties in their various degrees of strength : and thus 
they have been enabled, in this work, to describe the phenomena pro- 
duced by the faculties in all their various degrees of development. 

3. By perusing what is said of the manifestations of the various 
faculties in our best works upon Phrenology, the reader will find it 
extremely difficult to form any distinct notions of the actions and 
feelings which these faculties would produce in their ordinary, daily 
manifestations. This marked deficiency the Authors have attempted 
to supply by dwelling chiefly upon the incidents which result from the 
most common operations of the faculties, and by directing the atten- 
tion of the reader mainly to the precise phenomena, produced by 

4. Hitherto phrenologists have described the organs, not only when 
developed in excess, but, also, (which is a still greater defect,) as they 
manifest themselves when acting singly and alone — a thing that 
scarcely ever takes place: and hence the very vague and imperfect 
knowledge of the science acquired by those who have perused all 
our most able v> orks upon the subject. The most important point to 
be understood in Phrenology', is a knowledge of the niodifrcatio^ns. 
produced by the combined action of the several organs; and the prin- 
cipal merits of this work are believed to rest uponlhis point, namely, 
the Authors have presented several thousand combinations of the facul- 
ties, and described their accompanying manifestations and phenome- 
na, which have not been noticed by any other writers. 

5. Extensive observation, and long experience in applying the 
principles of Phrenology to the living subject, have satisfied the Au- 
thors, that, if a conviction of the truth and importance of the science, 



is ever to be forced hjme up< n the minds of men, it will be, not so 
much by reasoning upon the subject, as by a practical application oj 
its principles. What do the common people, or even scientifick men, 
care about the arguments adduced in support of any new subject or 
science'? Before they will believe in it, or even listen to it, they must 
see its truth practically demonstrated. Indeed, the world will never 
believe, either in any new mechanical invention or improvement, or 
in any proposed discovery, however reasonable or useful it may be, 
ontil they see it fully and fairly tested by actual experiment. In their 
phrenological experiments in describing character, the Authors sel- 
dom fail to convince nearly all who witness them, both of the truth 
of the science and of its practical utility; and, by gaining converts, 
it gains advocates, students, and admirers, becomes known, and its 
usefulness is thus disseminated. The importance of this manual as 
a practical treatise, may be inferred from the fact, that it will enable 
any individual, by having the relative size of his phrenological or- 
gans correctly marked upon the Chart which accompanies it, to read 
from the different pages of the book to which the Chart will refer 
him, a most beautiful and accurate analysis of his own mind — a cor- 
"ect delineation of his own character and talents, and a perfect clas- 
sification of all his mental operations, and thus enable him to judge 
experimentally of the truth of the science. 

6. The moral and theological bearing of the science is one of the 
most important points connected with it, and is presented in the 
;atter part of this work, and discussed in such a manner, it is be- 
lieved, as to wipe out the disgraceful stigma heretofore cast upon 
Phrenology by branding it as a science whose doctrines lead to infi- 
delity, fatalism, and so forth. The Authors trust that they have en- 
tirely scraped off from it this moral fungus, and clearly shown, that, 
so far from itn being a legitimate shoot springing naturally from the 
phrenological stock, it is a vile and baneful exotick, wholly engen- 
dered in the mi«ds of immoral, misguided, or designing mctt: and 
thus, by clearin Q the skirts of Phrenology from every thing impure, 
anti-christian, or unholy, they trust they have rendered an accept- 
able service both to the eaiyse of science and of pure morality and 
true reiigion. 

The gT'eat haste in which this volume has necessarily been pre- 

Eared ft>i? the press, is the only reasonable apology which the Author* 
ave to offer for its numerous defects; and even this, it mu<~' be con- 
fefssed, §' to - *e hackneyed than weighty. 

TL- M&tBtrr* will be found at the end of the work. 




Phrenology professes to point out a connexion between 
certain manifestations of the mind, and particular conditions 
and developments of the brain. It asserts, for example, that 
the feeling of benevolence or kindness, is always manifested 
and indicated by means of, and in proportion to, a given por- 
tion of the brain ; (see cuts;) and that the same is true oi 
cautiousness or circumspection, of love, hatred, and reason, 
and of all the other mental faculties and feelings ; and, vice 
versa, that the relative developments and various conditions 
of given portions of the brain, manifest and indicate the 
character and talents of individuals ; so that the one can be 
always ascertained by an observance of the other. 

Phrenology also claims to be a new and complete system 
of intellectual and moral philosophy, and professes to devel- 
op and illustrate the fundamental principles of human nature 
— principles which are inseparably connected with man's im- 
provement and happiness, and which embrace every thing 
pertaining to him as a physical, moral, and intellectual be- 
ing. It rests for support, in part, upon the truth of the fol- 
lowing propositions. 

I. The brain is the organ of the mind, or that corporeal 
instrument which the mind employs in the exercise of 
thought and feeling. This proposition is established by the 
following arguments. 

First. How impossible soever it may be for us to compre- 
hend the connexion between mind and matter, it is, neverthe- 
less, indisputably true, that we have no knowledge of the 
operations of the mind, except through the medium of its 
physical organ, the body. This fact admits of the most am- 
ple proof ; but, without proof, it must be obvious to every ene 



who reflects at all — obvious that we know nothing of mind, 
in this life, as a separate entity, or a thing that acts indepen- 
dently of its organick apparatus. 

Second. Since the body is the instrument of the mind, 3t 
follows, that the mind must act upon the physical wori:., 
either directly through the whole body, or by means of some 
particular portion of it. But it would be absurd to suppose, 
that the mind employs the whole body as its corporeal organ; 
for it is well known, that the various parts of the human 
frame, with the exception of the brain,* such as the limbs,, 
the lungs, the heart, the liver, the stomach, the viscera, &c, 
are exclusively occupied, each in performing its particular 
class of functions. Hence it may be inferred, analogically 
that some particular portion of the body is allotted to the 
exercise of the mental functions — a class of functions im- 
mensely more important than all those which fall to the lot of 
the whole body besides : and inasmuch as all the other parts 
of the body are known to be employed in the performance 0/ 
the other functions, it follows, that the brain must be devoted 
to the performance of the intellectual functions. 

Third. Another and, perhaps, stronger evidence that the 
brain is the organ of the mind, may be derived from its im- 
portant location in the human frame, and the extreme deli- 
cacy of its wonderful structure. Look at its commanding 
position, in the superiour and crowning portion of this ma- 
jestick structure called man ! See the matchless skill of the 
Divine Architect displayed in protecting, from external in- 
jury, this exquisitely-wrought instrument ; first, by the scull 
so elegantly and wonderfully shaped, and so judiciously di 
vided into its various frontal, lateral, and occipital portions: 
and all these so ingeniously and so strongly joined togethei 
by their respective sutures ! And in order still farther to 
strengthen this bulwark of the intellect, we find the scul) 
again divided into its external and internal tables ; and these 
tables supported and united by an intervening, spongy sub- 
stance called diploe, which renders it less liable to be cracked 
or broken. This ossifick ball is also strengthened by the 
scalp or skin ; and this, again, is both protected and adorned 
by a thick coat of flowing hair. But, when we take a view 
of the interiour of this " dome of thought," this " palace ol 
the soul," and survey its beautiful chambeis, so superbly 

* The spleen may also be considered another exception ; but it is too units 
Dortant te be noticed in the argument. 



lined With the dura mater — when we look at the pia mater, 
which envelops the brain, and at the ingenious contrivance 
of that secreting membrane, the tunica arachnoidea, placed 
between ;he dura and the pia mater to lubricate and soften 
both — when we examine the partition walls of these cham- 
bers, formed by the falciform process of the dura mater, and 
the connecting fibres of the two hemispheres of the brain, 
styled the corpus callosum — when we scrutinize the cineri- 
tious substance of which the brain itself is composed, and 
notice the beautiful convolutions in which it is deposited — 
when we observe that this organ is the grand centre of all 
the most delicate and intricate machinery of the human frame, 
the finale of the spinal marrow, and of the whole nervous 
system, and, moreover, the recipient of, at least, one-third of 
the vital flood propelled by the heart — when we look at all 
this, the conviction is forced home upon us, that the Great 
Architect would not be likely to make such a display of wis- 
dom and skill in the formation, location, and protection of the 
brain, unless, in doing so, he had some important end in 
new — unless, in short, he designed the brain to perform the 
mental functions. 

Fourth. It has been fully proved by anatomical demonstra- 
tions, that the nerves of feeling, seeing, hearing, smelling, 
&c, have their origin in the brain, and even compose a por- 
tion of that organ : and the functions of these nerves, consti- 
tute a portion of the intellectual operations. Now, since a 
■portion of the mental functions, is performed by a part of the 
brain, it is a logical induction to infer, that the remaining 
mental operations are performed by the remaining portions 
of the brain ; and, without first showing by tohat organ or 
organs the other intellectual phenomena are performed, no 
one can logically call in question this induction. 

Fifth. An inflammation of the brain produces a derange- 
ment of the mental faculties ; and its debility causes mental 
weakness, and sometimes even imbecility ; but no such effects 
are produced by the inflammation or debility of any other 
portion of the body. A suspension of the action of the brain 
by pressure, or other causes, produces a suspension of the 
action of the mind, while the animal functions continue to 
operate. The destruction or injury of even a portion of the 
brain, (when it reaches an organ on both sides of the head,) 
causes a derangement of some of the mental faculties; but 
the mutilation of any other part of the body, such, f ir exam 



pie, as the amputation of a limb, produces no such eflect 
How can these things be accounted for on any other princi- 
ple than that which recognises the brain as the organ of the 

Sixth. There is found to exist a reciprocal proportion be- 
tween the power and qualities of the mind, and the size, 
activity, and shape of the brain. An observation of the va- 
rious classes of animals, will illustrate this position. The 
worm has little or no brain, and (except sensation) little or 
no intellect or passion. The frog, the toad, the turtle, &c. 
have a contracted and flattened brain, and the mental powers 
proportionally weak. The dog, the monkey, the elephant, 
&c, possess a cerebral development far superiour to those 
animals last-named, and an intellect equally superiour. Idi- 
ots are found to possess brains vastly inferiour to those be- 
longing to men of ordinary talents ; and these, again, a 
development of this organ far inferiour to that of a Frank- 
lin, a Bacon, a De Witt Clinton, a Webster, a Bonaparte, a 
Sir Walter Scott, &e. : in other words, as we rise in the 
scale of animated being from the lowest grade tothe highest, 
at every ascending step, we invariably find, particularly in 
the coronal and frontal regions of the head, (in which, 
according to phrenology, the intellectual and moral organs 
are located,) an additional amount of brain. Are these 
things merely the result of chance ; or do they show de- 
sign 1 — are they merely accidental ; or are they the result 
of fixed and immutable laws ? 

Other arguments in favour of the proposition that the 
brain is the organ of the mind, might easily be adduced ; 
but, since it is generally admitted by the great naturalists, 
anatomists, physiologists, metaphysicians, and philosophers, 
it might fairly be assumed, and the burden of proof thrown 
upon those who call it in question. 

II. The mind consists of a plurality of innate and inde- 
pendent faculties — a congregate of separate, primary pow- 
ers. The truth of this proposition may be shown by the 
following arguments. 

First. The mind performs different classes of functions 
or various kinds of operations, such as love, hatred, fear, 
reason, sensation, &c. ; and, throughout all nature, different 
classes of functions are always performed by different in- 
struments. It is admitted, that seeing and hearing are men- 
tal operations, and, also, that they are performed bv different 


faculties. (See second argument under this proposition.) It 
is likewise admitted, that the functions of love, hatred, rea- 
son, &c, are intellectual functions, differing in their nature 
and qualities no less than those of seeing and hearing. If, 
then, the economy of nature requires, that the mental opera- 
tions of seeing and hearing, should be performed by differ 
ent faculties, why should not the same economy also demand, 
that the mental operations of loving, hating, reasoning, &c. 
should also be performed by as many different faculties % 
The mind, therefore, consists of as many different faculties, 
or primary powers, as it performs different classes of func' 

Second. The mind is capable of doing several things at 
the same time — of seeing and loving a friend, of reasoning 
and feeling upon a subject, of talking, walking, looking, 
thinking, hearing, &c, and all simultaneously ; which could 
not possibly be done by a single faculty. According to the 
theory of Dr. Thomas Brown,* the mind is but a single 
faculty or power, and all the various mental operations are 
the product of this single faculty in different states, or modes 
of action: — seeing, for example, is the mind, or, what is the 
same thing, the man, in a state of seeing ; hating, the mind, 
or the nan, in a state of hating ; reasoning, the man m a 
state of reasoning, &c. If this is so, how can the same 
mind, or, what is equivalent, the same man, be in two or 
more different states at the same instant ? How can an in- 
dividual, at one and the same time, be wholly engrossed in 
seeing his friend and in loving him? How can a speaker 
carry on, simultaneously, a train of thought and a process 
of feeling ? or how can he reason better when excited than 
when not excited 1 If this theory were true, while looking 
at a wound we could not feel its pain, but, with perfect ease, 
we might relieve its pain by simply looking at the wound, 
or at any other object, or by engaging the mind in the exer- 
cise of any other function ; for, inasmuch as it would be im- 
possible for us both to see and feel at the same time, the 
instant we should begin to look, or think, or do any thing 
else, we shoulo cease to feel. But since we can see the per- 
forating needle whilst we feel its smart ; can see our friend 
whilst loving him ; can be, at the same instant, both devising 
and executing ; can be walking, and talking, and seeing, ana 

* Brown's Philosophy of the Human Miud. 



feeling, and reasoning, &c. simultaneously, and as ths#e 
require each the exercise of the mind, it follows, that these 
various classes of functions, and, by a parity of reasoning, that 
all the different classes of mental functions, are performed 
by as many different faculties, several of which crm be in 
simultaneous action. 

The supporters of Dr. Brown's theory, maintain, indeed., 
that the mind can perform but one class of functions at a 
time ; but this can easily be shown to be incorrect ; for, ii 
this position were true, the moment one should begin to 
walk, which requires the exercise of the mind, and all the 
time he is engaged in walking, he must necessarily cease to 
perform any and all other functions ; and so of seeing, hear- 
ing, feeling, &c. Suppose, for example, an orator is deeply 
engaged in addressing an audience : according to this the- 
™y, he must be engaged one moment in thinking, the next, 
m feeling, the next, in looking at his audience, the next, in 
gesticulation, and so on through the whole round of mental 
operations which it is necessary far him to perforin, before 
he can recommence the circuit of the various functions en- 
tering into the delivery of his discourse; but, it is evident, 
that he may be, at one ana, the same time, beholding his au- 
dience, gesticulating, and pouring forth a powerful current 
of thought commingled with deep emotion ; or, in other 
words, at one and the same time, exercising all the various 
faculties necessary to the performance of his oratorical 

But, say the supporters of this theory, in such instances, 
the mind does not perform several classes of functions at the 
same time, but its transition from one class to another, is sc 
rapid as not to be observable. Let us look at this argument. 
It cannot be denied, that an organ which performs any por- 
tion of a class of functions, always performs the vjhole of 
that class — that, for example, the organ of vision does all 
the seeing, and that no seeing can be effected without its 
agency and action; that no digestion can be performed with- 
out the action of the stomach ; that no sensation can take 
place except by the instrumentality of the nerves of feeling; 
no motion, except by the muscles, and so on ; and that this 
principle holds good throughout all the operations of nature : 
and hence it follows, that the action of the brain, (which has 
been proved to be the organ of the mind,) is just as neces- 
sary in every, as in any, operation of the mind; and, conse 



quentJy, that there can be no operation of the mind without 
a corresponding- action of the brain : and, moreover, that a 
shange in the operations of the mind, must necessarily pro- 
duce a change in the action of the brain. If, then, the mind 
were a single faculty, and, consequently, the brain a single 
organ, their united transition from one class of functions to 
another, could be no more rapid or instantaneous than that of 
the eye, the finger, or any other corporeal organ, and, of 
course, not so instantaneous as not to be observable ; and, if 
not observable, (which all will admit,) it cannot exist : and, 
therefore, the mind cannot be a single faculty. But according 
to the principle, that the mind consists of a plurality of facul- 
ties, any, or even all, of these faculties may be in simultane- 
ous and harmonious action — a principle as remarkable for 
beauty and consistency, as the old theory is for deformity 
and absurdity. 

Third. The diversity of human character and talents, 
proves the plurality of the mental faculties. If the mind 
were a single faculty, all minds must be exactly alike in 
their nature, their qualities, and their modes of action, and 
could differ only in their strength and activity ; which is 
by no means the case: but, if different minds possess the 
various faculties in different degrees of development, they 
must, like the primary colours mingled in various propor- 
tions, differ accordingly ; which is the fact. If the mind 
were a single faculty, it could work just as well in one har- 
ness as in another — could perform all classes of mental op 
erations with equal facility and success ; and every man 
could succeed equally well in any and in every pursuit — 
equally well as a poet, a painter, a musician, a logician, an 
orator, a mathematician, a linguist, a mechanick, a naturalist, 
a divine, and, in short, in every calling, and in every department 
of literature and science. Partial genius, or a taste and tal- 
ent for doing particular things, striking instances of which 
frequently occur, could not then exist; but all men would be 
equally capable of succeeding equally well in any thing and 
in every thing. This, however, the experience of almost 
every individual, even from the very cradle, proves to be erro- 
neous. Those who are idiots in some things, are often re- 
markably gifted in other things ; which proves that such, 
and, by a parity of reasoning, that all mankind, possess dif- 
ferent mental faculties, and in various degrees of strength 
and activity. 



Fourth. According to the principle, that the mind consist! 
of several faculties, it is evident that, in a given time, it can 
perform, not only a greater number, but also, a greater vari- 
ety, of operations, which would render it proportionally the 
more perfect and useful. In order to show the force of this 
argument, let us suppose that the body were so constituted 
as to be incapable of performing more than one class of 
functions at a time, so that, whilst performing the function 0/ 
respiration, for example, it would be incapable of exercising 
any other function — whilst executing the function of seeing, 
that of hearing, of feeling, of digestion, and of every thing- 
else, must cease. How infinitely inferiour must such a ma 
chine be, to the magnificent structure which we now pos- 
sess — a structure capable of proceeding, in the most easv 
and elegant manner, in the simultaneous performance of 
many widely different classes of functions ! As, in the op- 
erations of the body, scarcely any thing important is ever 
effected which does not require the cooperation of several, 
different organs, so is it with respect to the operations of the 
mind, for we rarely meet with any of its products that do not 
evince the combined efforts of several of its faculties. If 
we look into an author, for example, we can seldom proceed 
far without meeting with a thought that displays the com- 
bined action of reason, wit, fancy, and so forth. 

Fifth. That the mind consists of a plurality of faculties, 
may be proved, in the fifth place, by a reference to the men- 
tal exercise of memory, by which we are to understand, a 
reminiscence of the operations of the mind. It has been 
shown, that, if the mind were a single faculty, its operation 
would be just as powerful in all classes of functions, as in 
any class. In this case, it could not only remember, judge, in- 
vent, construct, copy, &c, with equal success, but its memory 
would be just as strong when exercised upon one class of 
facts, as when upon any other class ; and, consequently, 
every one would be able to remember every class of facts 
with equal ease and tenacity. But this is seldom, if ever, 
the case. Almost every individual is a living witness to the 
opposite state of things : in proof of which, it is necessSry 
only to appeal to observation and experience. Most persons 
find it as easy to remember some things, as it is difficult to 
remember others: they often find that their associates rec 
ollect what they forget, and forget what they remember. 
Tt is both natural and easy for some persons to remembei 



faces, but to forget names ; whilst others forget faces, but re- 
collect names. The same holds true of size, weight, col- 
ours, dates, tunes, places, incidents, &c. Hence, there are 
many kinds of memory ; but this could not be the case if the 
mind were a single faculty : therefore, if we admit — what, 
indeed, the phenomena of memory compel us to admit — that 
there are many kinds of memory, we must also admit, that 
there are, at least, as mcv ty separate intellectual faculties, as 
there are sorts of memory : ergo, the mind consists of a 
plurality of faculties. 

Sixth. A plurality of the mental faculties, is also estab- 
lished by the phenomena of dreaming. If the mind were a 
unity, it would act or repose, be asleep or awake, as a whole; 
that is, one portion of it could not be awake and active, 
whilst the remainder slept ; and, consequently, all its phe- 
nomena, so far as produced at all, would be in perfect har- 
mony with each other. But this would entirely preclude 
the phenomena of dreaming ; or, at least, that kind of dream- 
ing so very common, in which numerous vivid emotions, 
such as joy, grief, terrour, fear, affection, &c. arise, succeed 
one another, and depart, without the control of the reason- 
ing faculties. These phenomena, however, perfectly har- 
monize with the doctrine of a plurality of faculties, some of 
which, being awake and excited to action by some stimulus 
which does not affect the other faculties, present those dis- 
ordered ideas and feelings which constitute a dream, whilst 
the repose of the others, permits this disordered action. 

Seventh. Partial insanity, or monomania, is utterly at va- 
riance with the idea that the mind is a single faculty, em- 
ploying in its operations but a single organ. A derange- 
ment of the mind can be caused only by a derangement of 
the brain. Now, if all classes of the mental functions, were 
performed by a single organ, it is evident, that a derange- 
ment of this organ, would cause a corresponding and uni- 
form derangement of all the operations of the mind : 
whereas, cases of monomania, ox a derangement that extends 
to on^y one or two classes of the mental operations, whilst 
all the other classes are performed with perfect sanity and 
propriety, very frequently occur. This, indeed, is the most 
common form in which derangement appears, many instances 
of which have fallen under the author's own observation. 
We often meet with persons deranged in the matter of love, 
or hatred, or on the subject of religion, or with respect to 



prop? Ay, &c, whilst they are perfectly ratic rial on every 
other oubiect ; but, if one and the same faculty exercised the 
various functions of love, and hatred, and religious feeling 
&c, and, aiSO, all the other mental functions, it would be im 
possible for this single faculty to be deranged in the perform- 
ance of these first-named functions, whilst it was perfectly * 
sane in the exercise of all its other functions : consequently 
it is impossible for the mind to consist of only a single fac- 

Eighth. The relief, and even refreshment, afforded to the 
mind by a change of thought, study, feeling, &c, furnish 
another evidence of a plurality of the mental faculties; for 
if the mind were but a single faculty, this single faculty 
would have to perform all the mental operations, and, con- 
sequently, would be just as much exhausted and fatigued by 
its exercise in performing any one class of functions, as in 
any other class; and, therefore, when fatigued by exercising 
one class of functions, it could, not only, not be relieved or 
refreshed, but would be still farther exhausted, by dropping 
that class, and taking up another. But what is the language 
of facts touching this subject ? How is it that the mechan- 
ick, when fatigued by hard labour in his shop, experiences 
relief and refreshment by taking a smart walk to his meals? 
Not, as has been intimated by some, by the mere novelty 
presented by the change, but, by giving rest to the fatigued 
organs, and by bringing into exercise another set of organs. 
What is here predicated of the physical phenomena, holds 
equally true when applied to the intellectual. 

The student, for example, when suffering great fatigue of 
mind from a long and continued pursuit of mathematicks, or 
metaphysicks, often turns to chymistry, history, the study of 
language, of geography, or, perhaps, a work of imagina- 
tion, with new vigour and fresh delight, although his fatigue 
of mind is too great any longer to continue the first study 
The fact that a change of subjects or studies, affords relie 
and refreshment to the mind, is too familiar to need farther 
illustration ; and the inference to be drawn from it, is^pei 
fectly obvious, namely, that this change which presents an 
other subject of study, calls into exercise another set of fac 

' For a farther illustration of this point, see Dr. A. Combe, and also Dr. Spun 

heiui, upon Insanity. 



Thus it would appear, that the various arguments under 
this second proposition, namely, that the mind performs dif- 
ferent classes of functions — that it is capable of performing 
several classes of functions at the same time — that different 
individuals possess the various mental faculties in different 
degrees of strength and power, constituting what is called 
partial genius — that the perfection of the mind requires thai 
it should be composed of many faculties — that the phenom- 
ena of the various kinds of memory, could not be produced 
by a single faculty — that the phenomena of dreaming could 
not result from the operation of a single faculty — that partial 
insanity is inconsistent with the idea of but a single mental 
Dower — and that the relief which the mind experiences by a 
change of subject, is owing to the exercise of another set of 
faculties, one and all, clearly demonstrate the truth of the 
proposition, that the mind is a plurality of innate and inde- 
pendent faculties, and that this is a fundamental and consti- 
tutional principle of the human mind. Many other argu- 
ments in proof of this position, might readily be adduced ; 
but it is believed that the foregoing are abundantly sufficient. 

In the general argument in proof of the truth of phrenol- 
ogy, this proposition is all-important, and even fundamental. 
It is, indeed, the test and touchstone of the truth of the sci- 
ence. If this proposition should be disproved, phrenology 
would fall, " like the baseless fabrick of a vision, and leave not 
a wreck behind ;" but if, in connexion with the preceding 
proposition, it be established, there can be no such thing as 
evading the inference, that phrenology is true : and when 
we prove that phrenology is true, we sweep away, like spi- 
ders' webs, all the old and crude theories of mental philoso- 
phy, and, in their stead, establish, upon an immoveable basis, 
the beautiful and splendid superstructure of phrenological 

III. The brain consists of as many different portions or 
organs, as the mind does of faculties. Throughout all 
Qature, different classes of functions are always performed 
oy different instruments ; and no single organ is known to 
erform more than one class of functions. It has already 
een stated, that the organs of seeing, hearing, sensation, 
&c, have been proved each to perform its respective, intel- 
lectual function exclusively by means of a particular portion 
of the brain ; and hence it follows analogically, that ah the 



other mental faculties must also perform their functions by 
means of the other portions of the brain. 

In support of this third proposition, innumerable facts have 
heretofore been brought forward by phrenologists, in addi- 
tion to which the author takes the liberty of presenting a 
few of the many that have fallen under his own observation. 

He once examined the head of a lady who was deranged 
in the matter of conscience, but perfectly sane in every othw 
respect. He found the organ of conscientiousness to be very 
large, and much heated, or much warmer than any other por- 
tion of the head. At the request of the author, other per- 
sons present who were disbelievers in phrenology, applied 
their hands to the head, and very readily perceived, and bore 
testimony to, the fact. 

While practising phrenology in Brattleborough, Vt., a 
lady called upon the author, stating that she laboured under 
a great difficulty in expressing her ideas. He remarked that 
her organ of language was large, and asked if it had al- 
ways been so. She replied, that, until she had an inflamma- 
tion of the brain, which was particularly severe about the 
eyes, (above which, this organ is located,) causing excruci- 
ating pain in those parts, she could talk with fluency; but 
since that time, she often hesitated for words in which to ex- 
press the most commonplace ideas. The organ of language 
being situated upon the superorbiter plate, its inflammation 
might easily be mistaken for an inflammation of the eyes. 

A little girl of Washington, D. C, received a fracture of 
the scull in the region in which the organ of tune is located. 
Whilst confined with this wound, which had become irri 
tated, she experienced, what had never been manifested be- 
fore, a strong and involuntary propensity to sing. Thus- 
the phenomena of musick was produced by what, under or- 
dinary circumstances, we should expect to prevent it, viz. a 
wound ; and the only solution of the case, seems entirely to 
turn upon the fact, that the inflammation was connected with 
the phrenological organ of tune. This case was stated to 
the author in 1 835, by Dr. Miller, at the house, and in the 
presence, of Dr. Sewall a distinguished physician and anti- 

Several cases of monomania, produced by wounds and in- 
flammation in the cerebellum, in which the feeling of ama 
tiveness was deranged, have been related to the author. One 
was that of a gentleman in the west, who had to submit to 



the discipline of the straight-jacket, and who died the ninth 
day of the disease, reported to the author by a Mr. C. An- 
other case of the same kind, was reported by Dr. Miller of 
Baltimore, and another by Dr. Jackson of Boston ; which, 
together with the thousands of similar ones stated by Drs. 
Gall, Spurzheim, and others, all tend to confirm the truth of 
the proposition, that the brain consists of a plurality of or- 

The author saw a man in Hatfield, Mass., who possesses 
good talents, but who is deranged in the matter of love, while 
he is sane in other respects. He is often complaining of a 
compressed sensation, and of a buzzing sound, exactly in 
that portion of the head in which the organ of adhesiveness 
is located. Many other cases in which the individuals were 
rational, but whose attachments had been interrupted, have 
fallen under the author's observation, and in all of which 
they complained of a soreness in the same place. In one of 
these instances, the individual was unable to rest the back 
part of the head upon a pillow, and suffered so much from 
the presence of pain as to call in a physician :* meanwhile 
the mental suffering, caused by the absence of the object of 
attachment, was almost insupportable. 

Did the proposed limits of this work permit, many more 
similar facts would be presented, but those given are deemed 
sufficiently numerous to prove a reciprocal connexion be- 
tween the diseased condition of certain portions of the brain, 
and a derangement of particular classes of the mental func 
tions. Here, then, we rest the argument. If the brain is a 
unity, a disease of any portion of it, must affect it as a whole , 
and, consequently, (on the supposition that the brain is the 
organ of the mind,) equally affect every function of the 
mind ; yet, since this is not only, not borne out by facts, but 
even in direct opposition to them, the only remaining con- 
clusion is, that, instead of the whole brain's being employed 
by each, separate feculty of the mind, one portion of it is 
employed by that faculty, for example, which performs the 
function of anger, another portion by that which exercises 
fear, and another by that which exercises reason, and so of 
all the other mental functions. The contrary supposition is 

'Through ignorance of the real cause of the disease, the mode of tre?iment 
adopted in this case, was very injurious and highly reprehensible. Instead of al- 
lying the excitRment, by removing the inflammation, a blister was applied, wUicV 
greatly increased the disease. 


as absurd, and as much opposed to all analogy, both physical 
and intellectual, as to suppose that the whole body should be 
employed in seeing, the whole in hearing, in digestion, in 
respiration, and in every other particular function : and if 
this connexion between the faculties of the mind and par- 
ticular portions of the brain, exists at all, it follows, that there 
can be no exercise of the one, without a reciprocal action Oi 
the other ; or, in other words, that there can be no exercise 
of a faculty, without the exercise of its corresponding or- 
gan ; and, vice versa, no exercise of an organ, without the 
exercise of its corresponding faculty. The great Author of 
nature would not have established this mutual connexion, 
unless the economy of nature required it ; and if this econ- 
omy requires it in any one instance, it must, for the same 
reason, equally demand it in every instance. 

It may also be added in this connexion, that, according to 
the theory of the unity of the brain, each faculty must, of 
necessity, use the brain as a whole in succession, which pre- 
cludes the possibility of that common and necessary phenom- 
ena of the mind, namely, its simultaneous exercise of several 

IV. The various faculties of the mind are possessed, orig- 
inally, in different degrees of strength by different indi- 
viduals, and also by the same individual. There exists a 
toto celo difference between a Shakspeare and a Franklin, a 
Howard and a Nero, a Raphael and a Washington, a Ben- 
jamin West and a Patrick Henry — a difference which nei- 
ther education nor circumstances could create, nor even 
essentially modify. So strong was the passion for painting 
with West, that he bid defiance both to the corrections of 
his school-teacher, and the frowns of his parents, and seclu- 
ded himself in his garret merely to indulge it ; and even 
while a mere child, and without instruction, he conceived 
and executed some of his most beautiful designs. Diversi- 
ty and variety characterize the intellects and the feelings of 
men, at least, as much as they do their countenances, and 
that, even from the first dawn of the mind, and not unfre- 
quently in opposition to circumstances. This diversity of 
human intellects, dispositions, predilections, talents, &c, is 
too common and too striking to need illustration. Every 
individual, in a greater or less degree, furnishes an illustra- 
tion of this fact. It has even passed into a proverb, that ■' a 
poet must be born, and not made; u and this applies equally 



to the artist, the orator, ths mechanick, the divine, the natu- 
ralist the accountant, and even to all who excel in any par- 
ticular calling. The happiness of society, and the improve- 
ment of mankind, absolutely demand this variety of talents 
and character ; and, in accordance with this demand, the 
Creator doubtless intends, and, therefore, qualifies, one man 
for one sphere of action, and another, for another sphere. 

If this diversity and variety did not exist, it is evident from 
'.he principle, that like causes produce like effects, that, in 
all cases, the same circumstances would form similar char- 
acters, and opposite circumstances, opposite characters ; or, 
rather, that the character and talents of men would vary in 
exact proportion to the variation of their education, circum- 
stances in life, &c, so that, the one could always be estima- 
ted from a knowledge of the other ; but the fact is, similar 
circumstances often produce opposite characters and talents, 
and opposite circumstances, similar characters and talents. 
The conclusion, then, both a priori and from facts, is, that 
the various faculties are imparted to different individuals, and 
even to the same individual, originally, in different degrees 
of strength. The force of education, however, in impro- 
ving or perverting the faculties, as originally bestowed, in 
modifying their relative power, and in changing their direc- 
tion, is not intended here to be denied. 

V. There exists a reciprocal proportion between the rel- 
ative strength and poioer of the various mental faculties, 
and the size of those portions of the brain, or those organs, 
■ l y ivhich they are severally manifested. It has already been 
shown, that each mental faculty is exercised, exclusively, by 
means of one particular portion of the brain ; and, upon the 
principle, which holds good throughout all nature, that, 
other conditions being equal, size is always the measure of 
power* — a principle too familiar to require proof — it follows, 
that the stronger a faculty is, the larger must be its organ ; 
and, vice versa, the larger an organ, the stronger its faculty. 

This proposition is also rendered evident from the estab- 
lished and familiar, physiological principle, that the exercise 
of any corporeal organ, causes its increase. The exercise 
of the arm of the blacksmith, causes its enlargement. Those 
who spend their lives at the oar, thereby greatly augment 
the size of their arms and chests, while the lower extre -w* 

• (tee Combe's System of Phrenology, rages 23 to 29, and 80 to 98. 



ties are comparatively feeble. Labouring men generally 

possess much larger bodies, and much smaller heads, than 
literary and scientifick men. Give a child no exercise, and 
you thereby make him a dwarf. Cease to exercise any por 
lion of the body, and it diminishes in size and strength. 

Now, since the brain is one of the corporeal organs, it 
follows, (until the brain is shown to form an exception to 
the action of this law,) that the same common law of increase 
by exercise, and of decrease by inaction, which has been 
shown to govern the other corporeal organs, equally governs 
the organs of the brain, causing their increase in proportion 
to their exercise. And, since it has been shown, that the va- 
rious faculties of the mind manifest their functions by means 
of as many organs of the brain — that these faculties differ 
in their strength — that the exercise of these organs must be 
proportionate to that of their corresponding faculties — and 
that the increase of these organs must be proportionate to 
their exercise, it necessarily follows, that the increase of each 
organ, must be proportionate to the exercise of its faculty ; 
that, for example, if, in the exercise of the function of con- 
scientiousness, an individual calls into action a given portion 
of the brain, (see cuts,) and in the exercise of benevolence, 
another portion, he must exercise, and, of course, increase, 
the organ of benevolence more than he does that of consci- 
entiousness, in proportion as he is more benevolent than he 
Is conscientious; and that the same holds true with respect 
to all the other faculties of the mind, and their corresponding 
organs of the brain. Hence, a proportion between the two, 
must necessarily exist. 

VI. The shape of the brain may generally be ascertain' 
ed by the form of the scull ; or, in other words, an increase 
of the various portions of the brain, causes a corresponding 
increase of the portions of the scull above them ; for, inas- 
much as the scull is moulded and adapted to the brain, the 
conformation of the brain determines the shape of the scull, 
and, with a few unimportant exceptions, corresponds with it 

The scull is merely the protector of the brain, and sub- 
servient to it; that is, the scull is formed for the brain, ana 
not the brain for the scull. How unreasonable, then, it, 
suppose, that the scull should throw any obstruction in the 
way of the development of the brain ! This would be like 
assuming, that men are made for the houses they occupy 
and not the houses for the men. Wliatl one operation o 


nature interfere with, and prevent, another operation of na- 
ture ! Does the bark of a tree obstruct the growth of the 
tree ? Does the shell of the oyster, the lobster, or the turtle, 
prevent the increase of, or give shape to, the body of these 
animals ? As well might we assume, that the skin gives 
shape to, and prevents the growth of, the arm, the hand, or 
the scull, as to suppose that the scull controls the size and 
shape of the brain. 

It is brought forward as an objection to phrenology, that 
an enlargement of the scull can take place, only by the me- 
chanical pressure of the brain, and that the brain is too soft 
i substance to produce such an influence upon the scull. 
This objection is fully answered by an appeal to that general 
law of nature which accounts for the gradual expansion 
of the scull as the individual advances in years, by the anal- 
ogy of growth and formation as displayed in all her works. 
Are not the gradual growth and formation of the wood and 
bark of the tree, both mutual and natural I And does not 
the same hold true of the hard and soft parts of the shell-fish, 
and of every thing analogous in nature ? Can we conceive 
any thing more mysterious or difficult in this, than in any 
other operation of nature? Is there any thing more unac- 
countable in the formation and growth of the brain and scull, 
than in that of the wood and bark of a tree ? The clear 
voice of facts speaks in the language of demonstration upon 
this subject : and from its decision, there is no appeal. Not 
only does the whole head, which, of course, includes the 
scull, and all the various parts of the head, increase up to 
the age of thirty or more, but the form of the head changes, 
more or less, "from the cradle to the grave." 

In children the cerebellum (organ of amativeness) is 
commonly very small. In middle aged persons (when the 
vigour of the passion is greatest) its proportionate size is 
greatly increased ; and in aged persons, again diminished ; 
and the scull adapts itself to this increase and decrease. The 
middle of the foreheads of children and youth, is, in general, 
extremely full and rounded, while that of men is generally 

Nor is this the only class of facts bearing upon this point. 
Numerous instances of the increase of various portions of 
the scull, while other portions remained stationary, might 
oe cited ; yet, why should we consume time upon the prop- 
osition, that the external surface of the brain ar\d scull, in 



general, correspond — a proposition which is not only a mat 

ter of observation, and which is demonstrated by almost every 
scull upon which we can cast our eyes, but which is already 
proved to our hands by such men as Cuvier, Magendie, 
Charles Bell,* and others of equal learning and authority, and, 
moreover, which is susceptible of physical demonstration? 

It remains, then, for the phrenologist merely to ascertain 
what portions of the brain are employed to manifest the vari- 
ous faculties, and, also, what are the indications upon thw 
ecull of the relative size of these organs, (which, indeed, 
has already been done by the most critical and extensive 
observation,) and then he will have sufficient data from 
which to determine even the minutiae of the character and 
talents, and of the various mental qualities, of any and ol 
every individual. 

In this connexion may be mentioned the fact, that the 
thickness of the scull may be determined by its vibrations jn 
speaking, the tones of the voice, &c. 

VII. The history of the discovery of phrenology, fur- 
nishes ample demonstration of its truth. Like all the other 
exact sciences,! every portion of it was discovered, and 
brought to its present state of perfection, entirely by induc- 
tion — by an observation and a classification of facts. Ik 
originated with Dr. Gall, a celebrated physician of Vienna, 
who noticed, in the first place, a uniform connexion between 
full and prominent eyes, and a talent for committing to mem- 
ory. By this happy circumstance, he was led to look for 

* In Charles Bell's Anat. II. 390, we are furnished with the following passage ■ 
"Thus we find, that the bones of the head are moulded to the brain, and the pe- 
culiar shapes of the bones of the head, are determined by the original peculiari- 
ty in the shape of the brain." It is also added in a note, " I have seen one striking 
instance of the scull's decreasing with the brain. It occurred in an individual 
who died at the age of thirty-two, after having laboured under chronick insanity 
for upwards of ten years, and whose menial weakness augmented in proportion to 
the diminution of the brain and the shrinking of his scull. The diminution ol 
his head in size, attracted his own attention during life." Cuvier is still more im- 
plicit upon the same point. He says, " In all mammiferous animals, the brain is 
moulded in the cavity of the cranium, which it fills exactly : so that the description 
of the osseous part, affords us a knowledge of, at least, the external form of the. 
medullary mass within." Magendie says, "Theonly way of estimating the volurs»f 
of the brain in a living person, is to take the dimensions of the scull," &c. Othef 
authors might be quoted ; but these are sufficient for our purpose ; so that anat 
omists and physicians, at least, cannot, with any appearance of consistency, que»- 
tton this proposition : and no others have any right to do so. Its correctness 
stands, then, unshaken. 

t So many phrenological facts, all, like the converging rays of the concave mir- 
ror, tending to the same focus, all establishing and confirming the same genera? 
principles as the great law of nature, have been collected and classified, that, 
until their opponents, upon whom the burden of proof is thus thrown, explaii 
tiiese facts upon other than phrenological principles, phrenologists have an urn- 
disputed righ^to number it among the " other exact sciences." 



other signs ofi intellect, in other portions of the head, and, 
accordingly, when he ascertained that a certain servant-man 
was pre-eminent for his kindness and goodness, he took a 
cast of his head, and afterwards, the casts of several other 
persons distinguished for the same trait of character. He 
then made a careful examination and comparison' of these 
several casts, and found, that, although they differed in every 
other respect, there was one protuberance, upon the upper 
part of the frontal portion of the head, (see cuts,) common 
to them all. 

The following is the method adopted by Dr. Gall in the 
discovery of combativeness. After collecting a promiscuous 
company of ordinary persons from the streets, he ascertain, 
ed from them which were cowardly, and which, courageous. 
He then placed the former by themselves and the latter by 
themselves, and proceeded to examine and compare the re- 
spective developments of the different portions of their heads, 
until he ascertained, that, notwithstanding the great diver- 
sity of shape in other parts, yet the heads of the courageous 
ones all displayed a fulness and thickness just behind the 
top of the ear, (see cuts,) and that the heads of the cowardly 
were all thin and depressed in that particular region. This 
discovery — as well as that of benevolence — was then applied 
to innumerable other subjects, until its correctness was 
fully established. 

The same plan was afterwards pursued by Drs. Gall and 
Spurzheim, in the discovery of every other organ. They 
travelled through many countries in Europe, visiting the va- 
rious hospitals, prisons, and other places where extreme cases 
of character might be found, and examined the heads of all 
the remarkable persons within their reach, and thus, slowly 
but surely, confirmed the discovery and location of about 
thirty of the phrenological organs : and in this way they 
collected an amount of facts sufficient to fasten conviction 
upon every philosophical mind that will examine them. 
Thus, in the discovery of phrenology, nothing was theo- 
rized ; but every organ was discovered, and that by observ- 
ing, that certain manifestations of the mind, are always ac- 
companied by particular manifestations of the brain. Phre- 
nology rests its claims to respect and belief upon the same 
grounds with the sciences of chymistry, mineralogy, botany, 
electricity, anatomy, and all the other sciences which are de- 
duced from an observance and classification of natural facts 


VIII. The truth of phrenology is mainly supported b§ 
an appeal to the demonstrative evidence of physical facts. 
In this place an allusion can be made to only a few of the 
innumerable facts that have already been observed in support 
of phrenological science. Throughout the whole animal 
kingdom, they abound ; but, more especially, and in the most 
striking manner, are they found to be manifested In that most 
important and wonderful of the animal species — man. 

The human head generally presents a large development 
of the frontal and coronal portions of the brain ; and, accord- 
ing to phrenology, the former of these portions, is the seat of 
the intellectual, and the latter, of the moral, organs; but, in 
the brains of animals, these portions are almost entirely 
wanting, as their heads manifest scarcely any traces of these 
organs : and does not this perfectly correspond with the 
mental qualities of these different classes of beings ? The 
European race (including their descendants in America) 
possess a much larger endowment of these organs, and also 
of their corresponding faculties, than any other portion of 
the human species. Hence, their intellectual and moral su- 
periority over all other races of men. Franklin, Locke, 
Bacon, Browne, Edwards, Webster, and Drs. Richard and 
James Rush, and, indeed, all deep and profound reasoners, 
all original and powerful thinkers, without a solitary excep- 
tion, possess really immense causality and comparison. 
Among all the heads examined and noticed by the author, 
he has never seen one with so very high, broad, and deep a 
forehead t , or, in other words, in which the reasoning organs 
are developed in so extraordinary a manner, as in that of 
Daniel Webster ;* and where do we find his superiour for 
displaying those faculties of the mind which are imparted 
by these organs ? (See comparison and causality very large.) 
Men of ordinary talent, possess a respectable endowment ot 
these organs. The Hindoos, Chinese, American Indians 
and the African race, still less, but much more than the low 
er order of animals. Idiots, scarcely any ; and tho ,bwei 
order of animals, none, or next to none at all. (See iiius 
tration by cuts.) 

The monkey possesses immrnse philoprogenitiveness 

* In the different p^rts of this work, the author occasionally takes the IibertJ 
ef referring to individuals whose permission to lo so, he has not had (he oppof 
Minify to ask. He trusts, however, that the cause of science will be subserw 
fey this license, *nd that this will be received as a sufficient apology for bim. 



amativene?s, and individuality, and large secretiveness, com- 
bativeness, &c, and but very little language, causality, com- 
parison,* and moral organs ; which perfectly corresponds 
with the character of the animal. The crow has very large 
cautiousness and secretiveness, and large combativeness ; the 
cat, the fox, the weasel, and all those animals which employ 
secrecy in catching their prey, possess large cautiousness, 
secretiveness, and destructiveness; the tiger, the lion, the 
leopard, and the panther, or the feline species generally, the 
bear, the wolf, the fox, the hawk, the owl, the eagle, and all 
animals which destroy other animals and live upon their 
flesh, possess, without an individual exception, large com- 
bativeness and immense destructiveness ; while the deer, the 
calf the sheep, the hen, the dove, the pigeon, and all those 
animals which eat no flesh, and are not savage in their na- 
ture, have small combativeness and very little destructiveness. 

The clog has very large locality, and, accordingly, is able 
to pursue the deer for successive days through the deep for- 
est, making almost innumerable turnings and windings, and 
yet, when he gives up the chase, can pursue a direct line to 
his home. The bear and the swine possess the same organ, 
and also the same faculty, in a remarkable degree. The 
familiar fact of tying up a pig in a bag, and of transporting 
him, in this condition, to a distance, is directly in point. It 
is well known, that as soon as he is released, if he has the 
opportunity, he will draw a bee-line for his home. Secre- 
tiveness is so extremely developed in the head of the cat and 
the fox, that the protuberance assumes the appearance of a 
little horn, while destructiveness, though large, comparatively 
retries ; but in the dog and the bear, destructiveness is much 
larger than secretiveness : and this exactly corresponds with 
the character of each. In the gambols of the kitten, and in 
the general disposition of the cat, we see a great deal more of 
secrecy and slyness than of destructiveness ; but in the dog, 
we see the disposition to bite and tear in pieces without the 

* In Ihe monkey, the supercrbiter plate, upon which language is located, anc 
the portion of the scull beneath which causality is situated, are joined together, 
thus indicating a want of these organs. Their want of the corresponding. /acui- 
ties, is equally striking. In the Indian and African races, these portions of the 
ecull are separated, perhaps, one inch and a half; whilst in the miniature bust ot 
Franklin, which is probably not one-tenth the size of his head, these sair.e por- 
tions are separated nearly as far as in the full grown Indian and Africar heads. 
The height of this miniature bust, from the external opening of the ear. is also 
nearly as great as that of the full sized Indian head ; which strictly corresponds 
with the rniral character of each 


use of artifice or cunning. In the head of the monkey, the 
robin, the bluebird, the partridge, and other animals which 
show an extreme fondness for their young, as well as in fe- 
males generally, the organ of philoprogenitiveness is very 
large; while in the male dog, which is a stranger to this 
feeling, no traces of it are to be found. The strength of this 
feeling in the female bear, which, as is well known, will 
fight go desperately for her cubs, corresponds exactly with 
the development of the organ in a scull of the bear now in 
the author's possession.* 

Facts which show the correspondence between the known 
characteristicks of the various classes of animals and their 
phrenological developments, might be added to almost any 
extent, and their correctness demonstrated by the author's 
collection of the sculls of animals. Every menagerie in 
the country affords numerous and striking evidences and 
illustrations of the truth of phrenology. All animated na- 
ture teems with facts in its favour: and no striking instance 
has been, or, the affirmation may be ventured, can be, pro- 
duced, through all the gradations and classes which compose 
the animal kingdom, from the worm up to man, and even 
through all the different races of men, which can show a 
discrepance between the known and marked characteristicks 
of an animal, and the phrenological developments and con- 
ditions of his brain ; but, on the contrary, the coincidences 
between the two, are invariably found to be the most striking 
and satisfactory. Inasmuch, then, as the phrenological 
phenomena, from one end of the chain of animated beings 
to the other, are uniformly found to accord with the characters 
of these beings, it follows, that the same phrenological lav/ 
governs all animals, and, consequently, causes this uni- 

Yet, after all, it is the human species that famishes the 
most varied, the most striking, and the most copious evi- 

* The following aneedote is well authenticated. Recently a former in Allegany 
Co., N. Y., on rising in the morning, discovered that a sow of his haii been killed 
in the sty, and that her litter of pigs was missing: and from the. tracks of a beal 
around the pen. together with copious traces of blood, he concluded that the pigs 
had all been eaten by the bear. Some time after, however, the farmer encoun- 
tered, in the woods, a large female bear; having in her charge and keeping his lost 
litter of pigs^ A sharp conflict ensued. The farmer, determined to recover hia 
stolen property, displayed his combafiveness in a heroiek manner ; and bruin, ac- 
tuated by the still stronger passion of philoprogenitiveness, showed unwonted 
prowess in defending her paternal right to her adopted offspring, until, at length, 
Overcome by the skill of her human antagonist, she took to flight, carrying off one 
of the little squeakers in her mouth. This singular incident clearly shows, thai 
tee beer possessed larger philoprogenitiveness than alimenti'Teness. 



dences and illustrations of the truth and principles of this 
science ; because it is man alone that is capable of perform- 
ing the greatest number, and the most complicated kinds, of 
functions — man, whose rnind can grasp the great, and attend 
to the minute — man, in short, who is lord over all other ter- 
restrial beings. 

A great number of Indian heads and sculls, from many 
of the different American tribes, has fallen under the author's 
observation and inspection ; and he has found, as a general 
feature common to them all, an extreme development of de- 
structiveness, secretiveness, and cautiousness, together with 
a large endowment of individuality, eventuality, tune, con- 
scientiousness, and veneration, and, sometimes, firmness ; 
large approbativeness or self-esteem, and sometimes both 
large; moderate acquisitiveness, benevolence, causality, 
combativeness, amativeness, and constructiveness : and, in 
the female, extremely large adhesiveness and philoprogeni- 
tiveness ; but in the male, philoprogenitiveness moderate. 
This combination of organs indicates just such a character 
as the Indians generally possess. Their extreme destruc- 
tiveness would create a cruel, blood-thirsty, and revengeful 
disposition — a disposition common to the race — which, in 
connexion with their moderate or small benevolence, would 
make them turn a deaf ear to the cries of distress, and steel 
them to such acts of barbarity as they are wont to practise 
in torturing the hapless victims of their vengeance. Their 
extremely large destructiveness combined with their large 
secretiveness and cautiousness, and smaller combativeness, 
would cause them to employ " cunning and stratagem in 
warfare, in preference to open force ;" would give them less 
courage than cruelty ; cause them to be wary, extremely 
cautious in advancing upon an enemy, and to lurk in am- 
bush ; and, with high firmness, admirably fit them to endure 
privation and hardship, and even the most cruel tortures ; 
and, at the same time, render them unconquerable: and it 
to these we add large approbativeness, we may expect them 
to glory in dark deeds of cruelty ; in scalping the fallen foe, 
anci in butchering helpless women and children. 

Their large conscientiousness would make them grateful 
for favours, and, according to their ideas of justice, (which, in 
consequence of their small causality, would be contracted,) 
honest, upright, and faithful to their word ; and these consti- 
tute the principal sum of their moral virtues ; but when w» 



add their high veneration and marvel] ousness, we find them 
credulous, religious, and superstitious. Their small amount 
of brain in the coronal region of the head, when compared 
with their immense development of the animal passions and 
selfish feelings, would bring them chiefly under the domin- 
ion of the animal nature of man, and render them little sus- 
ceptible of becoming civilized, humanized, and educated: 
hence, the rugged soil which they present to the labours of 
the Christian missionary. Their very large individuality 
and locality, and full perceptive organs generally, with their 
large destructiveness, secretiveness, and cautiousness, would 
cause them to delight in the chase, and admirably qualify 
them to succeed in it ; whilst their small causality, would 
render them incapable of producing many inventions and im- 
provements, or of reasoning profoundly. Their small ac- 
quisitiveness would create in them but little desire for prop- 
erty ; and this would result in a want of industry, and leave 
them, as we find them, in a state of comparative destitution 
as regards the comforts, and even the necessaries, of life. 
The very large philoprogenitiveness of their females, admira- 
bly qualifies them to protect and cherish their offspring- under 
the peculiarly disadvantageous circumstances in which they 
are placed ; whilst the small endowment of this faculty in 
their males, would cause them to be comparatively indiffer- 
ent to their children, and to throw the whole burden of taking 
care of them while young, upon the other sex. Their large 
tune, and very large destructiveness, would give them a pas- 
sion for war-songs and war-dances ; and these combined with 
their large eventuality, would cause them to adopt this meth- 
od of perpetuating their warlike exploits. 

In Washington the author examined the heads of aboui 
twenty Indians of the Cherokee delegation to Congress, in 
which he found the animal portion of the brain relatively 
smaller, and the human and reasoning organs much larger, 
than in Indian heads generally; and this perfectly harmon- 
izes with, and accounts for, the fact, that this tribe is less 
savage, and more intellectual, than any other. Indeed, the 
phrenological developments of some of the half-breeds, were 
decisively superiour. Those examined from Indiana, pos- 
sessed a much larger development of destructiveness, and 
were less talented and civilized. Those, again, from the 
Osage tribe, possessed a development still more inferiour, 



and a corresponding- character. A scull* from a tribe of 
cannibals, located near the isthmus of Darien, which was 
examined by the author, presented altogether the worst 
phrenological developments of any scull he ever saw. Ia 
shape, it bore a strong resemblance to that of the monkey, 
•except that destructiveness, secretiveness, and veneration, 
and, perhaps, conscientiousness, were larger. Of intellect, 
of course, these beings possess very little ; and no descrip- 
tion can adequately set forth their barbarity and brutal fero- 
city, no pen describe their degradation. And thus it appears, 
that, in passing from the European race to the Indian, and 
from one tribe of Indians to another, we find, in every in- 
stance, a striking coincidence between the phrenological de- 
velopments of brain, and the known traits of character. 

The African race as found in America, furnish another 
instance of the striking correspondence between their known 
character and their phrenological developments. They pos- 
sess,! in genera], either large, cr very large, adhesiveness, 
philoprogenitiveness, hope, language, and approbativeness, 
or self-esteem, and sometimes both.; large veneration, roar- 
vellousness, individuality, locality, and tune ; with moderate 
causality, constructiveness, and mirthfulness. Combative- 
ness, destructiveness, secretiveness, acquisitiveness, and, per- 
haps, conscientiousness, unlike these organs in the Indian 
head, vary in size, being sometimes very large, and in other 
instances, moderate or small. The size of their heads, is 
generally moderate or small. Their extremely large hope, 
would make them very cheerful, and little anxious about the 
future; and, with their large approbativeness and small ac- 
quisitiveness, extravagant, and predisposed to lead a life of 
ease and idleness. Their very large hope and language, 
with small secretiveness and mirthfulness, would give them 
Hilarity and garrulity, without much pure wit. 

Their large, or very large, tune, which inspires them with 
melody, with their smaller reasoning organs, which give 
hem but few thoughts, and their large language, would fur- 

* A cast of this scull, the author believes, is for sale. 

t Individual exceptions to this description, are frequently to be met wilh, but 
the author is confident, that its general features will be found to be characteristic^. 
What (he negroes are capable of attaining to by education and cultivation, he doea 
not pretend to say. nor is it. necessary to his argument that he should do so ; for he 
is merely pointing out ffce coincidences between their present, character, andtheil 
phrenological developments. This, however, he has observed, that the int.ellec 
lual organs are, in general, much better developed in coloured child-en than in 



man exactly such composition as we meet with in negro 
songs, doggrel rhymes glowing with vivacity and melody, 
and containing many words and repetitions with but few 
ideas. Their small reasoning organs would give them but 
little depth and strength of intellect, and a feeble, judgment, 
with very little talent for contriving and planning. Their 
very large philoprogenitiveness, adhesiveness, and inhabi- 
tiveness, would make them extremely attached to their fami- 
lies and the families of their masters, and pre-eminently 

Their excessively large approbativeness and self-esteem 
would create in them that fondness for dress and show, and 
that pride and vanity, for which they are so remarkable. 
Their large religious organs would produce those strong 
religious emotions, and that disposition to worship, for which 
they are distinguished, as well as those rare specimens oi 
eminent piety sometimes found among them. Their variable 
selfish organs would cause those extremes of temper and 
character which they display, sometimes running into cun- 
ning, thievishness, and general viciousness and cruelty, and 
sometimes showing the opposite character. Their large 
marvellousness accounts for their belief in ghosts and super- 
natural events so often manifested among them ; whilst their 
very large language, combined with their large perceptive 
organs generally, would create in them a desire to learn, and 
enable them to succeed well in many things. 

The phrenological developments and characteristicks of 
the Hindoos, are no less striking. In them the organs of 
destructiveness and combativeness, are generally small ; 
which renders them less cruel and warlike than the Amer- 
ican Indians, or even the European race. Their extremely 
large veneration and marvellousness produce that religious 
enthusiasm and superstition for which they are so noted ; 
and their large acquisitiveness and small conscientiousness 
often make them thievish. 

Another important argument in favour of phrenology, 
may be drawn from the difference in the conformation of the 
heads of the two sexes. In the female character, fondness 
for children, and general attachment, are undoubtedly pre- 
dominating and controlling passions, much stronger, indeed, 
than the same passions in the male sex ; and, accordingly, 
we find the organs of adhesiveness, and, particxilarly, philo- 
progenitiveness, so strongly developed in the female head aa 



to elongate, and even deform, the middle portion of the back 
part of the head, affording a sure sign by which to enable 
the phrenologist to distinguish the female from the male 

The timidity, trepidation, and anxiety of the sex, are pro- 
verbial ; in accordance with which, in their heads we find 
the organ of cautiousness much larger than in the male, and 
eombativeness and destructiveness much smaller : and this 
perfectly harmonizes with the fact, that they are more amia- 
ble, and less cruel, than the other sex. Man possesses more 
dignity, sternness, and force of character than woman, and 
has less to do with trifles ; and we find in his head, not only 
a superiour endowment of eombativeness and destructive- 
ness, but also of self-esteem and firmness. The moral and 
religious organs are generally much larger in the female, 
than in the male, head ; and we know that women are much 
more inclined to religious worship than men. Ideality is 
commonly larger in females ; and in harmony with this, we 
find them more refined and delicate in feeling, and possessed 
of better taste. 

The sympathy and kindness of woman are also proverbial. 
She will go much farther than man (with reverence, and to 
her everlasting honour, be it recorded) in her assiduities and 
unremitting attentions to the sick, the need)'', and the afflict- 
ed ; she will do, she will suffer, she will sacrifice any thing 
and every thing to relieve distress, to bind up the broken- 
hearted, and to pour the oil of consolation into the wounds 
of a troubled soul : and all from pure motives of kindness, 
affection, love, and duty. The phrenologist alone, is capa- 
ble of developing and explaining this interesting mystery. 
He can place his finger upon her superiour organs of benev- 
olence, conscientiousness, adhesiveness, and philoprogeni- 

But the justice of the Great Giver, would not allow the 
sex to lay claim to all that is superiour. The reasoning or- 
gans are not so strongly developed in the softer, as in the 
nobler, sex; (whether from a want of cultivation, or from 
some other cause, the author does not pretend to decide;) 
and, accordingly, we find the former less distinguished for 
originality and power of thought than the latter. 

If the mind were a single faculty, and the brain a single 
organ, and, of course, phrenology a farce, Ave might expect 
to find a uniformity in the shape of the heads of the two 



sexes, and, also, uniform developments in the heads of th© 
various individuals of the same sex ; that is, exactly the re* 
verse of what we find to exist. Now, this marked differ- 
ence in the conformation of the heads of the different races 
of men, of the sexes, and of different individuals, must either 
be designed for some wise purpose, or it must be accidental. 
That it is accidental, no rational mind can believe ; but if it 
is the result of design in the great Author of it, the conclu- 
sion is obvious, that it must have a direct reference to the 
different qualities of mind known to be possessed by these 
different races, sexes, and individuals. 

Thus far, then, the author has presented only a few of the 
numerous classes of facts which go to prove the truth ol 
phrenology. Should he descend to ■particulars, volumes 
would be required to enumerate even the striking instances 
which, in the course of a few years' practice in the science,* 
have fallen under his own observation. Many additional 
facts will be interspersed through the following pages of this 

Phrenology is either wholly true or wholly false. If the 
phenomena which support it, are fortuitous or accidental, the 
truth of phrenology may be doubted ; but if they are the 
result of fixed laws — of the unalterable principles of nature, 
it must be true. But the uniformity and harmony observable 
in these phenomena, render it impossible that they are the 
mere product of chance : hence it is impossible that phrenol- 
ogy can be untrue. Phrenology, then, is consistent in the- 
ory, and, by an appeal to nature and to facts, susceptible of 
physical demonstration. Let judgment be pronounced 
upon it, then, at this tribunal alone, and let it stand or fall 
accordingly. It boldly challenges the most scrutinizing 
examination. They who question its truth, are called upon 
to disprove the foregoing propositions, and to account for the 
fazts which support it, on other than phrenological princi- 
ples : and the importance of the subject, makes this call a 
reasonable one. 

The author is willing that the truth or falsity of this sci- 
ence, should wholly turn on his own ability to apply the 
principles in describing the character and talents of individ- 
ual by an examination of their heads. For several years 

* Should the present work be favourably received by the publick, it is the de- 
sign of the author soon to publish a larger work upon (he subject, in which rnnay 
more individual facts will be stated. 

Seai>s of the sexes. 


paat, 'm all occasions, and under every disadvantageous cir- 
cumstance — even when opposed by prejudice, by envy, by 
malice, by ridicule — -he has boldly challenged those who 
doubted the truth of phrenology, to test him in any and in 
every way which their skepticism and their ingenuity could 
devise : and, although, at first, whilst he lacked experience, 
he made some mistakes yet, he can appeal to more than ten 
thousand living witnesses, who have been present at his pub 
lick examinations of heads, (as well as to the testimonials 
introduced at the close of this work,) who will bear evidence 
to the great and wonderful accuracy with which, in ninety- 
nine cases in a hundred, he has described, even in minute 
detail, the character and talents of those examined — notwith- 
standing very many of these examinations were made by the 
sense of touch alone, the author's eyes being covered. Obser- 
vation and experience, in short, have as thoroughly convinced 
the author of the truth of phrenology, as he is satisfied of 
the truth of chymistry, electricity, or any other of the natu- 
ral sciences, and by the same kind, and an equal amount, of 

Phrenology, then, demands assent to the following series 
of propositions, namely, that the brain is the general organ 
of the mind — that the mind consists of a plurality of facul- 
ties — that each of these faculties is exercised by means of a 
particular portion of the brain — that these several faculties 
are possessed in different degrees of power by the same in- 
dividual, and also by different individuals — that the size of 
these several portions of the brain, or organs, is proportion- 
ate to the power and exercise of their respective faculties — 
that, in general, the shape of the scull corresponds with that 
of the brain — that phrenology was discovered, and thus far 
matured, wholly by induction — and that the whole animal 
Kingdom, and especially the human species, both prove and 
illustrate the truth of this science. 

But, as phrenology claims to be supported by facts, they 
whose opinions are valuable, will neither form nor express a 
decision upon its merits, until they have examined a suffi- 
cient number of these facts to decide understandingly, 
"Self-conviction," observes an able, phrenological writer, 
'•must depend upon self-observation." As the field is open 
to every one, and is easy of observation, all are invited to 
examine and judge for themselves. In this wcrk will be 



found our rules; and all, into whose hands it may fal., will 
be able to apply them to the characters and developments of 
their friends and acquaintances, and thus either prove or di«- 
Drove phrenology. 



As the illustration and application of the principles of 
phrenology, necessarily combine with them much evidence 
of the truth of the science, it is impossible to treat these sev- 
eral branches of the subject in a manner wholly distinct and 
separate. At every succeeding step of the author's progress, 
therefore, he will be able to present additional proofs of the 
correctness and importance of the science. 

Since the brain is the organ of the mind, and its action 
necessary in every operation of the mind, we may naturally 
expect a most intimate relation to exist between the two, and, 
also, that this relation is reciprocal. Through the nerves 
there likewise exist a most intimate and close connexion 
and sympathy between the brain and every other portion of 
the human system ; hence, it is evident, that the various 
conditions of the brain, and of the several parts of thetbody, 
must effect, in the most direct manner, the manifestations of 
thought and feeling. This, indeed, is a well-known fact ; 
but, nevertheless, one that is not appreciated nor acted upon 
in any due proportion to its real value. 

It is well known that, after the excitement produced by 
drinking ardent spirits, has subsided, their effect is to lethar- 
gise the powers of the intellect, and leave them in a similar 
state of torpor with that of the body — that a given amount 
of opium, or calomel, or arsenick, will drive from its throne 
the feeling and thinking principle — that, in short, the ex- 
haustion and the refreshment of the body and of the mind, are 

I>roportional and reciprocal. Yet, how little are the natural 
aws of this mutual relation between body and mind, regard- 
ed or attended to ! The phenomena of the earth and its 
surrounding elements, the mechanical principles, the lawsot 
numbers and proportion, and of the various branches of phys- 
ical science, are studied with the greatest assiduity, and ap- 
plied with the greatest care as far as they tend to promote 
our physical wants and comforts, whilst the laws and condi 



tions which regulate the mental manifestations, are nearly 
overlooked. Mens sana in corpore sano, is, to be sure, an 
adage often repeated, but seldo'.n understood. 

Every day's observation confirms and deepens the convic- 
tion the author has long entertained, that much more is de- 
pending upon the physiology of the body and the qualities 
of the brain, or. what is the same thing, upon the tempera' 
me.nt, than upon the size and combinations of the organs — 
thflt the depraved manifestations of the organs, or those vices 
which everywhere abound, and which pour forth such a 
flood of corruption among men, origirate not in the nature 
or the combinations of the organs 01 «f their faculties, but in 
the disordered physiology of mankind. For example: it is ad- 
mitted that the size of the organs is not directly changed by 
an improper use of ardent spirits ; but who does not know, 
that the vices of an individual, may be easily augmented a 
hundred-fold by habits of intemperance? And why is this ? 
Simply because his physiology is deranged. Now, why 
should not every derangement of the body, whether brought 
about by the use of alcohol or wine, or an improper quality 
or quantity of food, or by any other cause, produce the same 
result? And is not the conclusion just, that the ocean of 
sin, and consequent misery, which swallows up nearly all 
that is lovely, and elevated, and desirable among men, is 
produced by the same cause ? This portion of the expan- 
sive field of phrenology, and, also, its kindred one, viz. that 
containing the laws of propagation and its accompanying 
phenomena, and which are undoubtedly the most fertile 
parts of the whole phrenological soil, are, as yet, compara- 
tively unexplored. With the open volume of nature in one 
hand, and the torch of truth in the other, phrenologists alone 
have entered upon this immense and valuable tract. The 
works of A. Combe upon this subject, are valuable above all 

These digressive remarks, which, were they carried out to 
the extent their importance demands, would require volumes, 
will enable the reader to understand what the phrenologist 
means by the 


The word Temperaments is here used to denote certam 
states or conditions of the body, or the relative act.wity oi 
particular classes of the corporeal organs. 



Other conditions being- equal, the strength and power of 
the various faculties of the mind, are in proportion to the 
size of their corresponding organs of the brain. Yet, since 
much depends upon the quality, organization, and. activity of 
the brain, and this upon the quality, organization, health, 
habits, and activity of the body, or, in other words, upon the 
temperament, a small brain often gains, in these respects, 
what it loses in size. All great men are found to possess both 
a favourable temperament and a large brain. 

The temperaments are divided into four kinds : 

1. The lymphatick, or phlegmatick, in which the secreting 
glands are the most active poi'tion of the system; indicated 
by soft and abundant flesh, and languor of the pulse, and of 
all the corporeal and mental functions ; by a dull, ease-seek- 
ing, inefficient, indolent, disposition, and an aversion to cor- 
poreal and intellectual effort. Great excitement is necessary 
to arouse one with this temperament to effort, yet the action 
may then be a powerful one. This temperament is often 
found among the Pennsylvania Germans, and also in ne- 

2. The sanguine, in which the arterial system, and the 
organs which circulate the various fluids, particularly the 
olood, are most active ; indicated by light or sandy hair, fair 
skin, a fresh and florid countenance, light or blue eyes, a 
strong and rapid pulse, strong animal passions, and more ar- 
dour, enthusiasm, activity, and zeal, than strength and power 
of mind or body. 

3. The bilious, in which the muscular portion of the sys- 
tem predominates in activity ; characterized by a more ath- 
letick form ; by strong bones and muscles, black hair, a dark 
skin, and dark eyes ; a strong and steady pulse, hardness, 
strength, and power of body, accompanied with considerable 
force and energy of mind and character. 

4. The nervous, in which the brain and the nervous sys- 
tem are much more active than the other portions of the 
bod}'-, which gives rise to, and is accompanied by, the highest 
degree of excitability and activity of the physical and men- 
tal powers; vividness and intensity of emotion; clearness 
and rapidity of thought, perception, and conception ; spright- 
liness of mind and body; light, fine, and thin hair; a fair, 
clear, and delicate skin and countenance ; and more activity, 
vivacity, and intensity, than power and endurance, of mind 
and body. 



These temperaments are generally compounded : the ner« 
vous-sanguine gives the highest degree of activity and inten- 
sity of thought and feeling; the nervous-bilious, activity, 
accompanied with power and endurance, constituting one of 
the most favourable temperaments, especially when united 
with a little of the sanguine ;* the bilious-lymphatick gives 
mental and corporeal indolence, accompanied with power 
under strong excitement ; the sanguine-lymphatick, is less fa- 
vourable to intellectual, than to corporeal, manifestations, &c. 

But since these temperaments, and other conditions, ex- 
cept the size of the respective organs, are alike in the same 
head, it follows, that the -power and energy of each faculty, 
are proportionate to the size of its organ.; so that this work 
will generally present a comparison between the different 
faculties of the same individual, rather than between the 
various faculties of different individuals. 


The influence of education, which is admitted to be very 
great, is exerted chiefly in directing and modifying the op- 
erations and the manifestations of the various ^acuities, rath- 
er than in increasing or diminishing their strength and 
power, or the size of their respective organs. The function 
of combativeness, for example, when trained in the ruder 
states of society, manifests itself chiefly in physical combat, 
family feuds, personal prowess, and hatred as manifested by 
open violence and force, bodily exposures to danger, &c. : 
while the same amount of the same faculty, even with a 
similar combination of the other faculties, when the subject 
is educated in refined society, and placed under the restraints 
of law and religion, manifests itself chiefly in intellectual 
and moral courage and resistance, in sarcasm, hatred, &c. ; 
and yet, the primary function of resistance and opposition, 
in both instances, is the same in its nature, degree, and aims. 
The same is true of all the other faculties ; so that, in de- 
scribing character correctly, it is necessary for the phrenol- 
ogist to know under what influences, and in what circum- 
stances, the individual examined, has been placed. 

The author does not intend, in this connexion, to touch 
upon the influence of education in radically changing the 

" Henry Clay. 


relative power and activity of the various mental faculties, 
or in moulding and materially changing the character of in- 
dividuals, but he will reserve, for a future chapter, some re- 
marks upon its importance, its influence, and the proper 
method of conducting it. 


Each mental faculty, as has been already shown, is mani- 
fested by means of two organs, occupying a corresponding 
portion of each hemisphere of the brain. The same princi- 
ple o* double organs obtains here, as is exemplified in the 
case of the eye, the ear, &c, and, doubtless, for the same 
good reason, namely, that when one organ is injured, the 
other may perform the function. In shape, the organs are 
conical, their apex being at the medulla ablongata, and their 
base at the skull. The medulla oblongata is situated at the 
base of the brain, or, rather, forms the capital of the column 
of the spinal marrow. A straight line drawn from the open- 
ing of one ear to that of the other, would pass nearly through it. 

A more particular account of the anatomy of the brain, as 
connected Avith phrenology, may be found in Dr. Spurzheim's 
Phrenological Works, and in G. Combe's " System of Phre- 
nology." As the limits of the present work, do not give the 
author sufficient space to do justice to this subject, it is left 
comparatively untouched, and, as it has been so fully and so 
ably presented by these authors, it is the less necessary that 
he should enter into an examination of it. 

It has already been shown, that the power of each faculty, 
and its tendency to action, are proportionate to the size of 
its respective organ. In order to determine the size of the or- 
gans, it is necessary to ascertain their length and their 
breadth. The length of the organs may be determined by ob- 
serving the distance from the external opening of the ear to 
that part of the skull in which they terminate; and the breadth, 
by the surface of the skull they occupy. It is supposed that 
he portion of an organ which is nearest to the skull, is 
chiefly used in the exercise of the mental functions. 

In some heads, the organs are sharper and more elongated 
than in others, thus presenting a greater prominence ; in 
others, they are shorter and broader. The shape of the 
former, denotes greater activity and quickness, and leas pmo* 
f ; that of the latter, greater intensity and strength. 




Before we enter upon the classification or description of 
(he several faculties, it will be necessary to lay down some 
rules by which to test each supposed faculty, that we may thus 
be able to decide correctly, not only upon the claims of the 
faculties as now laid down by phrenologists, but also upon 
all that may be hereafter proposed as discoveries. 

What is a faculty? The test which was proposed by 
Spurzheim, and which is generally followed, is that 

1. Which exists in one kind of animals and not in another , 

2. Which varies in the sexes of the same species ; 

3. Which is not proportionate to the other faculties of the 
same individual; 

4. Which docs not manifest itself simultaneously with 
the other faculties ; that is, which appears or disappears ear 
uer or later than they ; 

5. Which may act or repose singly; 

6. Which individually is propagated in a distinct manner 
from parents to children; and, 

7. Which singly may preserve its proper state of health, 
or be affected by disease. 

These seem to be descriptions of the phenomena of a fac- 
ulty, rather than a definition of its nature. A more simple 
and comprehensive test seems to be, 

That power of the mind which performs one, and but one, 
distinct and homogeneous class or kind of functions, and which 
is manifested by means of a given portion of the brain. When- 
ever, therefore, we ascertain that there is exercised a distinct 
class of functions, having for their end one important object, 
we may infer, that there exists a distinct faculty which per- 
forms it ; and, vice versa, that the existence of a faculty pre- 
supposes, and necessarily implies, a corresponding sui generis 
class of functions which this faculty produces. Upon sub- 
mitting the faculties as laid down in this work, to this test, it 
will be found that the functions ascribed to amat., combat., 
acquis., benev., hope, firm., caus., and all the rest, constitute 
each a distinct, homogeneous class directed to a specifick end. 
and exercised by so many distinct portions of the brain ; an£ 
each supposed discovery of a faculty, which does not con- 
form to these requisitions, is spurious. 




No permanent classification of the faculties has yet been 
generally adopted. That last adopted by Spurzheim, and, 
followed by G. Combe, and all American phrenologists, is 
unquestionably the best now in use. In its general divisions 
and fundamental principles, it harmonizes very well with the 
generick character of the faculties, and the grouping together 
of the organs in the head. So far as this is the is per- 
fect ; yet, in its details, it is evidently defective, because it 
often groups organs together which are located in widely 
different parts of the head, and also classifies faculties togeth- 
er between which there is a generick difference. A more 
perfect classification of the faculties than that adopted by the 
great Author of nature in the respective locations of their cor- 
responding organs, cannot be imagined, and could have been 
invented only by that all-wise Being who created these fac- 
ulties ; and yet, to draw lines of demarcation between these 
organs, is often extremely difficult. Concentrativeness, for 
example, is sui generis in its character, and too much unlike 
any of the other faculties to be properly classed with any 
subdivision of them, whether it be the propensities, the sen- 
timents, or the intellectual faculties of Spurzheim and others, 
or the domestick, selfish, human, or intellectual faculties of 
the author. The function of ideality is not exclusively an 
emotion, nor yet wholly an intellectual operation, but is evi- 
lenlly a compound of both; and, accordingly, we find its lo- 
cation to be between these two classes of faculties. Still, it 
«s evidently human, in its character, and is classed accord- 

The same is true, except in a degree still more striking, 
concerning mirthfulness, tune, imitation, and constructive- 
hess. Is there not quite as much intellect displayed in a 
truly pungent and appropriate witticism, or a splendid con- 
ception of the imagination, as there is in musick 1 in a ban mot, 
nd the inspiration of poetry and oratory, as in a tunel and 
's there not quite as much emotion in a musical, as there 
is in a poetical, performance? There is evidently as little 
generick difference between firmness and self-esteem, as there 
is between any other two organs. Both evidently belong to 
the same species; yet, Dr. Spurzheim, and all succeeding phre- 
nologists, have grouped firmness among the religious organs. 
Why should destructiveness be placed before amativenesst 



Certainly not because it comes first in the order of nature, 
nor in its position in the head. How much more of senti- 
ment is there in imitation, than there is in attachment ? Wom- 
en are considered even more sentimental than men, and 
chiefly because they manifest so much stronger attachment. 

What reason or philosophy is there in grouping construe- 
tiveness among the animal propensities, when it unquestion- 
ably displays as much of intellect, and as little propensity 
as almost any other faculty? Its location also borders upon 
that of the intellectual faculties. Similar remarks will apply 
to the subdivisions of the intellectual faculties. 

Enough has already been said to induce the reader u 
suppose, that the author, in common with most other phre 
nologists, considers the present classification of the faculties, 
if not every classification that can be made, very imperfect, 
For his own, though widely different from that generally 
adopted, and, he hopes as materially improved, he is far from 
claiming perfection. Phrenology is not a man-made theory. 
All that we can know about it, is learned from an observation 
of nature. Why not, then, in the classification of the fac- 
ulties, as well as in their phenomena and analysis, follow 
nature.? or, in other words, why not let the faculties class- 
ify themselves according to the grouping together of their 
respective organs in the head ? In the classification of the 
faculties, the author has endeavoured, as far as his ingenuity 
and observation enable him, to follow this arrangement of the 
organs, as the fundamental principle upon which his divis- 
ions are based.* 

* It will be seen that this discrepance between the author and other phrenolo- 
gists, has a direct reference, not to the facts or principles which involve the truth 
of phrenology, nor to the nature or the manifestations of the faculties, but siraply 
to the numerical arrangement and the classification of the faculties, or to the 
nomenclature of the science ; and cannot, therefore, be cited as an instance of a 
radical disagreement among phrenu'ogiets. 


He will then submit the following 


The Faculties are divided into two Classes, or Orders? 
and these are subdivided into several Genera, and 
these again into various Species. 

ORDER I. Affective Faculties, or Feelings* 

From these faculties originate the propensities, desires, 
emotions, sentiments, and the whole range of those mental 
operations denominated feelings. They constitute by far 
the largest, most vivid, and most powerful class of the men- 
tal operations, and, whenever their legitimate stimuli are 
presented, rush into involuntary activity, and frequently 
without awaiting the mandate of reason, or listening to the 
voice of propriety; and, although the internal excitement 
necessarily produced by the presence of these stimuli, can- 
not be avoided, yet, an open expression of this excitement, 
need not take place ; or, in other words, we are not always 
obliged to express all that we feel. The organs of these fac- 
ulties, occupy that portion of the head commonly covered by 

GENUS I. Propensities. 

These embrace those mental functions which pertain to 
man as an animal, or to his physical relations. They stim- 
ulate the other faculties ; impart efficiency, impetus, and phys- 
ical force to the whole character ; originate the various ani- 
mal impulses, instincts, desires, passions, and propensities to 
act ; and are located in the inferiour posterior, or back and 
lower, portion of the head, (see cut No. 2. in the Sy- 
nopsis,) causing, when large or very large, great breadth 
and fulness between, behind, and over the ears, as in the cut 
No. 8. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16; but, when small, this portion of the 
head is thin and narrow, as in the head of Franklin. Near- 
ly all the brain of animals is developed in this region, as 
will be seen by a reference to their heads or the cuts ; and 
their characters are made up, chiefly of the functions per- 
taining to the corresponding facuhies. 



Species I. Domestick PROPENSITIES. 
They are, 


1. Amativeness, amat. 

2. Philoprogenitiveness, philopro. 

3. Adhesiveness, adhes. 

4. Inhabitiveness, inhab. 

1 nese constitute man a gregarious animal ; lay the found- 
ation for his civil institutions ; make him a social and do- 
mestick being ; create his family attachments and relations ; 
have a direct reference to the marriage state, and originate 
most of its duties, its relations, and its pleasures. When 
large or very large, they cause an elongation and fulness 
in the middle and lower portion of the back part of the 
head : (see Domes. Propensities in cut No. 2, and, also, the 
female and Aurelia Chase;) but when they are small, this 
part of the head presents a depressed and flattened appearance, 
as in the skull of the male Indian represented in the cuts. 

5. Concentrativeness, concent. 

This is sui generis, or, unique in character; and, therefore, 
referable to no specified class of faculties, but acts as a kind 
of regulator or modifier of all the other faculties. 

Species II. Selfish propensities. 
The selfish propensities are, 


f Vitativeness,* vitat. 

6. Combativeness, combat. 

7. Destructiveness, destruct. 

8. Alimentiveness, aliment. 

9. Acquisitiveness, acquis. 
10. Secretiveness, secret. 

These provide for the various animal wants ; have a dl 
iect reference to the necessities, desires, and gratification oi 
the individual possessing them ; and terminate upon his in- 
terests, wants, and happiness. They are located upon the 
sides of the head, around the ears, and, when large or very 
large, give it a thick and rounded appearance, and make 

* From the limited number of the author's experiments, he is disposed to regard 
the location of this organ as uncertain, yet all his experiments confirm its presro 



the sides of the head spherical, but when moderate 01 small, 
the head is thinner and more flattened in this region. 

These propensities, as will be seen by referring to the 
combinations of the various classes of faculties, receive their 
direction and their modification mainly from the relative in- 
fluence of the sentiments and intellect. 

GENUS II. Human, moral, and religious sentiments. 

These are feelings of a higher order than the propensi- 
ties ; are more elevating and ennobling in their character, 
and more humanizing in their influence. They are located 
together in the coronal or upper portion of the head, and, 
when large or very large, elongate, widen, elevate, and ex- 
pand this part of the head ; but when moderate or small, the 
head is lower, shorter, and narrower. See cut No. 2. 

Species I. Selfish sentiments. 
They are, 


11. Cautiousness, cautious. 

12. Approbativeness, approbai. 

13. Self-esteem, self-e. 

14. Firmness, firm. 

These, like the selfish propensities, also terminate upon 
their possessor, and, by disposing him to seek his own indi- 
vidual interest and happiness, make him selfish; yet their 
character and manifestations are far superiour to those of the 
selfish propensities, especially when the religious and rea- 
soning faculties are strong. They are located together in 
the superiour posterior, or back part of the upper portion 
of the head, which is represented in the cuts by the name 
of the Selfish Sentiments. When these organs 
are large or very large, this portion of the head is extended 
upwards and backwards, and, when the remaining sentiments 
are deficient, is rendered conical, as in the cut of Black 



Species II. Moral and Religious S^ntimewm. 
They are, 

These faculties create those moral, religious, and devo 
tional feelings and emotions which enter so largely into the 
human character ; humanize, adorn, elevate, and soften the 
nature of man ; constitute man a moral and accountable being, 
and connect him with the moral government of God: create 
those moral duties and relations which exist between man 
and his Maker, and also between man and man ; ar»d pro- 
duce those characteristicks commonly attributed to svngels, 
and (except in a vastly greater degree) to the Supreme Be- 
ing. They are located in the superiour anterior, or the 
frontal, portion of the upper part of the head, and, when 
large or very large, throw a proportionally large amcnt oi 
brain into this region, elevating and elongating it in this di- 
rection, as in the case of Frank n, Herschell, andthep<?u* 
female in the cuts ; but when small, this portion of the he*?! 1 yi 
iow and slopes rapidly, as in the cuts No. 8. 12. 14. 42. 

Species III. Semi-intellectual Sentiments. 

They are, 

These faculties are of a mixed- nature, participating tlu 
jiroperties both of the human sentiments and of the intellec- 
tual faculties. They tend to the adornment and perfectior 
oi the human mind, by creating in it a taste and a talent foi 
the fine arts and polite literature, for constructing, manufac 
tunng, copying, and the like. They are located partly be- 
tween the forehead and the portion of the head covered ty 
hair, and partly withm the latter, giving, when large or verj 

15. Conscientiousness, 

16. Hope, 

17. Marvellousness, 

18. Veneration, 

19. Benevolence, 







20. Constructiveness, 

21. Ideality, 

22. Imitation, 









large, a fulness and breadth to this portion of the head ; but 
when small, the head where the hair begins to appear, is 
narrow and flattened. 

ORDER II. Intellectual Faculties. 

These faculties have to do exclusively with objects and 
dungs, their physical qualities, and abstract relations. They 
create a thirst for information, and furnish the ability to ac- 
quire knowledge in general ; take cognizance of facts and 
conditions, and remember them, and constitute what is com- 
monly called the intellect, understanding, or judgment. 

GENUS I. Perceptive Faculties. 

These perceive natural objects and their physica, quali- 
ties, together with some of their relations. They constitute 
the direct medium of communication between the other fac- 
ulties and the material world, and convey to the mind all the 
physical information it is capable of acquiring. 

Species I. External Senses. 
They are, 

Sensation, ~J (that is, feeling or touch.) 
Sight, In accordance with the usage of his 

Hearing, ^predecessors, the author has left these fac- 
Taste, ulties unnumbered ; but, inasmuch as they 

Smell. J occupy each a given portion of the brain, 
snd are also mental faculties, there evidently exists no good 
reason why they should not, in like manner, be numbered. 

These perform the first portion of the process of observ- 
ing the physical qualities of material objects. The eye, for 
example, may be perfectly good, yet the individual be utter- 
ly unable to distinguish between the colours of objects, at 
some of their other qualities ; so that, in observing a colour, 
the faculty of sight performs the first portion of the process, 
and that of colour, the second. Hence, neither, acting sepa- 
rately, can take cognizance of the colour of objects. This 
example will also furnish an idea of the difference existing 
between the other external senses, and the other perceptive 
faculties. Their perfection materially assists the other intel- 
?ctual, and even the affective, faculties ; yet, there is no ab- 
solute dependance of the functions of the one upon the funct- 
ions of the other. 




Species II. Observing and Knowing Facultik* 
They are, 


24. Individuality, individ. 

25. Form, form. 

26. Size, size. 

27. Weight, weight. 

28. Colour, colour. 

29. Order, order. 

30. Calculation., calcu. 

31. Locality, local. 

These store the mind with individual facts ; furnish a gene 
?al knowledge of things, their conditions, and qualities ; collect 
statistical information ; create a desire and a talent propor- 
tionate to their size, for observing and knowing ; and thus 
render very great assistance in doing every kind of business. 
They are located directly about the eyes — their principal 
medium of communication with the external world — and, 
when large or very large, cause the lower portion of the 
forehead above the eyes, proportionally to protrude, as in the 
cut of Herschell, of the Indians, of the New Zealander, 
the bust of Washington, &c, (see corresponding part of cut 
No. 2;) butwhenthey are moderate or small, this portion ia 
proportionally depressed, as in the cut of Franklin. 

Species III. Semi-perceptive Faculties. 
They are, 


32. Eventuality, event. 

33. Time, time. 

34. Tune, tune. 

35. Language, lang. 

These constitute a class of faculties intermediate between 
those which perceive objects and their physical qualities, and 
those which comprehend the abstract relations of things, and 
have to do with a class of facts which are not necessarily ni 
a physical character. Some of these faculties are much 
stronger in children than in men, and their corresponding 
organs proportionally larger: hence, the depression general- 
ly observable in the middle of the foreheads of the latter, anJ 
ftie fulness and roundness in that of the former. 



GENUS II. Reflective or Reasoning Faculties. 
They are, 

These form, ideas ; reason ; superintend the operation o1 
the other faculties; perceive abstract and metaphysical rela- 
tions, the connexion between cause and effect, proposition 
and inference, &c. ; form judgment ; discover truth and ab- 
surdity, &c. They are located in the superiour and frontal 
portion of the forehead. When they are large, or very 
large, the upper portion of the forehead is very high, broad, 
and deep, as well as prominent, as in the cut of Franklin; 
but when they are small, this portion of the forehead is low, 
narrow, and depressed, as in the cut of the Indian. 


The back part of the head, called occipital, is exclusively 
occupied by the organs of the propensities and selfish senti- 
ments : the remaining portion is called frontal, and is de- 
voted to the organs of the sentiments and the intellect. The 
portion represented by the lower portion of cut No. 2, is 
called basilar, and the portion above it, coronal; the former 
being allotted to the organs of the selfish propensities and 
perceptive faculties, which constitute the principal faculties 
possessed by animals, and the latter, to those of the senti- 
ments and reasoning faculties. 

The influence of the various combinations of faculties 
upon the character, constitutes one of the most important fea- 
tures of phrenology ; and in nothing is this influence more 
manifest than in those more general combinations of the va- 
rious classes of faculties already mentioned. One in whom the 
occipital region, (or the organs of the propensities and pro- 
pelling powers,) is much larger than the frontal, will have 
proportionally more of feeling than reason ; of passion, than 
intellect; of propelling, than directing, power ; of efficiency, 
than depth and strength, of intellect ; of mental sail, thap. 
ballast; of zeal, and energy, and action, than judgment; of 
the animal, than of the intellectual and moral, qualities : but 

36. Causality, 

37. Comparison, 





when the occipital portion is smaller than the frontal, the c har- 
acter will be directly the opposite. 

One in whom the basilar region greatly predominates over 
the coronal, will possess great force and efficiency of char« 
acter; a ready talent for business and study; and strong pas- 
sions applied to selfish purposes, but accompanied with less 
morality and elevation of character and feeling; less depth cv 
intellect, with less of the moral, religious, and human senti 
ments ; and yet, with full comparison and causality, may b* 
capable of conducting and effecting important operations- 
This portion of the brain is generally large in men who dis- 
tinguish themselves in the world. 

One who possesses a much greater development of the 
moral and intellectual organs, than of the propensities, wili 
have goodness, with less greatness or force, of character , 
morality and virtue, joined with want of impetus, if not of effi- 
ciency ; will have fine talents and a love for moral and in- 
tellectual pursuits, accompanied with so much modesty and 
dependance, if not actual tameness, of character, that he will 
not be likely to rise in the world, unless pushed forward by 
others, but may then distinguish himself; wili be amiable 
and sentimental, if not eminently pious, yet effect but little. 
This organization is but poorly adapted to the exigences of 
the nineteenth century. 

One having large or very large organs of the propensities 
and of the religious sentiments, and reasoning faculties only 
moderate or full, may struggle hard against the current of 
his propensities, yet will be liable to be often overcome by 
it; may endeavour to live a virtuous, Christian life, yet will 
be sometimes guilty of gross inconsistencies, and apt to take 
contracted views of religious subjects, and indulge, alternate- 
ly, both classes of organs; but, with the moral and reasoning 
organs equally large, will be obliged to struggle hard, yet 
will generally struggle successfully, against "his easily be- 
getting sins," and, in general, be consistent in his religious 
belief and practice. 

One having the propensities well developed, with very 
large moral and intellectual organs, will combine great 
strength of mind with great energy of character, directed by 
the human sentiments, and applied to the advancement of 
moral and benevolent objects, and be a talented and useful 
member of society, yet have many faults. 

One with the propensities and the intellectual organ* 



large cr very large, and the moral deficient, will combine 
great power and energy of mind with great depravity ol 
character, and never lack means by which to gratify his self- 
ish passions. 

One having some of each class of organs large or very 
large, will present seemingly contradictory phases of char- 
acter; will often do what he afterwards regrets, and be sub- 
ject to a constant and severe " warfare between the flesh and 
the spirit." 

One having the perceptive organs generally large or very 
large, and the reasoning organs only full, will have a mind 
well stored with facts, and a desire to see and know ; a thirst 
for general information, and a facility in acquiring it; an 
ability to attend to details, and a popular, practical, business 
talent, but will lack depth, judgment, originality, and pene- 
tration of mind ; may execute well, but cannot adapt means 
to ends, nor superintend complicated operations ; may pos- 
sess versatility of talent, be a good scholar, and pass for a 
man of talents and learning, yet will not think profoundly, 
nor readily comprehend first principles, nor bear sounding. 

One with the reflecting organs large or very large, and 
the perceptive only moderate or small, or with the upper 
portion of the forehead much larger than the lower, wjlj 
think more than he observes or communicates; will have 
much more to do with ideas than with facts ; with funda- 
mental principles and the general bearing of things, than 
with their details and minutisB ; with the abstract relations, 
than with the qualities, of things ; with the analytical and 
demonstrative sciences, than with the natural ; with thoughts 
than words ; may have great strength, shrewdness, and pen- 
etration of intellect, and be a deep and profound reasoner 
but will lack versatility of talent, and be unable to employ 
his powers to good advantage, or show what he is, except in 
a certain sphere, yet will wear well, have a fund of import- 
ant ideas, and excellent judgment, and shine in proportion 
as he is tried. One having the perceptive and reasoning or- 
gans both large or very large, and a large and an active brain, 
will have a universal talent, and a mind well balanced and well 
furnished with both facts and principles ; will be a general 
scholar, and, with a respectable development of the propensities, 
possess a decidedly superiour intellect, and be capable of ri- 
sing to eminence , will not only possess talents of a very high 
order, but also be able to use them to the best advantage, and 



Doth devise and execute projects, and succepd in whatever he 
undertakes, even when most of those around him, fail. 

One with an even head, in which all the parts are re- 
spectably developed, will have few prominent traits of char- 
acter, and few excesses or deficiencies ; will do a fair busi- 
ness, take his character from surrounding circumstances, and 
pass quietly through life ; but, if the brain is large and very 
active, and external circumstances are favourable, he will be 
a universal genius — great in every thing, and without any 
weak points of character, and capable of swaying a general 
and a commanding influence.* 

One with an uneven and peculiar head, will possess a sui 
generis character ; will be notorious for his peculiarities ol 
talents and disposition; for his excesses and deficiencies; his 
strong and weak points; will often present opposite phases 
of character ; cut a bold and commanding figure wherever 
he moves ; and often effect something important. 

The combined action of the several organs, has, also, a 
very important influence upon the character and the mental 
manifestations, particularly in directing them. Self-esteem 
large or very large, for example, combined with still larger 
moral and reasoning organs, and with smaller propensities, 
imparts a dignity, manliness, nobleness, elevation, and high- 
mindedness, which scorn every thing mean, low, and de- 
grading, than which no trait of character is- more useful or 
commendable: while the same degree of self-e., joined with 
weaker moral and reasoning faculties, and stronger selfish 
propensities, makes its possessor proud, conceited, haughty, 
domineering, forward, impertinent, and most disagreeable. 
The same principle applies to amat., combat., destruct., se- 
cret., firm., approbat, &c. ; and, in determining character, is 
as important, at least, as any other. 

The larger organs! control and direct the smaller ones, 
and also give the stamp and direction to the whole char- 
acter, while the smaller organs, in proportion to their 
strength, modify the action of the larger. Thus, one having 
combat, and destruct. large, with large or very large self-e., 
will employ the former to avenge personal injuries ; promote 
selfish interests ; domineer over others, &c. ; but, with self-e. 

° Napoleon Bonaparte. 

tin this work the term "organs" is often used as synonymous with " faculties, " 
and is intended to refer to both the organs and the faculties, collectively ; just aa 
self-esteem means both the organ and the faculty of self-e. 



only moderate or full, and benev. and conscien. very large, 
will seldom resent personal injuries, yet will be very spirited 
in maintaining the cause of justice, truth, and humanity; in de- 
fending suffering innocence, punishing the aggressor, driv- 
ing forward moral and philanthropick causes, &c. ; with 
large or very large acquis., will employ these organs in de- 
fending his property, and in prosecuting, with energy, his 
money-making projects ; with large or very large intellectu- 
al organs, in the vigorous pursuit of intellectual acquire- 
ments, in spirited debate, or the fearless declaration of opinion ; 
with moderate self-e. and large or very large adhes. and be- 
nev., in the defence of friends, while he himself patiently 
endures oppression, &c. The combinations of the phreno- 
logical faculties, are almost innumerable, especially when 
taken in connexion with the varieties of temperament, educa- 
tion, habit, external circumstances, &c. of different individu- 
als — sufficient, at least, to produce that endless diversity and 
ever-changing variety which exist in the manifestations of the 
mina. Hence, here is opened the most extensive field im- 
aginable for philosophical research — a field embracing the 
whole range of the. mental phenomena, and aiso every thing 
pertain >ng to JHsmr « nature. 




The reader will bear in mind that, in the following anal- 
ysis of the various faculties, the author has left ample room 
for him to exercise his own judgment and discrimination, 
particularly in ascertaining the influence of some of the 
combinations. For example: he has described the influence 
of the organ of amat. large, when" acting in conjunction with 
other organs ; yet as the influence of amat. very large upon 
the other organs, is the same in kind with that of amat. 
large, and differs only in the degree or amount of that influ- 
ence, the reader is left to ascertain this by a reference to the 
combinations under amat. large. The same is true of amat. 
full, and of all the other organs very large or moderate. 

Under amat. moderate, again, the organ is described be- 
low par, with its combinations. Yet these same combina- 
tions will also apply to amat. small, after making the neces- 
sary allowance for the diminution of the mere quantum of 
Vie amative feeling. 

ORDER I. — Affective Faculties or Feelings. 
GENUS I. — Animal Propensities. 
SPECIES I. — Domestics and Social Propensities. 


Reciprocal attachment and love of the sexes. 

This faculty prompts many of those kind attentions 
and obliging manners which the sexes are accustomed to 
show to each other ; greatly increases their mutual attach- 
ment and tenderness ; gives correct reciprocal ideas of taste 
and propriety in whatever concerns the other sex, and se- 
cures to them a kind and genteel treatment — thus promoting, 
as much as any other faculty, general politeness, urbanity, 
refinement, kindness, and social happiness. The proper ex- 
ercise and expression of this faculty, so far from being the 
least gross or indelicate, is as perfectly inoffensive as that o< 
any other ; and is so far from being the least exceptionable 
as to be even indispensable, to a virtuous character, especial- 
ly when modified by large adhes., approbat., benev., ccn- 
scien., ideal., mirth., and the reasoning faculties. The influ- 
ence of this faculty in the intercourse of the sexes, is highly 


advantageous to both, inasmuch as it has a tendency to make 
man civil, courteous, cleanly, and humane, condescending, 
polished, affable, &c. ; and woman agreeable, gracefu. and 
elegant, accomplished, sensible, and elevated in character, 
feeling, and purpose. 

Large. — One in whom amat. is large, is extremely 
fond of the other sex, and of their company, and alive to 
their charms ; is a favourite with them, and readily ingrati- 
ates himself into their good will, even though he may be 
possessed of some qualities that are disagreeable ; has a 
great influence over them; easily kindles in them the pas- 
sion of love, because he is himself so susceptible to the 
same passion ; and, when in circumstances calculated to ex- 
cite the faculty, finds its restraint extremely difficult. 

One having large amat. with large or very large adhes., 
is an ardent and devoted lover; and, with ideal, also large, 
adds to his love that warmth, and fervour, and intensity which 
make it romantick, and kindle it to a passion ; with firm, 
also large or very large, will be constant ; but with these or- 
gans large or very large, and firm, moderate or small, will 
be liable to be inconstant, and possess an attachment by no 
means exclusive : with ideal, and approbat. very large, se- 
cret, and destruct. large, benev., adhes., and caus. only full, 
and conscien. modexate or small, will sometimes act the part 
of the coquette, and seek the general admiration of the other 
sex, rather than be satisfied with individual attachment : with 
large or very large adhes., philopro., benev., and conscien., 
will be inclined to marry, and be pre-eminently qualified to en- 
joy the family and social relations, and will also highly ap- 
preciate the joys and pleasures of home, family, and friends ; 
and, with large combat, and destruct., will defend them with 
boldness, protect their rights with spirit, and punish with se- 
verity those who injure them : with large or very large ap- 
probat. and ideal., will be over-anxious to obtain the approba- 
tion, and avoid the disapprobation, of the other sex, and 
exceedingly sensitive to their praise or censure, and too eager 
to follow the fashions demanded by the taste of the other 
sex : with moderate acquis., and large approbat. and benev., 
will spend money freely for their sakes: with large or very 
large secret, and adhes., will feel much stronger attachment 
than express: keep his heart much to himself; affect com- 
arative indifference ; and, even when the fire of We is 
urning fiercely within, will express it equivocally, especial- 



ly at first ; but with secret, moderate, will express it without 
reserve ; throw the portals of the heart wide open ; and, with 
self-e. moderate, the more readily give up to the dominion ot 
the passion ; but, with selfe. and firm, large or very large, 
and large intellectual organs, though he may be deeply in 
love, will have too much pride to be subdued by this passion ■ 
with very large adhes., ideal., approbat., and mirth., and caus, 
only full, will prefer the company of the beautiful, the gay 
and the accomplished of the other sex, and love them 
best : with very large adhes., benev., ven., and conscien., 
will choose the virtuous, the devout, the religious, &c. : with 
large intellectual organs in addition, the religious, the refin 
ed, and the highly intellectual, and almost adore them, but 
be disgusted with those first described : with conscien. small, 
caus. only full, and acquis, and ideal, large or very large, 
will be less particular with regard to their moral qualities: 
with large or very large ideal., approbat., mirth., hope, ali- 
ment., and lang., and moderate or small acquis., conscien., 
and marvel., is given to joke with and about the other sex ; 
and inclined to profligacy and revelry: with large or very large 
conscien., ideal., mirth., benev., and the reasoning organs 
large, will express this passion in a very delicate, refined, 
witty, and acceptable manner; but, with moderate or small 
ideal, and mirth., in a coarse and vulgar manner : with con- 
scien. large, is strongly tempted, but strongly resists ; and, with 
firm., cautious., and caus. also large, will not yield to the solic- 
itations of the passion ; but, with firm., cautious., and caus. only 
full, may sometimes sin, yet will deeply repent of it ; and, with 
approbat. large, suffer intolerably from shame and remorse i 
with conscien. small and caus. moderate, will be extremely 
liable to abuse and pervert this faculty, &c. 

Very large. — One having amat. very large, experiences 
at times, the goadings of the propensity to a degree almost 
beyond endurance ; can govern it only by the aid of large 
or very large firm., conscien., and reasoning organs, and by 
avoiding the causes calculated to excite it: and possesses ex- 
traordinary depth, strength, and power of this passion. One 
having very large amat., with large or very large conscien., 
firm., benev., and reasoning organs, will exercise towards 
the other sex, strong feelings of kindness and love; is evei 
ready in his attentions to them; is but ill at ease without theii 
society; and enjoys intercourse with them in the greatest 
possible degree : with conscien. moderate or small, and the 



reasoning organs only full, is strongly inclined and urged to 
profligacy, licentiousness, vulgar allusions, indelicate ex- 
pressions and jesting ; to the relation of obscene anecdotes, &c. 
See combinations under amat. large. 

Full. — One having amat. full, with adhes. and ideal, large 
or very large, will place a high estimate upon the other sex; 
eagerly seek their company, and take great delight in it; 
be ardent as a lover, and not insensible to their charms ; 
with good health and an active temperament, experience, 
in a high degree, the influence of this passion, yet will pos 
sess more activity than power. The descriptions of amat 
full, when combined with the other organs, will be found 
much the same, except in degree, with those given under 
amat. large, and will be between those under amat. large and 
amat. moderate. 

Moderate. — One having amat. moderate, is not particu- 
larly partial to the other sex, nor very fond of their company ; 
may enjoy the society of a few select persons of the other 
sex, but will dislike their promiscuous society, unless his 
adhes., approbat, ideal., mirth., or other organs, create attach- 
ment to them, and fondness for their society : with self-e. and 
mirth, moderate or small, large or very large secret., appro- 
bat., cautious., conscien., and ven., will be extremely diffident 
and reserved, if not awkward and affected, in their company 
and ill qualified to shine in parties of amusement, and will be 
rather deficient in the strength and power of this passion. 
One having moderate amat., with large or very large adhes., 
benev., and conscien., and full compar. and caus., will exercise 
more of pure love and virtuous affection towards the opposite 
sex, than of the mere amative passion — of chaste Platonick 
affeciion, than of sexual love — of pure and sentimental 
friendship, than of merely animal feeling; and, with large 
or very large ideal, and conscien., will manifest this passion 
in a peculiarly refined and delicate manner, and be exceed 
ingly disgusted with vulgarity, particularly in the other 
sex. This is the kind of attachment generally exercised by 
females, in whom adhes. is commonly altogether largei 
than amat. When the size of these organs is reversed, they 
produce the opposite kind of love, or that which is less 
sentimental and exclusive, and more promiscuous and sexual. 

Small. — One having small amat., is not partial to the oth- 
er sex as such ; does not pay them so much attention, nor 
wait upon them so genteelly, nor sacrifice so much for their 



sake, nor excite their love so easily, as if possessed of full or 
large amat, but is rather cold, coy, distant, unacceptable, and 
less inclined to marry, unless induced to do so by philopro., 
adhes., approbat, benev., acquis., the intellectual organs, or 
some other motive than his sexual desire. 

Very Small. — One having amat. very small, is incapa- 
ble of sexual attachment or intercourse; seldom, if ever, ex- 
periences the workings of this feeling; and is given to pas- 
sive continence. This organ is always very small in very 
young children, and the passion proportionally weak; it at- 
tains its full size in the meridian of life, when the passion is 
strongest; is generally larger in married, than in single, per- 
sons; and decreases in old age, when the passion becomes 
weaker. Phrenology determines the strength and power ol 
this passion, and its liability to be perverted, rather than the 
virtue or licentiousness of the subject. Education and cir- 
cumstances determine this question oftener than the strength 
ot the faculty. 

The depraved exercise of this faculty, in one or another 
of those ten thousand forms which it assumes, is unques- 
tionably one of the most prolifick sources of depravity, cor- 
ruption, and misery, with which mankind are afflicted ; and 
it becomes the philanthropist, the Christian, and especially 
the phrenologist, to inquire, why is this ? for, until we can 
discover the root of this tree of vice, and attack the evil there, 
it is in vain to attempt to lop off its branches. This faculty 
is found to exist in animals, as well as in man, and that, too. 
unrestrained by morality or intellect, and, consequently, fai 
more liable to perversion, than in the human species; yet, 
instances of its perversion in the brute creation, are exceed- 
ingly rare. Now, why is this? The nature of thefaculvy, 
and the character of the function, are the same in both, so 
that its depraved manifestation cannot be attributed to any 
natural cause. It must, then, depend upon the education, or 
training, of this faculty. And no wonder that it is thus 
perverted ; for the nature and the proper function of the fac- 
ulty, not being generally understood, it has been regarded 
chiefly in its perverted manifestation. Hence, that false 
modesty, that sickly delicacy, that double-refined fastidious- 
ness which pervade every civilized community in regard 
to it, and which are far more detrimental to virtue and purity, 
than any thing and every thing else could be. It is not too 
3nu%h to add, that nearly all the licentiousness which per- 



vades our country, and yearly ruins scores of thousands, 
originates in the false training of this faculty. 

The question, then, becomes a most important one, How 
can this faculty be so trained that this growing evil may be 
checked and remedied 1 This question will be answered in 
a subsequent portion of the work.* 

location. — This organ is located in the cerebellum, 
or between the mastoid processes behind the ear : and, when 
large, it causes this portion of the head to appear broad and 
thick ; when small, the neck is thin and narrow. 


Parental affection and tenderness — love of offspring, and of 
children generally — fondness for pets, especially young 
animals, and for the infirm and helpless. 

If there existed no particular attachment to children as 
fuch, the burden of raising and of educating them, would be 
Intolerable, and seldom submitted to ; whereas the effect of 
this faculty is, to make them to their parents the dearest of 
all objects, their richest treasure, and their greatest delight, 
a source of their greatest anxiety and solicitude, and, in short, 
the direct and main object of one of the strongest of the hu- 
man passions, as well as the indirect object of many others ; 
and this casts entirely into the shade the trouble, and pain, 
and expense which they cause, and induces the parent to do, 
and to suffer., whatever is deemed necessary, and often what 
is entirely unnecessary, to promote the happiness and the 
best inteiests of his child, especially the young child. While 
children are yet too young to be regarded as friends — the 
very time they require the greatest attention — they cannot 
be the legitimate objects of adhes., and, for a similar reason, 
they cannot come under the exclusive care of benev., of con- 
scien., of retison, or, indeed, of any other faculty ; so that, it 

* When this portion of the work was stereotyped, the author intended to add to 
the work some moral hints and reflections in the form of a supplement, but, as the 
work progressed, it reached three limes the size originally contemplated, without 
even then allowing room for this portion of the matter, besides crowding out many * 
other things at first contemplated. See note at the bottom of page 404. 

This will also sorve to explain some other references in the work to parts not yet 
added, but which will eventually be published in a separate volume. 

He is now preparing for the press a work on marriage and the domestic rela- 
tions, treated phrenologically, including the phrenological rules for choosing com- 
panions, and living agreeably with them; and also, the laws of hereditary de- 
scent, showing the propagation of physical and mental qualities for many suc- 
cessive generations, than which, a more important subject could hardly be dis- 
eussed. He solicits the communication of facts bearing on this 'joint. 


there were no faculty exclusively devoted to them, they would 
never receive that care, and those unnumbered attentions, 
which their helpless condition demands even to maintain 
them in existence. 

Without this faculty, the action of the other faculties would 
be less vigorous towards children than towards others; 
whereas, their wants demand a much more vigorous exer- 
cise of them in their favour. But, with philopro. to 
direct and stimulate their action towards children, their pro- 
tection and nursing, difficult and even painful as they may 
be, are abundantly secured. 

It is, moreover, evident, that the duties and the circum- 
stances of woman require of her a much greater endow- 
ment of this faculty than is required of the other sex. Ac- 
cordingly we find, that she possesses a much larger organ of 
philopro. than man. This adaptation of the organ in females 
to the far greater power of the passion, and of both to the far 
greater demand made upon them by their offspring, is cer- 
tainly no unimportant argument in proof of the truth of 

Large. — One having large philopro., is deeply interested 
in children ; delighted with their company and playfulness, 
and even sports with them; generally notices them, and ea- 
sily gains their affections, by which their government and 
education are greatly facilitated ; and, if a parent, willingly 
endures paternal care and toil ; spares no pains in educating 
them; and considers them the richest of treasures: with 
adhes. very large, experiences poignant grief at the loss of 
children ; and, with concent, large, will pour incessantly 
over it, but with concent, moderate, or small, will feel keenly 
for the time being, yet frequently be relieved by a change ol 
the subject of feeling : with large amat. and adhes., feels 
powerfully the reciprocal attachment of fathers and daugh- 
ters, of mothers and sons, and of adults and children of op- 
posite sexes : with full combat, and destruct, and large or very 
large adhes., benev., conscien., firm., and intellectual organs, 
punishes children when their own good demands it; is kind, 
yet strict ; governs them with decision mingled with mild- 
ness and affection, and, with self-e. full, speaks with the au- 
thority necessary to secure their obedience ; but, with combat 
and destruct. large, is by turns too indulgent and too severe; 
and, with self-e. moderate, fails to secure their obedience and 
respect, and allows them to trample upon him: with large 


or very large aclhes., benev., ven., firm., conscien., hope, 
compar., and caus., and moderate approbat. and ideal., will 
regard their religious, moral, and intellectual character as of 
primary importance ; their usefulness, rather than their dis- 
tinction ; and endeavour to give them a practical and sub- 
stantial, rather than an ornamental education. 

Very Large. — One having very large philopro., is pas- 
sionately fond of children, and has them always around him ; 
and, with very large benev., and moderate destruct. and caus., 
is in danger of spoiling them by excessive fondness and over- 
indulgence ; is extremely fond of pets of some description, 
such as pet dogs, pet horses, and the young and tender of 
animals generally; is willing to endure the greatest priva- 
tions if he can thereby promote their happiness ; values them 
above every thing else, and almost idolizes them ; and, with 
adhes. very large, grieves immoderately at their loss, or is 
overcome by it : with moderate or small destruct. and con- 
scien., " spares the rod and spoils the child :" with very large, 
approbat. or self-e., and only moderate or full conscien. and 
caus., indulges parental vanity and conceit; thinks his own 
children much smarter than those of others; delights to ex- 
hibit their great attainments, &c. ; and, if very large ideal, 
be added, would be likely to educate them for show and effect 
— to teach them the ornamental and fashionable, to the ne- 
glect of the more substantial, branches of learning — the fine 
arts, rather than useful learning; thus making them self-im- 
portant fops, and vain and guady belles, rather than useful 
members of society : with very large cautious., indulges a 
multitude of groundless fears and unfounded apprehensions 
about them, and borrows a world of trouble on their account : 
with benev. very large, and acquis, only moderate, makes 
them many presents ; with the moral and intellectual organs 
also large or very large and well-cultivated, has a happy 
talent for instructing them, and delights in it. 

tuLL. — One having philopro. full, will take considerable 
interest in children, especially when they begin to walk and 
praitfe ; bear much from them, particularly when combat, 
ana destruct. are only moderate ; and, when they are pos- 
sessvd of high intellectual charms, will often notice and play 
witL them, and generally please them ; and, if he has chil 
drei of his own, will make strenuous efforts and great sacri- 
fices <o provide for, and to educate, them; but, wjtn combat 
and. .^struct, larger than philopro., will be rather impatienJ 



when troubled by them, and sometimes severe with them : 
with large or very large adhes., benev., conscien., firm., and 
reasoning organs, and self-e. and combat., at least, full, will 
love children, yet be far from spoiling them by over-indul- 
gence, and generally secure their obedience, yet seldom be 
harsh towards them. 

Moderate. — One having philopro. moderate, is not very 
fond of children., and cannot bear much from them; may 
sometimes take some interest in them, yet does not like young 
children ; may love his own, yet does not fancy those of others. 
One with philopro. moderate and adhes. large, may love chil- 
dren as f riends rather than as children ; and, with benev. and 
conscien. also large, will take all needful care of them from 
feelings of kindness and duty, without being partial to chil- 
dren as such. 

Small. — One having philopro. small, with combat, and de- 
struct. large, is generally severe, and easily vexed, with chil- 
dren: and, with self-e. also large, and benev. only mod- 
erate or full, is domineering, haughty, and arbitrary towards 
them, and thus extremely unpopular with them, and delights 
to torment and tease them. 

Very Small. — One with philopro. very small, will be a 
stranger to this passion, and deal with children entirely as his 
other organs dictate. 

Location. — This organ is located in the centre of the 
hind head, just above the sharp point of the occipital bone, 
and back of the top of the ears. When the lobes of adhes. 
are large or very large, and philopro. is moderate or smah, 
a depression will be found between the lower portion of the 
two lobes of adhes., but when philopro. is also large or very 
large, this portion of the head will be elongated, as in the 
cut of Aurelia Chase. When philopro. and adhes. are both 
large, and inhab. is small, it assumes a sharpened appearance, 
running horizontally between the two lobes of adhes. 


Susceptibility of attachment — propensity to associate — Jond' 
ness for society — inclination to love, and desire to beloved. 

The chief office of this organ is to create those strong 
ties of social and, with amat, of conjugal affection, which 
bind mankind together in families, societies, communities 



Ac., and from which probably flows as much happiness, if 
not virtue, as from any other source. This faculty is very 
strong, and generally a ruling one, in females ; and its in- 
fluence upon society, is incalculable. 

Large. — One having adhes. large, exercises strong and 
ardent attachment ; is eminently social and affectionate ; 
seeks every opportunity to enjoy the company of friends, and 
feels very unhappy when deprived of it; does and sacrifices 
much for their sake ; sets much by them, and goes far to 
see and help them ; and makes a real, true, warm-hearted, 
and devoted friend. One having adhes. large, with combat, 
and destruct. large, readily takes the part of friends; resents 
and retaliates their injuries ; protects their rights, interests, 
character, &c, as readily as he does his own; and, with 
&elf-e. only moderate or full, even more so ; and yet, with 
self-e. large or very large, will occasionally fall out with 
them : with acquis, large, may love strongly, and be very hos- 
pitable and kind, yet unwilling to give his money ; but, with 
approbat. and benev. also large, may be liberal among his 
friends, and sometimes forward to discharge the social bill, 
yet will be as affectionate as he is liberal ; is very emulous to 
excel among friends, and cut to the heart by their reproach- 
es ; and, if approbat. or self-e. is very large, and caus. only 
full, is jealous of those that excel him, and forward among 
friends ; assumes the lead ; and must be first or nothing : 
with moderate combat., destruct., and self-e., and large or very 
large approbat., benev., conscien., ideal., mirth., and reasoning 
organs, will have many friends and few enemies ; be amiable, 
and gain the good will of all who know him : with large 
ideal., will express his affection in a refined and delicate 
manner, and with mirth, large, in a pleasing, jocose, and 
lively manner : with large or very large event., will recol- 
lect, with vivid emotions of delight, by-gone scenes of social 
chesr and friendly intercourse : with large reasoning organs, 
will give good advice to friends ; lay excellent plans for 
them ; rightly appreciate their character ; and, with cautious, 
also large, be judicious in selecting them, &c. 

Very large. — Those who have adhes. very large, or 
predominant, instinctively recognise it in each other ; soon 
become mutually and strongly attached; desire to cling 
around the objects of their love; take more interest and de- 
light in the exercise of friendship than in any thing else; 
are unwilling to think or believe ill of their friends; sym* 



pathize in their misfortunes • dread an interruption of friend- 
ship as the greatest of calamities; and willingly sacrifice 
ease, property, happiness, reputation, and sometimes even life 
for their sakes. Their friends may be few, but will be dear, 
and their attachment mutual, ardent, strong, and, with firm, 
large, constant; their joys, hopes, fears, trials, &c. one; their 
social intercourse delightful beyond description ; their sepa- 
ration, painful, in the extreme ; their loss, agonizing, almost 
beyond endurance; and the interruption of friendship, a fre- 
quent source of partial derangement. 

One having very large adhes., with large or very large 
destruct, combat., seif-e., firm., and benev., and only mode- 
rate or small approbat, secret., and conscien., will be a most 
ardent friend and an equally bitter enemy; will never forget 
a favour or an injury, till the one is rewarded, and the other 
avenged or confessed ; cannot do too much good to his friends, 
nor evil to his foes; and will make all his acquaintance ei- 
ther ardent friends, or bitter enemies : with very large phi- 
iopro. and large amat., sets every thing by his fatuity, and 
almost idolizes them; takes more delight in home and friends 
than in any thing, if not in every thing, besides; cannot en- 
dure to be absent from home ; is f re- eminently domestick ; 
and, with very large benev. and conscien., promotes their 
happiness by every effort, and by every sacrifice in his pow- 
er, and deeply sympathizes in their distress; and, with 
moderate combat, and destruct., regards the peace and 
quiet of the fireside as the greatest of pleasures, and family 
dissension as the worst of evils ; and does every thing in his 
power to promote domestick quiet and happiness, &c. One 
having large or very large adhes., loves those Vjest, and 
chooses them for his friends, who most nearly resemble him- 
self, and gratify the largest number of his organs: with 
large or very large approbat., hope, ideal., and mirth., and 
only moderate conscien. and caus., the gay and witty, the 
fashionable and showy, &c. : with large or very large mor- 
al organs, the eminently devout and religious, the sedate and 
the sentimental : with large or very large ideal, and inte.lec- 
tual organs, those who are highly talented, intellectual, and 
literary, but avoids the ignorant: with very large conscien., 
requires, first of all, that his friends be perfectly moral and 
honest, but with conscien. moderate, is not particular in this 

Full. — One having adhes. full, will make a social, com* 



pamonable, warm-hearted friend, who will sacrifice much at 
the shrine of friendship, yet sacrifice his friendship on the 
altar of the stronger passions ; his friendship, though strong 
and ardent, will be less glowing and intense than that 
produced by large adhes. One having adhes. full, with 
large or very large combat., destruct., self-e., approbat., and 
acquis., will serve himself first, and his friends afterwards ; 
form attachments, yet break them when they come ir. con- 
tact with the exercise of these organs ; and, with large se- 
cret, and small conscien., will not be at all desirable as a 
friend, yet, after all, set considerable by his friends: w*tn 
very large benev, large consoen., approbat., and firm., only 
moderate or full combat., destruct., and secret., and full 
or large intellectual organs, will be very good company ; 
desirable as a friend ; liberal, well-disposed, true to his friends, 
and always ready to do them a favour. Many of the com- 
binations under adhes. large, will apply, except in degree, to 
adhes. full, in the selection of which, as in many similar 
cases, the reader will use his own compar. 

Moderate. — One having adhes. moderate, maybe some- 
what fond of society, and exercise some attachment to his 
friends, yet will sacrifice it upon unimportant considerations, 
and, though he may have many acquaintances, will have no 
intimate and very dear friends : with large combat, and de- 
struct, will become easily offended with friends, and seldom > 
retain a friend long : with large benev, will bestow his ser- 
vices, and, with moderate acquis., his money, more readily 
than his affections ; and, with the selfish organs large, take 
care of himself first, making friendship subservient to sel- 
fish purposes^ 

Small. — One having adhes. small, thinks and cares little 
about friends ; takes little delight in their company ; prefers 
to live and act alone ; is cold-hearted, unsocial, and selfish ; 
has few friends, and, with large or very large selfish organs, 
a great many enemies, because he is himself so inimical to 
ethers. See combinations under adhes. moderate. 

Very small. — when adhes. is very small, its influence is 
not observable, and the subject, a perfect stranger to friendship. 

While amat. is generally much smaller, adhes., philopro., 
benev., and conscien., are commonly very much larger in fe 
males than in males, by which the former are qualified, in & 
pre-'.minent degree, to enjoy the domestick and social rela- 
tions, and to discharge the duties of their station. 




Location. — The location of this organ is outward and 
upward from philopro., and above amat., and its shape near- 
V oval. 


Love of home and country — desire to locate and remain iy 
one spot — attachment to the place in which, one has lived. 

That there often exists a partiality towards particuiat 
places, and for no other reason than that one has lived there, 
is a very common phenomenon, and even necessary to man's 
happiness and well-being. This class of functions must be 
produced by some faculty ; and the fact that its organ is 
found adjoining philopro. and adhes., the objects of which 
it directly and essentially aids, affords presumptive and ana- 
logical proof both of its existence and of the correctness of 
its location. 

Large. — One having inhab. large, will have a very 
strong desire to locate himself in a single spot which he can 
call his home, and to remain there; leaves the place of his 
nativity and abode with the greatest reluctance, and returns to 
them with delight; soon becomes strongly attached to his house, 
his office, his garden, his fields, &c, and is generally satis- 
fied with them; thinks a great deal of his native town, state, 
and country, and, when away from them, of those that have 
lived in them, &c. One having inhab. large, with philopro., 
adhes., ideal, individ., and local, large or very large, will be 
extremely fond of travelling, yet too fond of home to absent 
himself long at a time: in early life, will have an insatiable 
desire to rove about and see the world, and afterwards to set- 
tle: with approbat. and self-e. large or very large, will have 
high ideas of his country, of national honour, national ad- 
vantages and privileges, &c. ; and, with large or very large 
combat, and destruct., will be eminently patriotick and ready 
to sacrifice all, even life itself, in defence of his country's 
rights and honour, and of his own fireside ; and. with large or 
verv large ven., will look with great reverence to those de- 
parted worthies who have served and honoured their ccun- 
try, and also to the national relicks of past ages. 

Very large. — One having inhab. very large, will be 
gometimes homesick, especially if philopro. and adhes. are 
also very large ; will suffer almost any inconvenience, and 



forego bright prospects of acquiring wealth, &c, sooner than 
lea ye his home ; and experience, only in a proportionally 
higher degree, the feelings attributed to this organ large. 

Full. — One having this organ full, will prefer to live m 
cne spot, yet, when his interests require it, can change the 
place of his abode without much regret ; and, with large 
philopro. and adhes., will think much more of his family 
and his friends, than he will of his home as such. 

Moderate or small. — One having inhab. moderate or 
small, with large or very large hope, individ., ideal., and lo- 
cal., will be very apt to change his location either in hopes 
of improving it, or to see the world ; will have an insatiable 
desire to travel in foreign parts ; unless prevented by strong 
reasons, will be likely to live, at different times, in several dif- 
ferent places ; and, with philopro. and adhes. large, will regard 
his home not for its own sake, but for the sake of family and 
friends, and will not, by his mere love of home, be prevented 
from going where his interest or business leads him, nor 
be likely to suffer from a want of home. 

Very small. — When this faculty is very small, its oper- 
ation has no perceptible influence upon the character. 

The author has seen numerous, striking developments of 
the organ in conjunction with a proportionate strength of the 
faculty ; and also many other instances of the deficiency both 
of the organ and of the faculty. One of the most striking of 
the former, is the case of Judge Tucker of Williamsburgh, 
Va., half-brother of the late John Randolph, who, while yet in 
the prime of life, left a very lucrative and honourable pro- 
fession for the sole purpose of living and dying where his 
fathers had lived and died. The organ is extremely large m 
his head, and also the organs of adhes. and philopro. The 
author might mention hundreds of others equally in point. 

Between Spurzheim and Combe there exists a difference 
of opinion concerning this faculty and that of concent. Dr. 
Spurzheim gives the location and analysis of inhab. similar 
to that contained in this work, but maintains that the organ of 
concent, does not exist ; while Mr. Combe maintains, that the 
organ of concent, (which will be next analyzed) occupies near- 
ly the same position. But from the numerous and marked 
cases of a development of each organ in the absence of the 
other, and the perfect coincidence between the strength of 
these faculties and the size of their respective organs, of 
which, in no instance, has he seen a failw e, the author in 



thoroughly convinced that both are substantially correct- 
that there are two organs as analyzed and located in this 

Location. — -The location of inhab. is directly above phi- 
lopro., and partly between, and partly above, the two lobes 
of adhes. Where it is large or very large, and concent, 
moderate, an angle is formed near the union of the lambdoi 
dal sutures, between which and the occipital bone, there will 
be considerable distance, but when it is small, no such organ 
will be found. 


The power of mental concentration and continuity. 

The object of this faculty is to continue the operations ol 
the other faculties upon any given subject, until they have 
thoroughly acted upon it, and presented the result. The 
nature of the faculty may not yet have been fully analyzed, 
yet, of the phenomena ascribed to it, there can be no question. 

Large. — One having large concent, is thereby enabled 
and disposed to keep his whole mind patiently fixed, for a 
long time, upon a single thing ; to continue the existing train 
of thought, feeling, &c, and to exclude every other; to im- 
part unity and mutual dependence to propositions, arguments, 
paragraphs, parts of a sentence, &c. ; to dwell patiently on 
any subject of interest, and, with large intellectual organs, to 
goto the bottom of subjects; to investigate them thoroughly; 
to run out processes of reasoning, and chains of thought, &c, 
in all their bearings and consequences ; to give his whole 
mind to one, and but one, thing at a time; and to hold his 
mind to a train of thought, subject of study, piece of labour, &c, 
till they are entirely completed. It imparts a unity and con- 
nectedness to all the conceptions and operations of the mind, 
and yet, in doing this, prevents that intensity, and rapidity, 
and variety which are manifested without it. One having 
concent, large, with large combat, and destruct, will proloug 
the exercise of anger : with cautious, large, that of fear : 
with ideal, large, flights of imagination, &c. 

Very large. — One having concent, very large, is con- 
fused if several things claim attention at once; requires a 
long time to fix his mind upon any particular subject, or to 
divert it when once fixed ; in conversation, is apt to be ppolix 
and tedious, and wear his subjects threadbare, and, if inter* 


rupted, is greatly disturbed, if not vexed : with individ. moder- 
ate or small, and the reasoning organs large or very large, is 
frequently abstract, absent minded, and so deeply buried in 
meditation, as to be unconscious of what is transpiring around 
him, and often dwells so long upon a subject as to distort it, 
and pursue it into absurd extremes. The style of Dr. 
Chalmers, and also of Dr. Thomas Brown, will serve as il- 
lustrations of the effect which this faculty produces upon the 
manner of communicating ideas. 

Full. — One having concent, full, will be inclined to dweL 
upon a thing to which his attention has been called, and also 
to impart, as much perfection as may be to the operations of his 
mind, yet, when occasion requires, can change, without much 
difficulty, from one subject to another, and thus attend to a 
variety of objects within a limited time, and will preserve a 
happy medium between too great prolixity, and too greaJ 

Moderate or small. — One with concent, moderate 01 
small, is able and inclined to pass rapidly and easily from 
one kind of study, book, conversation, thought, feeling, busi 
ness, occupation, &c. to another, from point to point, in argU' 
ment, without connecting or arranging them; does not sys 
tematieally arrange his subjects ; fails to impart mental de 
pendence to his sentences, paragraphs, propositions, an( 
parts of a discourse, so that many of them could be omitted 
without affecting the rest; throws out his thoughts in con> 
cise and distinct propositions, rather than in long paragraphs ; 
stops when he has finished, and even before he has suffi- 
ciently illustrated, his ideas, passes to others, and again re- 
turns; abridges his anecdotes and sentences by the omission 
of important particulars ; drops one sentence, subject, anec- 
dote, &c. to commence another, and forgets Avhat he was be- 
ginning to say; wanders, in contemplation, through a great 
variety of different or opposite subjects ; throws off care and 
trouble easily, and keeps no organ long in connected action 
unless it is powerfully excited. 

One having concent, moderate or small, with adhes. large, 
thinks of his friends for the time being with vivid and intense 
emotion, but only for a short time at once, yet is not, there- 
fore, inconstant in his attachments: with combat, and des- 
trucs';. large, may get angry quickly, but, unless the injury is 
deep and intended, cannot retain his anger : with the intellec- 
tual organs generally large or very large, will be more likely 



to make rather a general, than a critical, scholar, and more 
apt to have a smattering of all the sciences, than a profound 
knowledge of any ; soon gets weary of one book, study, &c 
takes up another, and then returns to the first, thus studying 
by piecemeal ; prefers short pieces upon various subjects to 
long ones upon any — a newspaper to a book, &c. : with corn- 
par, large or very large, may have bold and original ideas 
upon a variety of subjects, yet will not, without great effort, 
or great excitement, have a chain of connected thoughts upon 
any, and will make rather a striking and immediate, than a 
lasting, impression: with ideal., imitat., mirth., Individ., event., 
lang., and the reasoning organs large or very large, will 
make a better extempore speaker than writer, may give vari- 
ety, but will never give copiousness, to conversation and dis- 
course ; will lack the requisite patience to prepare his ideas 
for critical reading, and yet possess great versatility of talent. 
For the merchant, accountant, superintendent, and those who 
are called upon to attend to a great many different persons and 
things, moderate or small concent, is indispensable, and large 
or very large concent., extremely detrimental. 

Very Small. — One having concent, very small, has so 
great a thirst for variety, and change of occupation, and is 
so restless and impatient, that he cannot continue long enough 
at any one thing to effect much, and will experience, only in 
a still greater degree, the phenomena described under the 
head of concent, moderate or small. 

In the American head this organ is generally moderate or 
small, which perfectly coincides with the versatility of their tal- 
ents, and variety of their occupations. They often pursue sev- 
eral kinds of business at once, while the English and Ger- 
mans, in whom the organ is generally large, experience the 
greatest difficulty in pursuing any other calling or occupa- 
tion than that in which they were educated. The want of 
this organ constitutes a great defect in the American charac- 
ter, which is still farther increased by the variety of studies 
pressed upon the attention of each student in our schools and 
seminaries. This, indeed, constitutes one of the greatest de> 
fects in the present system of education. It is generally full 
or large in those who spend their lives in doing a single 
thing, such as factory tenders : and this furnishes an impor- 
tant hint to those who wish to cultivate the faculty. It is 
generally, though erroneously, supposed, that a large endow- 
ment of this faculty is necessary to great power of mind, 



and a transcendant genius. The fact is far otherwise. 
Framdin evidently possessed but a small portion of it ; and 
perhaps the majority of eminent men whom it has been the 
fortune of the author to examine, have possessed but an in- 
different endowment of this faculty. When it is weak, the 
mind seizes at once what it seizes at all, and acts with so 
much rapidity, that a second subject is introduced before the 
first is completed, or, at least, before these operations are 
fully presented and illustrated ; so that such persons are lia 
ble to be frequently misunderstood from a want of sufficient 
explanation. Concentration of thought, style, and feeling, 
intensity and power of mind, in which there is produced, an 
it were, a focus of feeling or of intellect, is the result not. as is 
generally supposed, of concent, large or very ±arge, Dut, of 
concent, moderate or small, an active temperament, and 
.large or very large intellectual faculties. Large concent., as 
it were, dilutes or amplifies the mental operations. 

The difference between concent, and firm, is this ; con- 
cent, bears upon the particular mental operations for the 
time being, while large firm, has reference to the general 
opinions, plans, &c, of life. For example; one having con- 
cent, small, and firm, large or very large, will naturally pre- 
fer an occupation in which his attention would be rapidly call- 
ed to successive things, all of which would have reference 
to his grand object of pursuit, and from which he could not 
easily be diverted. If he were a merchant, he would pursue 
his mercantile calling with perseverance, yet he would be 
able, without confusion, to wait upon many different custom- 
ers within a short time, &c. 

Location. — This organ is located above inhab. and adhes., 
and below self-e. When it is large or very large, a general 
fulness of this region will be observable, but no protutieranse 
will be apparent ; but when it is moderate or small, a pro- 
portionate semicircular depression will be very perceptible, 
in part encircling adhes. and inhab., and following the lamb- 
doidal sutures. When inhab. is also small, the depression ?s 
widened at the union of these sutures. 


Love of life as such — unwillingness to die. 
It is evident that a desire to live, disconnected with any of 
Le comforts of life, and, also, with all the objects to be secnr- 



ed by living, constitutes a strong passion, not only in man, 
but, likewise, in some classes of animals. In some, this in- 
stinctive love of life, and this fearful shrinking from death, 
amount to a passion, and nothing is regarded with moreter- 
rour than dying. Hence the necessity of a faculty whose 
office it is to perform this class of functions, and, also, of a 
portion of the brain, by means of which it can manifest these 

The author became acquainted with Dr. Gibson, one ol 
the editors of the Washington Telegraph, in whom the or- 
gan is very small, and who, when seemingly at the point of 
death, in consequence of a wound he had received, not only 
felt very little desire to live, or fear of death, but even exer- 
cised his mirth, which is large, in a high degree, although 
in the expectation that each hour would be his last. 

Large. — One having vitat. large, aside from the enjoy- 
ment of life and the fear of death, will look upon life as ont. 
of the most desirable of all objects, ?nd upon death as "the. 
king of terrours." This desire to live will also be increas- 
ed by the desires of the other faculties. One having vitat 
large, with the domestick faculties strong, will desire to live, 
not only because he looks upon his existence here as a mo* 
desirable object, but, likewise, on account of his family anci 
friends : with acquis, large or very large, for the purpose ol' 
amassing wealth : with the intellectual organs large, to ac- 
quire knowledge : with approbat. and self-e. large, to gratify 
his ambition, &e. ; but, when these organs are interrupted oi 
disappointed — when adhes., for example, is wounded by th<» 
loss of dear friends, acquis., by the loss of property, appro- 
bat, by disgrace, &c, the sufferings thus caused, may be so 
much greater than his love of life, that the individual may 
wish to die, and, by the aid of destruct, seek relief in self- 

Very large. — To one with this faculty very large, even 
the thought of dying will be dreadful, and he will most te- 
naciously cling to life, even though it be most miserable. 
The combinations under this head, except in degree, are the 
same as those under vitat. large. 

Full. — One having vitat. full, with other organs large or 
very large, will desire to live, but rather as a secondary, than 
a primary, object ; and on account of his other faculties, 
rather than on account of his vitat. 

Moderate or small. — One with vitat. mi derate »r 



mall, will seldom think of dying, and vvnen he does will 
De much more affected by the consequences of death, than 
by a love of life; be less careful of his health, and those 
means calculated to lengthen life, than he would be with vitat. 
large. In this case, death will be preferred to trouble, and 
life desired rather as a means, than as an end, and for the 
objects sought to be accomplished. 

Very small. — When vitat. is very small, a. desire to live, 
and a shrinking from death, as such, and per sese, will never 
be thought of. 

Location. — Vitat. is located nearly beneath the mastoid 
process, and partly between amat. and destruct. See cuts. 


Propensity to defend, resist, and oppose. 

The influence of combat, upon the other faculties, and, 
indeed, upon the whole character, manifests itself, not only 
in physical, but also in moral and intellectual, opposition. 
Its action is necessary whenever, in the execution of a diffi- 
cult project, any thing is to be resisted or overcome. It acts 
upon animate, as well as upon inanimate, objects, and imparts 
to its possessor that nerve and determination which induce 
him to grapple with all his undertakings, as though he could 
and would effect his purposes. 

The direction of this faculty, and the character of its man- 
ifestations, are determined chiefly by its combinations, and 
the education or breeding of the individual. When it is 
under the control of the higher sentiments and of reason, 
and directed to its proper objects, no n anifestation of the 
mind is more virtuous or more praise-worthy : but when not 
thus controlled and directed, its manifestation is odious and 
vicious in the extreme. It was by this organ, directed, aided, 
and stimulated by conscien., self-e., the domestick faculties, 
reason, &c, that our ancestors achieved our ever-glorious 
Independence; and yet, from this organ in its perverted 
manifestation, originate those party strifes, family and village 
dissensions, bickerings and quarrels, mobs and physical 
combats which disgrace humanity. 

Large. — One having combat, large, with self-e. full, and 
firm, large, will be eminently qualified to meet difficulties ; 
overcome obstacles ; brave dangers .; endure hardships ; cos 



tend for privileges ; maintain and advocate opinions ; resist 
encroachments; resent injuries and insults, &c.; will defend 
his rights to the very last ; suffer no imposition ; seize upon 
whatever he undertakes with the spirit and determination re- 
quisite to carry it through all opposing difficulties ; rathe? 
glory in opposition than shrink from it; be always ready, if 
not glad, to act upon the defensive, if not upon the offensive ; 
inclined to call in question, and oppose, the opinions and the 
proceedings of others, and partly from pure love of opposi- 
tion ; will often urge his own opinions ; generally take 
sides upon every contested question ; and, with approbat. also 
large, will seek to distinguish himself: with a full or large 
brain, will possess energy and force of character in an emi- 
nent degree ; and, with an active temperament, unless restrain- 
ed by large benev., conscien., and caus., will be naturally too 
violent and too hasty in his temper, and subject to sudden 
ebullitions of passion. 

One having combat, large, with large destruct., will unite 
harshness, and seventy, and a kind of fierceness with his re- 
sistance, and frequently show quite too much spirit, and, with 
an active temperament, will not only be quick tempered, but, 
also, very severe and vindictive when roused; but, with de- 
struct. moderate or small, may be quick to resent and resist, 
and cool and intrepid in the onset, yet will inflict as little pain 
as possible; will conquer, yet spare the vanquished, and can 
never punish one who has surrendered, especially if conscien, 
and benev. are large or very large ; is more courageous than 
cruel; more petulent than violent; more passionate than 
harsh ; and, when anger is manifested, will not add to it that 
fierceness, and that spirit of revenge, which give it a threat- 
ening aspect, and make it dreadful : with very large self-e., 
large destruct., and the selfish propensities stronger than the 
moral and reasoning faculties, will protect himself and his 
own exclusive privileges first of all; seem to claim the ser- 
vices of others merely upon the ground of his own superiori- 
ty, and without thinking of returning an equivalent, and, 
perhaps, abuse those who infringe upon his righto, and, with 
conscien. moderate or small, those also who do not render him 
all the serviee and honour he claims ; will seldom evinco 
gratitude for favours received, because he will feel that they 
of right belong to him ; will be naturally selfish and jealous, 
and apt to treat his fellow men, except those whom he con- 
descends to make his particular friends, with a kind of con- 



temp.,' and if they cross his path, with scorn : with acquis 
large or very large, self-e. large, and caus. only full, will de 
fend his property ; stand out for every farthing that belong* 
to him ; and be very angry at those through whom he may 
have sustained any pecuniary loss ; but, with acquis, only 
moderate, and self-e. or approbat. large or very h rge, will 
permit the injury of his property with comparative impunity, 
yet boldly sustain his injured honour, and preserve his char- 
acter unsullied to the last, cost him what it nray : with self-e. 
only moderate, and adhes. large, will suffer others to impose 
upon himself, yet will take the part of a friend with a great 
deal more readiness and warmth of feeling than he would 
his own part: with amat. large, will defend the other sex 
sooner than himself or his own sex — the character, the per- 
son, &c, of a lover, sooner than of himself, &c: with concent, 
and destruct. moderate or small, and an active temperament, 
will be subject to sudden bursts of passion, which will contin- 
ue but for a moment, and then leave him as calm as before, 
and, perhaps, vexed with himself because he cannot suppress 
his anger : with lang. and the reasoning organs large, is 
extremely fond of debate ; very much inclined to start objec- 
tions to what has been said ; to argue on the opposite side of 
the question, even in opposition to his real belief, merely from 
love of argument : and, with large firm., though vanquished, 
will argue still. 

Very Large. — The manifestations of combat, very large, 
are much the same with those under the head of combat, large, 
except when it is combined with large or very large self-e, 
or approbat., firm, and destruct., and only moderate or fuL 
conscien., secret., benev., ven., and caus., in which case 
it actuates one to attack and provoke others without suffi- 
cient cause ; to dispute and quarrel with those around him ; 
crowd himself forward; push his opinions on others; create 
disturbance ; kindle strife ; encourage quarrels and engage 
in them; and creates a quarrelsome, combative, contentious 
spirit. One having very large combat., with large destruct., 
is terrible and desperate in the onset ; and fights with fierceness 
and determination : with large amat, philopro., and adhes., 
will fight for his family, yet quarrel with them himself: with 
large acquis., will quarrel for a penny : with large or very 
large benev., conscien., and reasoning organs, will be able 
to regulate his anger only by turning abruptly from his op- 
ponent, and by avoiding every thing calculated to excite his 



combative spirit ; find extreme difficulty in governing his 

anger, and, when really roused, be desperate. 

Full. — One having combat, full, is always ready, when 
opposition is called for, to engage in it, and, with a nervous 
temperament, soon excited to resent and resist, and natural- 
ly quick-tempered ; will possess all necessary boldness and 
efficiency of character, and rather court opposition than shun it; 
yet will be far from being quarrelsome, or seeking opposition 
for its own sake. One having combat, full, with conscien., 
firm., benev., and caus. large or very large, though his anger 
is strong, will generally govern it; will be mild, kind, well- 
disposed, and peaceable; avoid quarrelling and contention, 
and yet possess a large share of moral courage, and owe the 
combative spirit he may manifest, more to the powerful stimu- 
lus he may experience, than to the natural activity and 
power of the passion ; will show this feeling more in his 
business, and in moral and intellectual resistance, than in 
quarrelsomeness or physical combat ; and seldom employ 
physical force, except when powerfully excited ; but, with a 
predominance of the other selfish faculties, will possess an 
unenviable temper. The combinations under combat, large, 
will apply, except in degree, to combat, full. 

Moderate. — One having combat, moderate, will contend 
no more than the case really demands, and sometimes not even 
as much ; will not tamely allow himself or others to be really 
abused and trampled upon, and yet, will bear long before he will 
manifest resistance, and be quite as forbearing as manliness 
and virtue will allow; will dislike quarrelling and avoid it 
as long as possible ; may be irritable from the irritability ol 
his temperament, yet is by no means contentious ; will not be, 
in reality, tame and cowardly, nor yet very efficient; will 
exercise but little indignation, and be amiable, peaceable, 
easy with all, quiet, and inoffensive. 

One having combat, moderate, with self-e. moderate 01 
small, and large or very large philopro., adhes.. acquis., 
benev., and conscien., will contend for children, family, 
friends, the oppressed, his religious opinions, moral princi- 
ples, &c, with much spirit, and yet, suffer personal abuse 
with impunity: with large or very large self-e., firm., con- 
scien., and the reasoning organs, will maintain his opinions 
with stability, and pursue his plans with firmness, and yet, 
do it in a quiet, but firm and effectual, manner ; seek to ac- 
complish whatever he undertakes without opposition; act 



chiefly upon .he defensive ; make but little noise or bustle, 
yet hold on and persevere till his purposes and plans are 
carried through; and, with cautious, also large, will take the 
castle rather by siege than by storm ; accomplish considera- 
ble, and in the best manner, but must take his own time for 
it; and will be distinguished for his stability, judgment, 
and success : with large or very large caus. and compar., 
and large intellectual organs generally, will not distinguish 
himself in argument or debate, unless when powerfully ex- 
cited, yet, if his head is large, will then be original and logica'., 
and express many important ideas ; be characterized more by 
perspicuity, and force of reason, than by passion and fervour 
of feeling, &c. 

Small. — One having combat, small, will be unable and 
unwilling to encounter his fellow men ; be mild, amiable, in- 
offensive, and rather inefficient; lack spirit, and presence of 
mind in time of danger ; quail too quick under opposition, 
and shrink from it ; love peace and seek it, even at a great 
personal sacrifice ; avoid quarrelling ; endeavour to reconcile 
the contending; surrender rights rather than contend for 
them ; endure oppression rather than shake it off, take 
abuse in good part ; be forbearing, and generally beloved ; and, 
with destruct. moderate, whatever may be his other qualities, 
will be unable to effect any thing of importance, or cut a figure 
in the world ; and, with large or very large domestick, moral, 
and intellectual organs, will seek his chief gratification in re- 
tirement from the noise and bustle of active and publick life, in 
literaryand seientifick acquirements, religious exercises, &c.J 
and, though he may have a high endowment of natural 
talent, will have nothing to stimulate and bring it out ; and 
with cautious, large or very large, will be timid, irresolute, 
•owardly, and easily overcome by alarm. 

Very Small. — One having combat, very small, with 
sautious. very large, is passive, tame, cowardly, chicken- 
hearted, weak, destitute of spirit, force and energy of charac- 
er, and may be abused with impunity; is excessively timid; 
Joes not stand his ground ; never ventures ; will never mani- 
fest anger, and be utterly unable to withstand opposition. 

When the author was in the town of Milton, Pa., in 1836, 
one of the editors of that place, who was a decided opponent 
of phrenology, for the purpose of testing the science, brought 
forward a lad who was distinguished for his talents, his 
•hrewdness, high-toned, manly feeling, and for his apparent 



boldness and daring in horsemanship. To mate the experi 
ment the more satisfactory, the author was blindfolded. The 
lad was described as possessed of extraordinary talent, and 
high moral feeling, joined with some cunning, but with small 
combat., and so extreme a development of cautious, as to 
make him timid and cowardly — too timid to run any risk, or 
ventu-e near the brink of danger. All present allowed that 
the description, throughout, was very correct, except that the 
most marked feature of his character had been reversed. 
He was considered the most daring and reckless youth in 
the whole village. Many instances, however, were soon 
cited, of his unwillingness to mount horses with which he 
was not fully acquainted, and which were considered frac- 
tious. His brother also stated, that he was excessively afraid 
in the dark ; and only a few days previous, his father had re- 
marked to some one present, that, although he affected great 
daring, bravado, and willingness to fight, &c, yet, when 
brought to the sticking point, he always contrived, and some- 
times very ingeniously, to get out of the scrape without com- 
ing to blows. Still the youth affected to be as courageous 
and as daring as ever, until, at supper, in the evening after 
his examination, when his mother, who doubtless knew best 
his real character, accosted him substantially as follows: 
" My son, you know that you are a coward : why, then, do 
you persist in denying it 1 You know that I can never 
make you, old as you are, go to bed alone ; and that, whenev- 
er you are left alone in bed, you will get up and come down." 
" I know it, mother," replied the humbled boy, " but I did not 
wish the other boys to find out that I was a coward, because, 
when they do, they will call me out to fight." 

The real explanation is this. His very large self-e. and 
large approbat. created the demand for apparent bravery, and 
his very large intellect, and large secret , enabled him to 
devise this method of supplying his want of native courage 
with this counterfeit bravery ; while his predominating cau- 
tious., which caused his excessive fear, kept him from expos- 
ing himself to any real danger; and his self-e. gave him the 
self-confidence necessary to carry out the ingenious expedient 
which his intellect had devised. 

The following anecdote was related to the author. A 
Mr. S., in a certain engagement with the Indians, fought des- 
perately, even with a bravery which greatly astonished those 
who had known his father, who was always branded am* 


ridiculed as an arrant coward. He then confessed, that his 
fear was almost insupportable, and that he fought thus brave- 
ly only to wipe out the disgrace of his father. 

These facts, Avith ten thousand others which might easily 
be cited, clearly show, that what is generally considered bra- 
very, is more frequently produced by approbat. or self-e., 
than by combat. Hence, great cowards often appear to be 
men of real courage. 

The way is thus opened for the remark, that the amount 
of combat, m anifested, depends, in no small degree, upon the 
stimulus under which it acts. For example; suppose two 
young men, possessed of an equal share of combat., and alike 
in every respect, except, that one possessed a "very large 
share of approbat. and very small adhes., and the other only 
a small degree of approbat., but very large adhes. Now, 
under given circumstances, the former would be as much 
more indignant at an insult offered to him, and touching his 
honour, than the latter would be, as his approbat. was larger 
than that of the latter ; whereas, the latter would take up we 
quarrel of a friend as much quicker than the former, and 
fight as much harder, as his adhes. excelled that of the form- 
er. This illustration presents a general principle, which 
applies with equal force to the combinations of any of the 
other faculties with that of combat., and to all the combina- 
tions of the organs. 

The application of this principle, will most satisfactorily 
explain, how a man may be perfectly honest in some things, 
and quite dishonest in others, as well as ten thousand other 
interesting phenomena of the human mind. It will explain 
to us, how the timid and delicate mother, in rescuing her 
darling child from imminent danger, can assume the boldness 
of the hero, nay, the fierceness of the tiger. 

In this last case, the phenomenon is explained thus : Very 
large philopro., very powerfully excites what combat, there 
is, but for which excitement, timidity would take the place of 
boldness, and cowardice, that of courage. 

Location. — In a common sized head, combat, is located 
about an inch and a half behind the top of the ear, and ex- 
tends itself in a perpendicular direction. When it is very 
large, and the surrounding organs large, it will cause a 
thickness of this part of the head, wh.'ch may be the more 
easily observed by placing the thumb upon the organ on one 
fide, and the fingers on the opposite side ; but wjbun it ii 



moderate or small, there will be little protuberance or breadtk 
in this region. v 

Propensity to destroy, exterminate, and, inflict pain. 

In the economy of human society, many things are to be 
destroyed to make life even tolerable. Death and destruc- 
tion enter largely into the great law of nature. Hence, the 
necessity of some faculty to exercise this propensity to de- 
stroy. We often see it in the child, which, long before it 
" knows how to choose the good and refuse the evil," mani- 
fests an innate and strong propensity to tear in pieces, break, 
and destroy whatever comes in its way. As it advances 
in life, it even makes a pastime of tormenting and killing 
flies, and all such animals as fall into its power. When a 
little older, it delights in hunting, and indulges feelings of 
hatred and revenge. 

We, moreover, see that this same characteristick of de- 
struction, enters into every department of organized matter, 
and forms no unimportant feature, as well of the moral, as 
of the natural, government of God. The exercise of this 
function, must therefore be both right and necessary, else, 
why should it be exercised by the Creator? And there evi- 
dently exists, not only no reason why this class of functions 
should not be performed by a distinct mental faculty, but 
there certainly exists every reason for supposing that this is 
the case. It is homogeneous in its kind, and unlike any 
other in its character ; and, consequently, demands a distinct 
faculty for its exercise, and upon the same ground with any 
other class of functions. 

Large. — One having destruct. large, with large combat., 
firm., and self-e., possesses that sternness and severity of char- 
acter, which make others fear to provoke him, and that force 
of character which enables him to prostrate and surmount 
whatever obstacles oppose his progress ; accompanies hi3 
mandate with a threat, either implied or expressed ; is point- 
ed and sarcastick, if not bitter, in his replies ; feels strong 
indignation towards those that displease or injure him, and 
is disposed to persecute them by injuring their feelings, repu 
tation, or interests, or by treating them with entire contempt 
and neglect; experiences a feeling of revenge and bitterness 



which, unless restrained by secret., conscien., benev., &c, he 
does not fail to show. 

One having destruct. large, with large adhes., loves hia 
friends dearly, yet often injures their feelings by saying bit- 
ter things to them, which, with conscien. large, he often 
afterwards regrets : with combat, moderate, is slow to wrath, 
but bitter and vindictive when once roused, and will have 
satisfaction before he can be appeased : with secret, large, 
and conscien. moderate or small, watches his opportunity to 
take vengeance, and strikes in the dark ; but with secret, 
small, warns before he strikes : with benev. large or very 
large, may be sometimes harsh in his efforts to do good, and 
thus often cause needless pain, but will do this more by his 
mariner than from any cruel design ; will be kind, and sym- 
pathetick, and sensitive to the sufferings of others, and yet, 
very harsh and severe when provoked ; and generally exer- 
cise this faculty upon inanimate, rather than upon animate, 
objects: with conscien. and combat, large, and secret, small, 
is apt to find considerable fault, and that in a very harsh man- 
ner : with large or very large compar., applies disgusting 
epithets to his enemies, and compares them to some most odi- 
ous or disgusting object ; is pre-eminent for his sarcastick 
comparisons, which always fit the one for whom they are 
made,* &c. 

Very large. — One having destruct. very large, Avith 
large or very large benev., conscien., and caus., may be en- 
abled so to govern and restrain his indignation, that it will 
seldom carry him beyond the bounds of reason and justice, 
or break out into ungoverned rage and violence, yet when 
roused, will be dangerous, and like a chafed lion, and be 
obliged to avoid the causes of excitement; will be fond of 
teasing, and also of hunting, and the warlike array of a gen- 
eral muster, &c. ; and, with large or very large combat., 
self-e., approbat., firm., and hope, will excel as a soldier, &c. 
For other combinations, see destruct. large. 

Full. — One having destruct. full, with large firm., and 
full combat, and self-e., has sufficient harshness and severity 
of character to keep off and punish those who would other- 
wise injure him ; to take the rough and tumble of life, and 
push his own way through it; and to destroy or subdue 
whatever is prejudicial to his happiness, yet is neither mo- 

" John Randolph, 



rose nor cruel ; when driven to it, can witness and inflict 
pain, but does it reluctantly, and causes as little suffering as 
he consistently can ; when his anger is not highly exci- 
ted, is mild in his disposition ; and, excepting occasional 
flurries of passion, which are produced by irritability of 
temperament, seldom shows strong indignation. 

One having destruct. full, with large benev., conscien., 
ideal., and adhes., will possess uncommon sympathy and ten- 
derness of feeling, mingled with little sternness and harsh- 
ness ; will secure obedience, and accomplish his wishes by 
kindness and persuasion, more than by threats and passion, 
and be beloved more than feared : with large or very large 
benev., cannot bear to see pain or punishment inflicted, ex- 
cept when he is angry, and then may inflict it with delight; 
yet, with large combat, and mirth., delights to tease and tan- 
talize others ; will not be wanton and cruel in the infliction 
")f pain, yet will seldom allow his indignation to slumber 
Amen his own interests, or those of his friends, or the cause 
of justice or humanity, demand it ; in ordinary circumstan- 
ces, will inflict but little pain, yet will manifest strong dis- 
pleasure towards his enemies, and, when his indignation is 
Cully kindled, show even more severity and bitterness than 
.he occasion demands ; will not readily forget the objects of 
his displeasure, and will be far from possessing a tame and 
insipid character. 

Moderate. — One having destruct. moderate, will mani- 
fest only a moderate share of indignation and severity of 
character ; often spare what should be destroyed or punish- 
ed ; and, with large or very large benev., will be unable to 
witness suffering and death, much less to cause them ; and will 
not possess sufficient force of mind or fierceness of character to 
drive through important undertakings : with benev. and the 
moral organs generally large or very large, will be beloved 
more than feared ; will possess an extraordinary share of 
sympathy, so much so as sometimes to overcome him, and 
amount to a weakness : and will secure his wishes more by 
persuasion and mild measures, than by threats or harshness. 

Small. — One having destruct. small, manifests his anger 
in so feeble a manner, that it effects but little, and provokes 
a smile, rather than fear : with benev. very large, possesses 
too little hardness of heart to inhabit a world of suffering 
and endure its cruelties and hardships, and cannot himself 
endure physical suffering. 



In its perverted exercise, this faculty creates a vindictive, 
litter, revengeful, over-bearing spirit; delights in tantalizing 
and tormentir g ; produces cruelty towards beasts, and those 
in its power ; gives a relish for hunting, killing, destroying 1 , 
witnessing publick executions, and such amusements as the 
fighting of men, dogs, and fowls, in bull-bating, bear-bating, 
&c. ; produces a propensity for war, murder, violence, blood- 
shed, &c. ; instigates children and others to stone, catch, tor- 
ment, and destroy birds, insects, and such animals as fall in 
their way, and also to stamp, strike, tear in pieces, and ex- 
hibit other signs of rage, violence, &c. ; and, with approbat. 
and self-e. very large, to engage in duelling, &c, and pur- 
sue enemies till revenge is fully satisfied. 

That the class of functions here described, constitutes a 
very extensive and a very influential portion of the mental 
operations, no attentive observer of human nature can enter- 
tain a doubt. Every page of the history of man, from that 
which records the murder of Abel by his own brother, to 
that which closes with the wars of Florida and Texas, is 
written in characters of violence and blood. Even the most 
favourite amusements of men have always been sanguinary: 
a specimen of which are the theatrical representations and 
gladiatorial shows which have always delighted mankind. 
Every publick execution is crowded with eager spectators ot 
all classes and ages, and of both sexes, who attend mainly to 
gratify their destruct. by witnessing the violent death of a 
fellow mortal. Almost every newspaper is stained with the 
horrid details of some cold-blooded murder, duel, or suicide, 
or some other act of violence or destruction in some of the 
unnumbered forms it assumes. If phrenology did not make 
provision for this class of functions, this omission would be 
prima facie evidence of its destitution of truth, and inconsis- 
tency with nature. 

Its exercise is either virtuous or vicious, according to the 
lircumstances in which, and the objects upon which, it ia 
exercised. Perhaps no organ is more liable to be abused 
than this, or productive of more misery; and yet, this is by 
no means owing to the nature and the original character of 
the faculty, but solely to its perversion. Hence the import- 
ance of its proper education. 

Location. — This organ is located beneath the temporal 
bone, and, when large, extends from three to six eighths of 
an inch above the top of the ear. When it is very large, \ 



thickens the middle of the base of the head, and makes the 
ears stand out from the head. When it is large or very 
large, and secret, is small, it produces a horizontal ridge 
which extends about half an inch above the top of the ears. 


Appetite for sustenance — desire for nutrition. 

This faculty creates a relish for food, drink, &c. ; renders 
important assistance in selecting the kinds of food best 
calculated to nourish the body ; when the system needs a 
further supply of food and drink, produces hunger and 
thirst, and, when it is unperverted, and the stomach is in a 
healthy state, is a sure directory as to the quantity and the 
quality of food necessary for the purposes of nutrition and 

Large. — One having aliment, large, is very fond of the 
good things of this life, and frequently eats more than health 
and comfort require; partakes of food with a very keen rel- 
ish; sets a very high value upon the luxuries of the palate; 
and, according to his means, is a good liver. 

One having aliment, large, with acquis, also large, will in- 
dulge his appetite, when he can do so without too great ex- 
pense ; but, when good eating is costly, will sometimes suffer 
hunger rather than pay a high price to appease it, except 
where he is ashamed not to eat ; will expend money reluctantly 
for sweetmeats, &c, unless his aliment, is stimulated by a 
favourite dish, or, to him, favourite sweetmeats, but will, nev- 
ertheless, find it hard to keep from eating whatever delicacies 
may be in his way : with acquis, moderate or small, will 
spend his time and money freely for rich viands and rare 
liquors ; and, if large or very large adhes. be added to this 
combination, will not only take the greatest delight at the 
convivial board and the social meal, but will spend money 
even more lavishly than is necessary to entertain his friends: 
with conscien. large or very large, will feel guilty whenever 
he over-indulges his appetite, and will endeavour to regulate 
his eating according to his ideas of duty, yet will be obliged 
to struggle hard against this as " an easily besetting sin," by 
which he will, nevertheless, be often overtaken : with con- 
scien. and ven. larg; r ~ yery large, will we thankful for hit 



food as a bountiful gift from the hand of his Maker :* with 
lang\, mirth., and adhes. large or very large, and secret, only 
moderate, will be conversational, social, and humorous atth.8 
festal board : with the intellectual organs generally large, 
will prefer conversation upon rational and scientifick sub- 
jects : with ideal, large or very large, must have his food 
prepared in the nicest manner, and in elegant and fashion- 
able dishes ; but, with ideal, moderate, thinks more of the 
food and of the cookery, than of the ceremonies or the style, 
of the table ; with self-e. large, and acquis, only moderate or 
full, will be satisfied only with the first and the best table, 
even if he is obliged to pay a high price for it : with large 
approbat. and ideal., will be very ceremonious at table ; but 
with ideal, only moderate, and self-e. and caus. large, will 
despise ceremony, yet, with large or very large benev., will 
provide bountifully, and show great hospitality at table, with- 
out much splendour or ceremony, &c. 

Very large. — One having aliment, very large, will be too 
much given to the indulgence of a voracious appetite ; too ready 
to ask " what he shall eat and drink ;" will think as much 
of his meals as of almost any thing else, and be strongly in- 
clined to act the epicure or the gormand. The combinations 
of aliment, very large, are analogous to those produced by 
aliment, large, except that its manifestations will be greater in 
degree, which the judgment of the reader will readily supply. 

Full. — One having aliment, full, partakes of food with 
a good relish, yet is not a gormandizer, nor very particular 
in regard to what he eats and drinks ; can endure a poor 
diet, yet is very partial to a variety of rich dishes, and some- 
times overloads his stomach. The combinations of aliment, 
full, resemble those of aliment, large, except in an inferiour 

Moderate. — -One having aliment, moderate, is by no 
means destitute of a relish for food, yet, when in health, is 
not particular as to what he eats ; prefers a plain, simple diet 
to that which is highly seasoned and very rich, &c. 

One having aliment, moderate, with acquis, large, will 
grudge the money he pays for his meals, and frequently suf- 
fer hunger rather than pay the customary price for them; 
will prefer to take up with a poorer meal or a cold bite at a 
lower price, than to pay well for the best : with conscier. 

•Hence, the custom of "asking a blessing" upon food, and of 1 'returning thank** 



iarge or very large, finds little difficulty in governing his 
appetite, because he has so little to govern, &c. 

Small. — One having aliment, small, will have but an in- 
different or a poor appetite ; will care little about what he 
eats, or when he eats ; and, with acquis, large, go long with- 
out food, and live very poorly, rather than part with his 
money to pay for food. 

Gluttony, gormandizing, luxurious living, intemperance in 
all its forms, and the unnatural cravings of the stomach, are 
the perverted exercises of this faculty. To see the pains 
taken, and the preparations made, and the. time and money 
worse than wasted, merely in gratifying this propensity, is 
most astonishing : and, above all, to see the monstrous per- 
versions of it which everywhere abound, to the reflect- 
ing, sober mind, is humiliating in the extreme. That man, 
made in the image of his God, and endowed by nature with 
such transcendent powers of thought and feeling, that man 
should thus " make a god of his belly," and, for the mere 
purpose of indulging to excess this animal passion, thus de- 
mean and degrade himself so far below the brute creation — 
thus clog the Avheels of this wonderful machine which we 
call mind, exhibits, in a most mortifying light, the depravity 
into which human nature is capable of being led. Yet such 
is the deplorable fact, and such is likely to be the character 
and condition of man, so long as he "lives to eat," instead of 
" eating to live," and thus continues to indulge his animal 
propensities at the expense of his moral and intellectual fac- 

The experience of all mankind shows that there exists a 
reciprocal and most intimate connexion between the faculty 
of aliment, and the state of the stomach, and, also, between the 
state of the stomach and the conditions of the brain; and still 
further, between the state of the brain and the mental opera- 
tions, or, between the state of the stomach and the operations 
of the mind. But this subject will be enlarged upon in a 
subsequent chapter upon physiology. 

LoCxYtion'. — Aliment, is located just before, ana a little 
below, destruct., in front of the top part of the ears, above the 
back part of the zigomatick process, and beneath the anteri- 
or portion of the temporal bone. It may be distinguished 
from destruct., by its being situated farther forward than de. 
struct., and a little below it. It is generally large or very 
large in children. 




Propensity to acquire substance, and to appropriate it to 
one's self — love of property — desire to amass -icealth, lay up, 
own, possess, keep, <!jfC. 

This faculty loves money as an end, and not as a means; 
money for its own sake, and not for what it will purchase ; 
gives ideas of exclusive right, and personal ownership and 
possession ; creates that feeling of meurn et iuum, or that im- 
pression that certain things are our own, and that other 
things belong to others, which is so universally manifested 
among men, and upon which the laWj and, indeed, all our 
claims to property, are founded, &c. 

This faculty, in its operation, brings within our reach most 
of the necessities, and all the comforts and luxuries, of life ; is 
the great nerve of commerce, manufactures, inventions, and 
business in all its multifarious forms ; and is the great mov- 
ing cause of husbandly, trade, the arts, and the improve- 
ments with which mankind are blessed. We little realize 
how much we owe to this faculty. The making of books, 
and apparel, and houses, the cultivation of farms, the 
building of villages, and cities, and stores, and canals, and 
the possession of nearly all that prevents life from being one 
dreary waste, may be traced, through the helps afforded by 
the other faculties, directly to the influence of this love of 
money. Without this faculty, man, like those beasts which 
are destitute of it, when he had satiated his hunger, and 
slaked his thirst, would wander on till again overtaken by 
these cravings of his nature ; would not provide, in health 
and the vigour of life, for sickness and old age, but, like the 
savage of our western wilderness, in whom it is generally 
small, would live "from hand to mouth," providing nothing 
for a rainy day, and idling away his life. 

That this feeling exists, and even manifests itself in bold 
relief in the human character, every observer of human nature 
will at once admit; and that, while, in some, it amounts to a 
ruling passion, in others, it is scarcely perceptible. Here, 
then, we have a distinct, a sui generis, and a homogeneous 
class of functions ; and we must hence conclude, that there 
exists a distinct power of the mind which performs it. 

Large. — One having acquis, large, is stimulated by his 



love of money, to use arduous and self-denying 1 efforts in 
order o-acqui re wealth ; lakes delight in accumulating prop- 
erty of every description ; spends his money reluctantly for 
things to be consumed ; cannot endure to see waste ; enters 
upon his money-making plans in good earnest, or, perhaps, 
makes them his main object of pursuit ; unless he is accus- 
tomed to handling large sums of money, has a watchful and 
eager eye upon the small change, both in making and in spend- 
ing money; thinks much of becoming rich; seems to place 
his heart upon what property he may possess ; and seeks, 
with avidity, to obtain all that belongs to him. 

One having acquis. large, with self-e. only moderate, and 
conscien. and caus. only full, will occasionally discover a 
penuriousness, littleness, and closeness in his dealings, and 
also banter for trifles, if not for the half-cent : with hope large 
or very large, not only has strong desires to accumulate prop- 
erty, but also views every project of acquiring it, through the 
magnifying medium of hope, and thus exaggerates every pros- 
pect for making money; and, with firm, and self-e. also large 
or very large, is eminently enterprising; devises bold 
schemes for acquiring property, and enters upon them with 
great determination and energy, cheered on by seemingly 
bright prospects of success: with the perceptive organs also 
large or very large, is a first rate judge of property ; prone 
to trade and speculate; and, with secret, also large, will ex- 
cel in negotiating, and in conducting a trade ; is seldom taken 
in, and generally gets the best of the bargain: with hope 
very large, cautious, only moderate, and concent, small, will 
be disposed to enter so largely into business as to endanger 
an entire failure; to venture beyond his means and capabili- 
ties ; to speculate too largely; to acquire his money by traffick, 
or bv investing it, expecting thereby greatly to increase 
it; and, with large combat, and desiruct. in addition, 
will be likely to prosecute his money-making operations 
with great vigour and energy ; and with firm, also large or 
very large, to drive them through all opposing difficulties, 
and either to "make or break;" wili be subject to reverses 
of fortune, and sometimes lose by imprudence what he has 
gained by enterprise ; but, with combat., cautious., self-e., 
hope, and the reasoning organs large or very large, and the 
perceptive at least full, will combine uncommon energy, 
with uncommon prudence : may enter largely into business, 
yet will be so careful and judicious as generally to secure 



himself against losses and accidents ; will generally have for- 
tune upon his side; and, with a large ana active brain, un- 
less prevented by his friendship, his benev., or his conscien., 
or by accidents against which no carefulness or sagacity could 
provide, will doubtless become rich; but with hope mode- 
rate, and cautious, large or very large, will desire to enter 
largely into business, yet fear to do so; frequently be "a 
day after the fair ;" and deliberate so long before he decides 
what to do, as to lose the most favourable time for action ■ 
yet will sustain fewer losses, and, in what he does undertake, 
will be more sure of success ; will not invest his money un- 
less he can foresee the necessary result of the undertaking ; to 
icquire property, saves rather than speculates ; and prefers an 
income that is more sure, though it may be more slow, to one 
'.hat is more promising, yet more precarious ; takes all availa- 
ble security against losses by fire, by accidents, by dishon- 
esty, or in any other way ; makes every thing as safe as pos- 
sible ; and is over-careful in all his pecuniary transactions, 
&c. : with hope very large, concent, small, and firm, only 
full, will be likelyfrequently to change his plan of operation, 
or, it may be, his business, hoping thereby to get rich the 
sooner; will never Le satisfied to "let well enough alone," 
nor to pursue one steady occupation long enough to reap 
much profit; but, with firm, large or very large, and hope 
less than firm., will be likely to pursue one steady business 
and plan of operation through life, unless literally compelled 
to change it by duty, or judgment, or friendship, or some oth- 
er powerful motive : with cautious, very large, through fear 
of consequences, may waver in business, and will labour un- 
der the greatest anxiety about his property ; and, with hope 
small, in the midst of wealth, friends plenty, and the fairest 
prospects, may really apprehend poverty and even starvation : 
with compar. and caus. large or very large, intuitively per- 
ceives what means or causes put in operation, are naturally 
calculated to effect certain ends ; what property will be likely 
to increase in value ; lays judicious plans ; makes shrewd cal- 
culations as to what will be ; and, with cautious, also large, so 
calculates as generally to succeed, &c. : with conscien. large 
or very la-rge, though he may be very eager in his desire for 
money, and tax all his powers to accumulate property, yet 
will acquire it only by honest means; despise the "tricks 
Pt trade," and can be safely relied upon : with large 
or very large intellectual organs, will prefer to make 



money by some intellectual, scientifick, 01 tfterary pur- 
suit, &c. 

Acquis, merely desires property, but the kind of property se- 
lected for acquisition, is determined by the wants and the tastes 
of the other faculties. One having acquis, large, for example, 
with philopro. also large, will desire property both for its own 
sake, and, also, on account of children, or, with all the domes 
tick faculties energetick, for his family, and will spend it freely 
for their sake : with approbat. large or very large, will seek 
money both to lay up, and also to obtain approbation by dress, 
equipage, elegant furniture, &c, and expend it freely for 
these purposes, yet may show penuriousness in other respects . 
with benev. very large, will love money, yet give it freely to 
relieve suffering, and also to do good to his fellow men: 
with large or very large moral and religious organs, will be 
likely to "be diligent in his business," economical and, per- 
haps, close in money matters, yet will give freely to benevo- 
lent, missionary, and religious objects, and for the purpose 
of converting men to Christianity: with ideal, and ven. very 
large, will be likely to lay up ancient coins, paintings, books, 
&c, and be an antiquarian: with the selfish faculties strong 
and vigorous, will lay up such things as will gratify his va- 
rious selfish passions: with the intellectual organs large, 
books, philosophical apparatus, and other assistants to intel- 
lectual pursuits ; and, with ideal, also very large, books 
that are elegantly bound and embossed, minerals, curious 
specimens of nature and art, &c. : with several of these or- 
gans large or very large, will desire money for its own 
sake, for the sake of family, for purposes of personal aggran- 
dizement, for benevolent and literary objects, &c, all com- 
bined. Hence, this universal scrambling for the " root n{ all 
evil," which is the bane of human happiness and moral virtue. 

This analysis cf "the love of money" is certainly most 
beautiful. Phrenology shows us not only how strong the 
love of money is in every man, but, also, the character 
of this love, and the ultimate ends sought to be reached by it. 

Very Large. — One having acquis, very large, makes 
money his idol ; taxes, to the utmost, all his powers to amass 
wealth; makes every sacrifice, and endures every hardship 
to secure this object, and allows nothing to divert him from 
it; spends money grudgingly, and is so penurious and close- 
fisted as to deprive himself of many of the comforts, and of 
all the luxuries, of life ; is covetous and miserly, unless benev. 



and conscien. are equally large, and can never be satisfied 
with adding field to field, house to house, &c* 

One having acquis, very large, with combat, and destruct. 
also large, and benev. and conscien. only moderate or full, 
will " grind the face of the poor ;" practice extortion ; take 
every advantage of his fellow men; make all the money he 
can, both by fair and foul means ; and is light fingered. 
The combinations under this head will coincide with those 
under the head of acquis, large, with the modification pro- 
duced by the mere increase of acquis. 

Full. — One having acquis, full, will be likely to be in- 
dustrious, frugal, anxious to acquire possessions, both from 
Jove of money, and also to secure the comforts of life ; will 
be zealous, if not quite eager, in all his money-making pur- 
suits ; and unwilling to spend his money except when his 
stronger faculties demand it for their gratification ; will be nei- 
ther prodigal nor penurious, unless made so by circumstances; 
will be likely to save enough to live comfortably, but live 
well upon what he has, yet, as a general thing, will find it 
very difficult to keep money by him, and se&m to be extravagant. 

So far as the making of money and the class of substan- 
ces selected for acquisition are concerned, the selections 
under acquis, large, will apply to acquis, full ; yet, in 
the spending of money, there may be a difference. One 
having acquis, full, with approbat., and ideal., &c, large or 
very large, will be industrious in making money, and quite 
anxious to become rich, yet will spend it too freely for fash- 
ionable and ornamental articles of convenience, dress, equi- 
page, &c, or to make a show ; with ideal, and local, very 
large, in travelling ; with adhes. and benev. large or very 
large, for the purpose of assisting his friends; with the reli- 
gious organs very large, in promoting the cause of religion 
and advancing the benevolent objects of the day, and will 
take much more delight in spending his money in this way, 
than in laying it up ; with large or very large intellectual 
oigans, in such things as will gratify these faculties; with 
Beveral organs large, in such a manner as to gratify the 
preatest number of them ; with amat. and adhes. large or 
very large, in supplying the wants, and augmenting the 
pleasures, of the other sex, &c. 

This same principle of spending money, applies to acquis. 

* /Stephen Gerard, of Philadelphia, whose picture shows a very largo 
Mv*topment of acquis. 



large, whenever the larger organs require it, at whose mandate 
acquis, will unlock her treasures, and may even permit extrava- 
gance. The additional combinations of acquis, full with the 
other organs, will be found to be intermediate, between those 
under acquis, large, and acquis, moderate. 

Moderate. — One having acquis, moderate, desires mo- 
ney more as a means than as an end, more for its uses than to 
lay up ; will pay too little attention to small sums, spend his 
money too freely, so that he can hardly account for the 
amount spent ; does not grudge what he spends, or gives, or 
sees given ; though he may be industrious, will not be suffi- 
ciently economical ; will as soon purchase things to consume 
as to keep ; and prefers to take the good of his money as he 
goes along, instead of laying it up. 

One having acquis, moderate, with the domestick organs 
very large, will be likely to spend his money for the present, 
rather than reserve it for the future, wants of his family • 
with the selfish faculties strong, and the moral and reasoning 
deficient, will spend his money upon the gratification of his 
passions, and seldom accumulate property: with approbat. 
and ideal, very large, and caus. only full, will be extrava- 
gant ; likely to run into debt for the purpose of dashing out ; 
and will be foppish: with combat., destruct., self-e., and firm, 
large or very large, will almost throw away money to gratify 
his will : with ideal, and self-e. large or A r ery large, never 
purchases a poor article, and pleases his fancy, compara- 
tively regardless of its cost ; and, with hope plso large 
or very large, will be too apt to run into debt; spend 
money in anticipation of future income ; and be too prodi- 
gal. One having acquis, moderate, may have a very 
strong desire to make money, but not upon its own account : 
with the domestick organs large, when he comes to have a 
family of his own, will love money much more than before, 
on their account : with the intellectual organs generally large, 
will desire it to facilitate his literary pursuits, &c. Hence, 
the amount of one's acquis, can seldom be determined, either 
by the eagerness with which he seeks it, or the manner of 
his spending it; and hence, also, some appear to be spend- 
thrifts at one period of their lives, and misers at another.* 

* The author is acquainted with a Mr. H. who, until within five years, 
was accustomed to spend an annual income of several thousand dollars, 
laying up nothing ; but who, since that time, has acted up to a determina- 
tion to make, and save, all the money he can, not because he loves mo- 
ney, per sese, any better now than he did then, but from other motive* 
His fellow citizens call hirn penurious. 


Small —One having acquis, small, holds money loosely 5 
spends it without sufficient consideration, and often without 
receiving its full value ; is thoughtless how his money goes, 
and, with hope very large, will live on, enjoying the present, 
thinking that the future will provide for itself ; will spend 
his last dollar as freely as his first ; is wasteful, or at least, 
does not save the fragments ; and, with approbat. and ideal, 
very large, and caus. only full, will be a spendthrift; lay out 
his money to very little advantage ; run into debt without 
making a provision for payment, &c. For additional com- 
binations, see those under acquis, moderate. 

Very Small. — One having acquis, very small, neither 
knows or considers the value of money ; cares not how it goes, 
nor how expensive things are, provided they take his fancy; 
will have no idea of laying up property and, with ideal, and 
approbat. very large, will spend all he can command ; every 
thing pertaining to money being determined by his other 

In females, this faculty is generally weaker than in males, 
while ideal, and approbat. are generally much larger, which 
accounts for the fact, that they spend money so much more 
freely than men, especially, for ornamental purposes. 

The author has observed, that the sons of rich parentis 
generally possess the organ (as they do the faculty) develop- 
ed in an inferiour degree. This is doubtless owing to the fact, 
that, having an abundance of money at command, they have 
had nothing to stimulate, and thus increase, this faculty, so 
that, from mere want of exercise, it becomes weak and 
feeble. This likewise accounts for the fact, that the children 
of men who have made themselves rich, generally make a 
very poor use of their fathers' earnings, and often fall into 
dissipated habits. A deficiency of this faculty is one cause 
of their idleness, and this, the cause of their dissipation, 
and this, frequently, thecause of their ruin. 

Thus it is, that full acquis, is an important inducement to 
industry, and, therefore, highly promotive of virtue and 
moral worth ; whilst a deficiency of this faculty leaves open 
the floodgates of temptation and dissipation. If this is so, 
the lesson thus taught mankind, by phrenology, is invalua- 
ble. We are thus taught the importance of a proper cultiva- 
tion of acquis., and, also, what that proper education is. We 
are farther taught, that the exercise of acqais. is virtuous or 
vicious, not in itself, nor in its medium exercise, but 



in its extremes of manifestation. This faculty certainly need* 
to be educated no less than caus., event., calcu., or any other 
faculty of the mind. 

The perverted manifestations of acquis, are, theft, cheating, 
extortion ; with construct, and imitat. large, forgery, counter- 
feiting, burglary ;penuriousness, meanness, a miserly, sordid, 
money-loving, covetous feeling, &c. 

Location. — This organ is located just before secret, and 
above aliment. ; or, upon the sides of the head, and a little 
farther forward than the fore part of the ears ; or, in the mid- 
dle of a line connecting the organs of cautious, and calcu. 
It seldom causes a protuberance, but, when it is large, the 
thickness of the head just in front, and a little above the tops 
<)f the ears, will be conspicuous, even to the eye. 


Propensity and ability to secrete, to conceal, and to sup 
$ress the expression of the other mental operations. 

We often think and feel what it would be very improper 
fo~ us to express. Hence, the necessity of some faculty, the 
office of which is to suppress the open manifestation of the 
various mental operations, until the reasoning faculties, 
conscien., benev., &c, have decided upon the propriety and 
the utility of their expression. The legitimate office of this 
organ is not, as has generally been supposed, to keep the 
secrets intrusted to the individual, but to enable him success- 
fully to keep his own secrets, and conceal his oion plans from 
general observation. It is even unfavourable to keeping the 
secrets of othe? - s ; because, inasmuch as it has to do with 
secrets, it creates an anxiety, not only to ascertain the secrets 
of others, but also to reveal them as secrets, but with the in- 
junction of secrecy. 

A good endowment of this organ is essential to prudence 
of character, particularly in speaking of, and exposing, one's 
business, &c, and also to etiquette and modern politeness. It 
removes the blunt, unpolished edge from the manner of ex- 
pression, appearance, &c; assists in covering many weak 
points of character ; and prevents exposures, not to physical 
dangers, (for this is the office of cautious.,) but to the machina- 
tions of the designing and the envious, to the impositions of 
the crafty, and thj false constructions of all. 

Large. — One having secret, large, will generally keep 


his thoughts, feelings, business, plans, opinions, &c. chiefly 
to himself, except when they are drawn from him; will 
effect his purposes indirectly, and without detection; will 
govern his feelings, and restrain the open manifestation of 
anger, joy, grief, &c; can banish from his countenance and 
appearance the indications of his real feelings, and, with 
imitat. large, seem to feel as he does not : with firm., and 
fielf-e., and destruct. also large, will suffer pain and sickness 
without showing or complaining much of it ; is prudent 
about speaking ; careful in what he says ; reserved ; slow to 
communicate, form attachments, make acquaintances, &c; 
does not make the first advances to strangers ; is not free in 
expressing his feelings, but does it equivocally, and by piece- 
meal; with conscien. moderate, is suspicious of the intentions 
of others ; wary, and always on the alert ; generally answers 
questions, expresses opinions, &c, in an ambiguous, equivocal, 
evasive, or indefinite manner, which will bear different interpre- 
tations, so that he seldom commits himself ; hesitates, and re- 
commences his sentences as though afraid to speak out plainly 
just what he thinks ; can employ cunning, art, management, 
and manoeuvre, and act the double part; says but little, yet 
thinks the more ; pries into the secrets of others, yet keeps 
his own to himself, or, at least, sounds others closely ; gen- 
erally judges correctly of character, especially if individ., 
caus.,and compar. are large or very large, and so success- 
fully conceals his own character and purposes, that but little 
is generally knowis of him except by a long and \',ntimate 

One having secret, large, with adhes. large or very large, 
may sometimes communicate his feelings freely tohis nearest 
friends, yet will seldom do this, and exercise more attach- 
ment than he expresses: with amat..also large, may love 
strongly, but will express his love in a somewhat doubtful 
and equivocal manner : with combat, and destruct. large, 
unless the excitement is very sudden, and his temperament 
very irritable, may restrain, for a long time, the expression 
of anger, and cover up the fire which is burning in his bo- 
som, yet, when he does give vent to it, will blaze forth in 
good earnest: with self-e., or approbat, or both, large or 
very large, caus. only full, and conscien. moderate or small, 
will be inclined to employ cunning and deception in advan- 
cing his reputation ; operate indirectly, and through the agen- 
«ji of others ; be given to eye-service, and will do many things 



merely for effect and "to beseem of men:" with cautious 
large or very large, will be very careful, not only about 
what he says, but also about what he does ; and, with the 
reasoning organs large or very large, be pre-eminently dis- 
creet and judicious, and never venture an opinion, unless he 
is very certain that it is perfectly correct, and then generally 
with a but, an if, or a perhaps; and will drop no word, and 
give no clew, by means of which he can be detected: with 
conscien. only moderate or small, and self-e. and caus. only 
full, and approbat. large or very large, will be deceitful, and 
inclined to employ cunning and artifice in accomplishing his 
plans ; contrive to throw the ignominy of his evil deeds upon 
others ; be very apt to say one thing in your presence, and quite 
another in your absence ; cannot be confided in as a friend ; 
and, with adhes. only full, and imitat. large or very large, can 
carry on his malicious designs under the garb of friendship : 
with combat., destruct, self-e., and approbat. large, benev., 
firm., and caus. only full, and conscien. only moderate or 
small, will be obsequious to superiours, and domineering to 
inferiours : with acquis, large or very large, and conscien. 
only moderate or full, will practise the " tricks of trade;" and 
make a good bargain whenever he can, even though he ia 
obliged to use some misrepresentations : with destruct, self-e., 
and firm, large or very large, will possess great fortitude, 
and endure severe, corporeal suffering without flinching or 
complaining: with conscien. large or very large, may some- 
times equivocate and employ deception in cases in which he is 
under no moral obligation to communicate the facts, and, also, 
in which his interest demands secrecy, but will never know- 
ingly deceive others to their injury, especially if his duty re- 
quires him to tell the whole truth : with adhes., benev., and 
conscien. large or very large, and self-e. full, will be frank 
and candid in telling a friend his faults, yet will never re- 
prove, unless his sense of duty compels him to do so : with 
firm, and self-e. very large, will seem to yield, yet will do so 
only in appearance ; will say but little, and make very little 
ado about the matter, yet, in acting., will be immoveable 
and inflexible, &c. 

Very Large. — One having secret, very large, will be 
very apt to keep every thing pertaining to himself wrapped 
up in profound secrecy, and disclose his feelings to no one ; 
be generally dark, secret, and mysterious in his movements ; 
seldom accomplish his purposes, except in an indirect and in- 



Lnguing manner; an J be so crafty, reserved, and mysterious,, 
that no one will know much of his real character ; and, with 
combat., destruct., and the selfish faculties generally large, 
the moral and reflective only full, and conscien. only mode- 
rate, will be " a snake in the grass ;" practise art, cunning, 
and deception, &c: with aliment, large, will steal pies, cakes, 
and sweatmeats: with acquis, large, will take and conceal 
money, property, clothing, &c: with approbat. and destruct. 
large, and conscien. only moderate, will lie in ambush, plot 
and execute his plans of injuring his rival, in secret; and 
yet, appear to be his friend, &c. For farther combinations 
under this head, see those under secret, large, which are 
equally true with secret, very large, except in degree, and 
this the judgment of the reader will enable him to adapt to 
secret, very large. 

Full. — One having secret, full, will be able to keep his 
thoughts, feelings, and business to himself when occasion 
really demands it, yet will commonly express them without 
reserve ; unless somewhat excited, will not be rash or blunt in 
the expression of his feelings, yet, when any of the faculties 
that are more energetick than secret., or when those that are 
not, become suddenly or considerably excited, will give a 
full, and frank, and strong expression to them, because, al- 
though secret, may be sufficiently active to hold even the. 
larger organs in check when they are but little excited, it 
will not be powerful enough to do so when they are roused to 
more energetick action, so that he will fail to preserve an equa- 
nimity of feeling and conduct ; is generally free in conversa- 
tion and discourse, yet seldom commits himself ; is not hypo- 
critical, nor yet remarkable for saying all bethinks: and 
will generally govern his feelings, except when excited, but 
will then throw them out freely and fully; is somewhat re- 
served and suspicious, especially upon a first acquaintance, 
and yet, will generally be found to be sincere, unless strong- 
ly tempted by interest to act a double part, and even then, 
will not be really dishonest, especially if conscien. be large 
or very large ; will know well how to keep dark upon points 
which he may wish to conceal, and also know how to ascer- 
tain the intentions and the secrets of others ; and will be re- 
served to strangers and partial acquaintances, yet frank and 
open among his intimate friends. 

One having secret, full, with conscien. large, will never 
knowingly practise deception to the injury of another, yet 



may practise it in self-preservation, and in doing business^ 
especially when urged to it by other selfish faculties, and 
when it is unrestrained by the moral and intellectual facul- 
ties : with acquis, large or very large, and conscien. mode- 
rate or small, will bear, and even need, to be watched j 
sometimes give a false colouring to things in order to make a 
good bargain; and occasionally take the advantage, &c. 
The additional combinations under secret, full, will be inter- 
mediate between secret, large, and secret moderate. 

Moderate. — One having secret, moderate, is generally 
frank, candid, and openhearted in his disposition and inter- 
course with men, and so ingenuous and undisguised as often 
to expose himself to imposition and deception ; chooses a 
plain, direct, and unequivocal manner of expressing his 
thoughts and feelings; has few secrets of his own which he 
wishes to keep, and cares little about learning the secrets of 
others, and, when things are told him with the injunction 
"not to tell," he scarcely thinks of them again ; and' gener- 
ally despises secrecy wherever he finds it. 

One having secret, moderate or small, with combat, and 
destruct. large or very large, tells others just what he thinks 
of them : expresses his hatred and his love freely ; is often un- 
derstood as saying more than he really intended to say; and 
frequently expresses his anger in a harsh, blunt, and offensive 
manner; but, with conscien. equally large, and concent, 
moderate or small, soon recovers his wonted serenity of tem- 
per, and, if he is conscious that he has said or done any 
thing wrong, is soon very sorry for it, and ready, if not glad, 
to make any reasonable acknowledgment or reparation de 
manded : with conscien , at least, full, firm., self-e., benev., and 
caus. large or very large, will take an open, fair, honest, hon- 
ourable, dignified, and high-minded course, and heartily de- 
spise every thing like low cunning or management ; employ 
none but fair means ; and do nothing behind the curtain : with 
self-e. only moderate, or full, benev., ven., and adhes. large or 
very large, is naturally upright and honest himself, ana open 
and fair in his dealings, and thinks others equally so ; is too 
ready to trust others, and especially those who call him their 
friend; presumes too much upon the integrity and honesty 
of others, and relies too implicity upon their word, so that 
he is extremely liable to be deceived and imposed upon: 
with self-e. or approbat., or both, and hope very large, or 
even large, is given to egotism ; apt to talk too much of him> 



self; becomes enthusiastick in telling what he has done or 
ean do ; is often the hero of his own tale; and too forward to 
display himself: with cautious, large or very large, manifests 
great care and deliberation in his business, yet is very incau. 
tious in his manner of speaking; is judicious in laying his 

Elans, and providing against a time of need, and very de° 
berate and prudent in making all his arrangements, yet is 
very imprudent in the expression of his feelings. 

Small. — One having secret, small, acts just as he feels; 
speaks just what he thinks ; is so blunt and direct in his 
manner of expression as often to give needless offence ; speaks 
out his whole mind without due regard to time, circumstan- 
ces, or manner ; communicates his ideas in plain and un- 
equivocal language, and prefers natural and forcible, to 
elegant, expressions ; is natural and open in his manners, 
and, with lang. full or large, generally ready to enter into 
conversation with his friends, and even with strangers, and 
to communicate to them his business, history, opinions, feel- 
ings, concerns, &c. ; and can deceive only by means of his 
reasoning faculties, or by taking those steps which are cal- 
culated to cause deception. 

One having secret, small, with conscien., benev., and the 
reasoning organs large or very large, will be incapable of 
deception ; abominate and censure hypocrisy, concealment, 
and mere outside-show in all those ten thousand forms in 
which they are practised in society; keeps nothing back ; 
gives away almost entirely to his feelings unless they are 
checked by his other faculties; and has a window in his 
breast, through which ail that is passing in his heart, can be 
plainly seen. Additional combinations will be found under 
secret, moderate. 

Very small. — One in whom this organ is very small, is 
a total stranger to the function and the influence of this fac- 

A deficiency of this faculty, by exposing at once whatever 
excesses or defects of character one may possess, is apt to 
.eave, at first, a very unfavourable impression of a person up- 
on the minds of others, yet, if it exposes the more disagreea- 
ble traits of character, it equally reveals the virtues ; so that, 
if the agreeable traits of character greatly predominate over 
the more disagreeable, the individual will appear still more 
amiable in consequence of this deficiency ; and, vice versa. 

This faculty, in its perverted exercise, produces lying de- 



ceit, hypocrisy, and those ten thousand artifices in dress, fur 
niture, equipage, &c, the chief object of which is to create 
false appearances, and, also, the innumerable arts and make-be- 
lieves which enter into the very frame- work of society as it now 
is. From this faculty, also, with large or very large appro- 
bat, self-e., destruct., and combat., unrestrained by the moral 
or intellectual organs, arises that tattling, backbiting, scan- 
dalizing disposition which is by no means uncommon, and 
which does such immense mischief. 

In the New England head, this organ is generally large : 
hence, that reserve in communicating things about them- 
selves, and that tact in prying into the affairs of others, for 
which they are so noted ; but, in the Southern head, it is 
small, which produces that frankness and openness which 
characterize Southern gentlemen. 

Location. — Secret, is located just above the organ of de- 
struct., and runs nearly parallel with it, the centre of it being 
about an inch above the top of the ears. Or thus : let a 
person, standing behind one that is seated, place the third fin- 
ger horizontally upon the head, so that the lower side of it 
will just touch the tip of the ear, and it will rest upon de- 
struct.; then let the second or middle finger be separated from 
it about three eighths of an inch, and it will rest upon secret; 
or, if the organ be small, fall into a depression : then let the 
first finger be separated from the second about five-eighths of 
an inch, and it will rest upon cautious., which, however, will 
be a little farther back than secret. When it is large or very 
large, with cautious, and destruct. also equally large, there 
will be no prominence, but all of the side-head above the ear 
will be full, rounded, and thick. 

GENUS II. — Moral, Religious, and Human Sen- 

The character of the sentiments is much higher, more 
elevated, and more humanizing than that of the propensities, 
and, when not under the dominion of the propensities, is 
more virtuous and more praiseworthy than perhaps any oth- 
er class of the mental functions. A very correct idea of 
the nature and character of these sentiments, may be derived 
from a comparison of civilized man with savages and barba- 
rians, or of man with the brute creation. 

Dr. Spurzheim, George Combs, and phrenologists gener- 



ally, define the sentiments as distinguishable from the pro- 
pensities, by their uniting a propensity to act with an emo- 
tion ; but the author is unable to discover the reason why the 
passion of love, for example, is not as much " an emotion 
joined with a certain propensity to act," as the function ascri- 
bed to benev. Nor does the distinction that the propensities 
"sue common to men and animals," designate them with suffi- 
cient accuracy, because benev., approbat., imitat., and some 
of the other sentiments, are found to belong to some animals 
of the brute creation, as well as to man. 

SPECIES I. — Selfish Sentiments. 

These seem to be intermediate between the propensities 
and the moral sentiments, partake, in part, of the na- 
ture of both, taking their direction, and the character of 
their manifestation, from the propensities when they pre- 
dominate, and from the moral sentiments, in case they are 
the more energetick. Like the propensities, they greatly in- 
crease the propelling power, and the efficiency of the charac- 
ter ; yet they terminate upon self, being blind impulses de- 
signed to secure selfish interests. 


Solicitude about consequences — apprehension of danger — 
instinct of fear — care — anxiety. 

So numerous and so great are the dangers with which 
man is surrounded, so many evils beset his path, and 
iso many things are to be provided against, that, unless there 
were implanted in the human breast by the hand of nature, 
some faculty which, upon the least intimation of danger 
should sound the tocsin of alarm, and thus save him from 
accident, and, also, which should give him consideration and 
forethought, he would be liable to be frequently overtaken by 
impending dangers, and, also, would make, comparatively, 
tittle preparation for future wants. Of the necessity of the 
faculty, then, there can be no question ; nor that the function 
of solicitude constitutes a very large class of the intellectual 
functions. Hence, the inevitable conclusion is, that there exists 
a faculty which exercises this class of the mental operations. 
But when we find that the strength and activity of this facul- 
ty, when compared with the other feelings, are proportionate 



to the size of a given portion of the brain, reason and philos 
ophy join in admitting cautiousness to be a separate faculty ol 
the mind. Its office is, to provide against present danger, to 
cast up a bulwark of defence against danger in the dis- 
tance, to watch over the interests of the individual, and to ex- 
cite, repress, and direct the operations of the other faculties. 

.Large. — One having cautious, large, looks at every plan 
and project with a careful, anxious eye before he concludes 
upon the course to be pursued, and hesitates long before he 
finally decides ; turns the whole matter over and over again 
in his mind ; is very often in suspense, and remains too long 
undecided ; fully considers every chance against him ; takes 
all necessary, and, often, even unnecessary, precaution; too 
often reconsiders, and manifests a pains-taking, careful, anx 
ious, provident disposition in all he does. 

One having cautious, large, with combat, and destruct. 
also large, is slow in commencing, yet when once interested 
in any project, pushes it with great spirit ; may be timid and 
fearful till his courage is once excited, but will then be bold 
and fearless ; may be nearly overcome with fear before he 
commences acting or speaking, and where effort is unavail- 
ing, yet is full of courage, and spirit, and determination 
when he has once commenced, and where effort is required ; 
combines discretion with valour ; intrepidity with carefulness ; 
prudence with determination, &c; in cases of danger, will be 
perfectly self-possessed, and yet have forethought enough to 
do just what the occasion demands ; cannot be soon worked 
up to the sticking point, but is determined, if not desperate, 
when once kindled; may drive forward with some fury, but 
wilt steer clear of every thing that can upset his vehicle or 
obstruct his progress ; and, with hope also large, will enter 
so largely into business, and push his projects with so much 
energy and zeal, as to seem to be very rash, and nearly des- 
titute of caution, yet come out about right in the end ; with 
eompar. and caus. large in addition, will very seldom entire- 
ly fail in his projects, though he may be sometimes obliged 
to retrace his steps ; will present seemingly contradictory 
points of character, sometimes appearing to be rash, and at 
ethers fearful ; and, with a nervous temperament, will be 
either " in the garret or in the cellar ;" when circumstances 
are favourable, or excite his hopes, and quiet his fears, will be 
in high hopes and spirits, and promise himself too much; but 
when his fears are awakened, and nothing excites his hope^ 



be cast aown, discouraged, and exceedingly anxious, and sub* 
lect to extremes of hope and fear ; with very large compar 
ana caus., and large perceptive organs, will generally come 
to a correct decision, yet take his own time for it ; will act 
understandingly, and make every effort tell directly on the 
object m view ; take hold of things judiciously and in the 
right place ; seldom retrace his steps, change his decisions,or 
undo what he has done ; in general, will be eminently suc- 
cessful, and seldom subject to accidents or disappointments ; 
consider well the pros and cons on both sides of all questions, 
and investigate the whole matter in hand thoroughly be- 
tbre decision or action. 

Very Large. — One having cautious, very large, is so 
doubtful, fearful, uncertain, and apprehensive, so irresolute 
and inefficient, that he is disqualified for prompt, enterprising, 
vigorous effort, and wastes the day of action in fruitless de 
liberation: indulges groundless and unfounded apprehensions; 
anticipates danger when there is little or no cause; is unwill- 
ing to run any risk, and much more alarmed by sickness 
and trouble than the occasion really demands, &c. 

One having cautious, very large, with combat, self-e., and 
hope moderate, will be irresolute; easily discouraged ; un- 
willing to engage in any important undertaking for fear of 
experiencing a failure ; is timid, easily frightened, destitute 
of decision and energy, and unable to effect any thing im- 
portant; but if hope, firm, and self-e. are also very large, 
and combat, is large, cautnus. will not prevent action and 
effort, but will simply take care, that every thing is provided 
for, arranged, and seen to: with hope, cans., and compar. 
very large, and the perceptive organs large, may take some 
seemingly bold measures, but they will be dictated by a cor- 
rect judgment, rendered the more acute by the strong ex- 
citement caused by cautious.: with hope and combat, mode- 
rate or small, looks always on the dark side of prospects: 
borrows a world of trouble, even in prosperity; apprehends 
the worst rather than the best; indulges gloomy, dismal, 
melancholy feelings, and often suffers intolerably from them ; 
pores constantly over misfortunes ; magnifies every difficulty j 
diminishes advantages ; fears much more than hopes ; does 
not venture, or run any risk ; shrinks from difficulty, and, 
by his terrour and alarm, is easily overcome, so that he carmoi 
act on occasions of danger. 

Fuel. — One having cautious, full, will possess a suffi 



cient degree of this faculty to secure success, and provide 
against accidents in ordinary cases, yet will frequently seem 
to be very imprudent ; does not act without care and fore- 
thought, yet does not consider so long as to let pass the day 
for action; and cannot be called rash or careless, except 
when rendered so by his other faculties. 
I , One having cautious, full, with hope and combat, large o> 
wery large, will not possess sufficient circumspection to regu- 
late and prevent the precipitate action of these faculties, and 
thus be hurried headlong by them into projects without suffi- 
cient caution or forethought, and will seem to be much less 
cautious than he really is. 

When full, large, or very large, cautious, acts with a 
vigour reciprocally proportionate to the power of this faculty 
and the strength of the desires of the other faculties. For 
example ; one having cautious, full, large, or very large, with 
philopro. very large, and acquis, small, will experience but 
little solicitude concerning his property, but feel the greatest 
anxiety concerning his children ; but, with the same degree 
of cautious., and acquis, very large, and philopro. small, will 
expend his anxiety upon his property, and feel little for his 
children : with approbat. very large, will be over-anxious 
about his character and his standing: with conscien. very 
large, upon every point of duty, &c. This accounts for the 
phenomena, so frequently occurring, of an extreme anxiety 
concerning some things, and a want of it in other things — a 
class of phenomena which no other system of mental phi- 
losophy has ever accounted for, or can ever explain. 

Moderate. — One having cautious, moderate, will discov- 
er a want of forethought and discretion, yet the extent of this 
deficiency will be greater or less according as his other facul- 
ties do, or do not,expose him to danger. One having cautious, 
moderate, for example, with hope and combat, also moderate, 
will need but little cautious, to restrain the excesses produced 
by these faculties ; with combat, and hope large or very large, 
will be hasty, inconsiderate, and improvident ; with caus. and 
compar. very large, when not blinded by passion or preju 
dice, may be judicious, and lay good plans; with acquis, very 
large, will take good care of his property, yet be careless in 
other respects, &c. The remaining combinations of cautious, 
moderate, will be intermediate between those under cautious, 
full, and cautious, small. 

Small — One having cautious, small, will decide and aot 



without due deliberation ; be careless, precipitate, imprudent, 
and, consequently, often unlucky, and subject to frequent acci- 
dents ; will fail to perfect his plans, and therefore, often be 
obliged to undo what he has done; proceed without fore- 
thought or care, and thus labour to the greatest disadvantage ; 
will sustain repeated and heavy misfortunes ; and, with com* 
bat. and destruct. large, will drive forward in a furious, reck- 
less manner, so as often to defeat his plans, and frequently 
be in hot water ; will know nothing about fear ; but, with 
large or very large reasoning organs, may proceed so habit- 
ually under the influence of reason as to sustain few losses, 
yet will lack solicitude, &c. 

Very Small. — One with cautious, very small, will be 
destitute of fear, of forethought, of discretion, &c, and, con- 
sequently, rash, heedless, headlong, regardless of consequen- 
ces, unfortunate, and governed by his other faculties. 

This faculty is generally much more active, and the organ 
much stronger, in females tnan in males ; while combat, 
and destruct. are much smaller. Hence, the irresolution, 
fear, terrour, groundless alarms, and uncalled for anxiety, 
which they so often manifest : and also the superiour discreet- 
ness and propriety they generally possess over the other sex. 
In children, too, this organ is much larger than in adults, 
doubtless because their dangers being greater, the protection 
demanded is proportionally greater. 

Location. — This organ is located just above, and partly 
behind, secret. Or thus: when the head is erect, cautious, 
will be found upon the sides of the head, just back of a per- 
pendicular line passing through the opening of the ears 


Love of the approbation of men — sense of character- 
desire for the favourable estimation, and the good opinion, 
of others — ambition for distinction and popularity—love 
of fame, §-c. 

Certain actions are considered praiseworthy, while others 
are considered disgraceful, which proves that the mind is so 
constituted as to approve of some things, and disapprove of 
others. Hence, we infer the existence of a distinct faculty 
which exercises this class of functions, and the facts that the 
strength of this class of functions is various, being energetick 
in some, and weak in others — that it is manifested in propor- 



tion to the development of a certain portion of the brain— 
and that it is an instinctive and intuitive, and not secondary 
exercise of the mind, and that it is unique and homogeneous 
in its character, establish the conclusion, that it is the pro 
duct of a distinct faculty of the mind. 

This faculty does not decide what actions are praisevvor 
thy and what are not, but only arraigns the actions before 
such a standard as may have been settled upon by custom, by 
the dictates of the other faculties, by the passions, &c, and 
praises or blames, according as they do, or do not, conform to 
this standard. This standard has more or less reference to 
the moral qualities of actions, and, doubtless, if left to act in 
conjunction with a full and equal development of the other 
faculties, particularly of conscien., and if it were not warped 
by education, or the customs of society, would approve thost: 
actions which are moral, and frown upon those that art 
immoral. Yet such is the influence of custom and of " the 
fashions" in this matter, that the decisions of this faculty are 
not, in the least, to be relied upon as a standard of virtue. 
Properly trained, it would promote decency and propriety of 
appearance and manners ; yet, as now manifested, it oftenei 
produces the most disagreeable, not to say, sinful, actions, 
under the sanction of fashion. Its influence, however, in 
promoting morality and refinement, and in preventing vice 
by censuring it, is very great. 

Large.— One having approbat. large, is extremely sensitive 
upon every point connected with his honour, his character 
his reputation, &c, and, in all he does, will have an eye to 
the approbation and the disapprobation of his fellow men ; 
frequently asks himself, if not others, what do, or what will, 
people think of this or that performance, course of conduct, 
&c; is very desirous of being thought and spoken well of, 
of being noticed and commended, esteemed, praised, and ad- 
mired ; instinctively shrinks from whatever is considered 
disgraceful; will be affable, courteous, polite, and mindful oi 
appearances, and frequently experience, in a very high de- 
gree, the feelings of mortification and shame. 

One having approbat. large, with adhes. large or very 
large, will be extremely sensitive to the approbation and the 
disapprobation, particularly of his friends ; aisd with self-e. 
moderate, and firm, only full, will be disposed to act in con- 
formity with their wishes, lest he should incur their censure 
ot ridicule, which have a withering effect upon him ; and, 



with combat, and destruct. large in addition, will be too 
quickly offended by any coldness or apparent neglect, and 
too ready to construe any want of attention into dislike ; will 
avenge his injured honour, and never allow any disgrace to 
De attached to his character : with self-e. only full, benev., at 
east, large, combat., destruct., and secret, only full, individ., 
event., lang., imitat., ideal., and compar. large or very large, 
will be a perfect gentleman : with secret, large, and conscien. 
moderate or small, will do things in secret which he would 
not, for the world, have divulged ; be governed far more 
by the voice of publick opinion, than by the dictates of jus- 
tice and conscience, and make the former, rather than the 
latter, his code of morals; but with conscien. larger than ap- 
probate will fall in with publick opinion so far as he con- 
siders it right, but no farther, and, with combat, also large, 
will not only breast publick opinion with boldness, but will 
glory in facing the frown of men while engaged in what he 
considers a righteous cause: with benev. large, will add to 
his strong desire to please those around him, a strong desire 
to make them happy, which together will make him doubly 
obliging and attentive to the wants of others: with cautious., 
secret., ven., and conscien. large or very large, and self-e. 
small, will have a very strong desire to please, and, also, 
great anxiety lest he should not succeed in pleasing; feel a 
great deference, especially for superiours in age, talents, &c; 
possess a feeling cf his own unworthiness and inferiority ; 
and also of reserve, which together produce extreme diffi- 
dent e and backwardness ; a natural shrinking from exposure ; 
and a bashful feeling, from which, when he is among stran- 
gers, he will suffer intolerably : with combat., destruct., self-e. 
5rm., ideal., individ., event., and lang. large, and compar. 
and caus. very large, will possess, not only a high order of 
talent, but, also, that restless ambition for distinction arid fame 
which will spur him on to use his utmost efforts to attain pre- 
eminence, and thus enable him to distinguish himself, par- 
ticularly for his intellectual qualities : with cautious, and 
conscien. very large, secret, full, and the intellectual organs 
large, will fear to be noticed, lest he should be reproached; 
appear before the publick with extreme reluctance; shrink 
from the popular gaze; sometimes feel almost compelled to 
abandon any undertaking in which he may be en- 
gaged, and shrink from the thought of publick responsibility ; 
with stfii-e. full or large, hope very large, combat, ideal., in- 


divid,, Jang., and compar. large, and conscien., ven., and caua 
only full, will take the other extreme ; be likely to put him« 
self forward in conversation, debate, publick meetings, socie- 
ties, parties, &c, be officious, vain, and conceited, and too apt 
to meddle in affairs which belong to others : with ideal, very 
large, caus. only full, and a smaller sized brain, will be a fash- 
ionable dandy, who will devote himself chiefly to dress, eti- 
quette, and tea-table talk, which will be without sense or point, 
and, though he may pass well in fashionable society, will 
be unable to think or reason upon subjects, &c. 

Very large. — One having approbat. very large, will re- 
gard his character as the apple of his eye, and the approba- 
tion of his fellow men as the idol of his heart; will be with- 
ered by the finger of scorn or the breath of slander ; unable 
to bear up under ridicule, and be ever goaded by a morbid 
sensibility to shame and reproach. One having approbat. 
very large, with self-e. large, caus. only full, and a brain of 
only ordinary size, will be both proud and vain ; inclined to be 
very ceremonious, merely for effect, and for the sake of appear- 
ances ; affected in his manners ; excessively eager for fame, 
and ever fishing for popularity, yet destitute of the talents re- 
quisite to obtain his desires ; and, with ideal, very large, will 
be a gay, dressy, shoAvy, affected, ceremonious fop or belle, 
floating upon the surface, or following the wake, of popular 
applause and fashion, and a perfect index of both, shifting, 
like the weather-cock, with every changing breeze of pub- 
lick opinion, &c. Under approbat. large, will be found ad- 
ditional descriptions and combinations, which will apply to 
approbat. very large, except that they are not sufficiently in- 

Full. — One having approbat. full, will place a hign esti- 
mate upon his character, and be by no means indifferent as to 
what may be thought and said of him, yet will sacrifice his 
honour upon the altar of his stronger passions ; will possess 
sufficient approbat. to create ambition, and a high sense o« 
honour, if not a strong desire to gain popularity, and yet, from 
this motive alone, will not materially injure himself, nor will 
he turn aside from the object he may be pursuing to pluck 
the wreaths of popular applause; may seek distinction, and, 
indeed, manifest a strong desire or make great sacrifices to 
obtain it, yet he will seek it, not chiefly as an end, but partly 
as an end, and partly as a means ; will not be governed by 
the voice of publick opinion, yet will not. by any means, be 



insensible to its dictates; and will so conduct as to secure the 
good will of all, at least, as far as he can do so consistently 
with the gratification and the demands of his other faculties, 
yet no farther. 

One having approbat. full, with adhes. large, will seek to 
please his friends, and, to escape their displeasure, in doing 
this, will sometimes even go farther than he ought: with 
large or very large firm., self. e., and conscien., and full com- 
bat., will first please himself, faithfully discharge his duty, 
and seek honour as a secondary object; will be sufficiently 
condescending and affable to please all, and yet be too firm 
and independent ever to be enticed from the path of rectitude 
by the syren voice of popularity, or driven from it by the 
lowering frown of popular proscription, or by the hoarse 
voice of publick censure ; will not eagerly adopt all the ridic- 
ulous whims of " fashion," because " everybody else does so," 
nor yet be so inattentive to what is generally approved as to be 
singular, and, without cause, to incur the displeasure of any 
one : with combat., destruct., amat., self-e., and ven. full, benev., 
conscien., ideal., adhes., mirth., imitat, lang., and the rea- 
soning organs large or very large, will be a favourite, go 
where he will ; will please all, and yet command respect from 
all ; be neither stubborn nor obsequious ; will be pleasing, dig- 
nified, and popular in his manners, and reasonably condescend- 
ing, yet sufficiently independent; and, without attempting to 
do so, will readily enlist the good will and the affections of 
all, and especially of the other sex. The combinations under 
approbat. large, modified by a diminution of the influence of 
approbat., will apply to approbat. full. They will be inter- 
mediate between those under approbat. large, and approbat 

The direction taken by approbat. full, large, or very large, 
and the objects upon which it fastens, are determined by its 
combinations, and, also, by the circumstances in which the 
individual has been educated. For example ; approbat. full, 
large, or very large, combined with large or very large com- 
bat, and destruct., and educated in a warlike community, 
would fasten, for its object, upon warlike exploits, upon intre- 
pidity, bravery, and, perhaps, even upon acts of bloodshed, 
or create in its possessor, a desire to be considered the best 
boxer, pugilist, wrestler, &c. : with aliment, very large, to be 
noted for the quantity he can eat or drink : with large con- 
struct., ideal., and imitat., to be considered the beet meehan° 



*ck, or create a mechanical ambition : with large or very 
large mora] organs, will create a moral ambition, and desire 
to be distinguished for morality, for piety, for honesty, 
and for a correct, if not religious, walk and conversation: 
with ideal, moderate, and conscien. and ven. large or very 
*arge, will create no desire to obtain the kind of distinction 
end approbation awarded to fine clothes, splendour of equi- 
page, the pomp of riches, &c, yet will place the highest es- 
timate upon the approbation awarded to. a moral, virtuous, 
and religious life: with very large ideal., mirth., compar. 
and caus., the perceptive organs generally large, and ths 
propensities only full, will seek distinction as a wit, a poet, 
an orator, a scholar, a writer, or for his intellectual, rather 
than his physical or animal, qualities, &c. 

Moderate. — One having approbat. moderate, will not be 
materially influenced by what others may think of him or 
his actions ; will not be particularly emulous nor ambitious, 
nor care much for reproach and ridicule, &c. One having 
approbat. moderate, with firm, and self-e. large or very large, 
and ven. moderate, will be too austere and too independent 
to give general satisfaction, and lack the condescension requi- 
site to become popular and be generally beloved, and, even if 
his talents are such as to place him in stations of trust and 
publick observation, he will have many enemies, and, when- 
ever duty, or judgment, or interest demands it, will do just 
what he chooses to do, whether his conduct be approved or 
censured, even though he knows it will bring down publick 
odium upon his head. 

Small. — One having approbat. small, will experience but 
little shame; be comparatively insensible to ridicule and re- 
proach; and indifferent whether his conduct, appearance, ex- 
pressions, &c, please or displease. One having approbat. 
small, with large intellectual and simi-intellectual organs, 
may possess commanding talents, yet will have too little ambi- 
tion, and too little love of fame, to exert and apply his powers, 
&c. The combinations under approbat. small, will be the 
reverse of those under approbat. full, large, or very large, so 
far as these phenomena are the product of these several states 
of its development. 

Perhaps no faculty is more frequently perverted, or more 
injurious in its operation, especially upon the virtuous poor, 
than approbat. The rich, in order to gratify Lhi$ psssioit 
" have sought out many inventions" by which to distinguish 


themselves from the poor, and attract attention ; and the poor 
exhaust all their powers to follow in the footsteps of the 
rich, and in doing this, they even take their bread out of their 
mouths. The rich, finding themselves partially imitated, 
change the fashion, and are again followed by the poor. 
Thus it is that a vast amount of time, and labour, and com- 
fort, and, it might be safely added, of virtue, too, is worse 
than wasted. This evil is daily augmenting, and the pros- 
pect of a reform daily diminishing. I holds an equal sway 
in the church and in the state, polluting the ho.y garments 
of the one, and destroying the liberty and the virtue of the 
other. The tyranny with which it rides over the necks of 
men, is a hundred fold more despotick than ever tyrant sway- 
ed over his subjects; and nowhere does it hold so cruel a des- 
potism, and rule with such an iron sceptre, as in this our boast 
ed land of freedom and equal rights. Here, one must not 
speak out boldly his honest sentiments— must not do this, and 
must do that, because, forsooth, to do otherwise will be un- 
popular, and whatever is unpopular, is proscribed, and visited 
with a frown as deadly and as withering in its effects as the 
samiel winds of the Arabian desert. But, so long as men 
will follow, and submit to, so fickle and so tyrannical a dame 
as fashion, they need not complain of " hard times," and of 
the ten thousand miseries which she heaps upon the devoted 
heads of her subjects. 

Location. — Approbat. is located between cautious, and 
self-e. See location of self-e. 


Self-respect — self-confidence — self-complacency and sat- 
isfaction — high-mindeclness — independence — nobleness — love 
of liberty and freedom. 

The proper office of this faculty is to create, in the bosom 
of its possessor, a good opinion of himself; of his own char- 
acter and opinions, and of whatever belongs to, or proceeds 
from, himself ; to beget an esteem and respect for himself; 
to feel satisfied with himself, and unwilling to change hia 
identity and mental qualities for those of another; to give a 
manly tone to the character and turn to the conduct, and a 
dignified, erect attitude and bearing to the person, and thus, 
to exert an important influence in elevating and ennobling the 
character of man. And what is st 'Jl more important, it gives 



that innate love of personal liberty and independence, and of 
religious freedom, so deeply seated in the nature of man, and 
so conducive to his virtue and happiness, which constitutes 
the sole foundation of his free institutions, civil rights, and 
religious privileges, and inspires him with an aversion to 
every thing connected with arbitrary authority, despotick 
rule, or religious intolerance, and gives him that spirit of re- 
sistance to such things, which no despotism can destroy, no 
arbitrary authority crush or long subdue. 

The proof of the existence of this faculty, as a separate 
and pi unary mental power, is derived from the same data 
which establishes the existence of the other faculties. 

Large. — One having self-e. large, will be independent, 
and place a high value upon himself ; feel that whatever he 
thinks or does, is well thought and done; throw himself back 
upon his own unaided resources, and rely upon his own judg 
ment and strength; will never knowingly degrade or demean 
himself; aspire at something commanding ; never be content 
to be dependent or to serve, but rather aspire to be himself a 
leader and commander of others; will despise and detest 
meanness, and shrink from it ; and assume an appearance of 
dignity and manliness, calculated to command respect. 

The manifestations of self-e. take their character chiefly 
from the combinations of this faculty with the other facul- 
ties. For example ; combined with large or very large com- 
bat., destruct., and firm., and with only moderate or full con- 
scien., ven., benev., and reasoning faculties, it makes one 
haughty, domineering, overbearing, dogmatical, arbitrary, 
egotistical, arrogant, authoritative, conceited, and extremely 
selfish, while the same amount of self-e., combined with only 
full combat, and destruct., and with very large benev. and 
reasoning organs, large conscien., ideal., ven., and perceptive 
faculties, and a large brain, will impart to the character a 
commanding dignity, a nobleness, a high-toned sense of hon- 
our, an elevation, and authority which cannot but command 
universal respect and admiration ; which scorn a vulgar, 
common, or trifling act or expression ; and impart an air of 
greatness and magnanimity to the whole man. 

One having self-e. large, with amat. and adhes. large, may 
love strongly and tenderly, especially when his love is in 
harmony with his ideas of propriety, yet will never sacrifice 
his independence to his love, nor break down under the pres 
■ure of blighted affections : with the domestick organs gene 



rah y large, will lov3 his family, yet make them obey him: 
with acquis, full or large, will place a high estimate upon 
what he possesses, upon his horse, his farm, his etcet. : with 
combat, large, and firm, large or very large, will pursue hi3 
own straightforward course, and will not be dictated to ; is 
disposed to lead, and to push himself forward ; feels that 
he is as good and as worthy as anybody else: with cautious 
large, in order to form his own judgment, may sometimes 
ask advice, and then follow it or not, according as it does, or 
does not, coincide with his own views ; and will be so solicit- 
ous about every thing which is likely to affect him, and so 
fearful lest, in some way, he should lower himself down, 
that he may, at times, be disconcerted, and diffident, and ap- 
pear awkward and unbending in his manners: with combat, 
and destruct. large, and conscien. only full, will experience 
strong indignation at every word or deed calculated to throw 
him into the shade, or derogatory to his character ; and will 
guard, with a jealous eye, his liberty, his personal preroga- 
tives, and whatever belongs to him, &c. : with compar. and 
caus. only full, will make greater pretensions to knowledge 
and talent than he is in reality able to sustain and fulfil ; and, 
with only a middling-sized brain, thinks and talks much 
more of himself than others do of him ; pushes himself for- 
ward where he is not wanted ; and is proud, egotistical, and 
self-important: with combat, and destruct. full, benev., hope s 
ideal., individ., event., and lang. large, and compar. and caus. 
very large, accompanied with a large and an active brain, 
will not only possess talents of a high order, but will so em- 
ploy them as to cut a bold and commanding figure wherever 
he moves, and add to it that weight and force of character, 
that dignity, and magnanimity of feeling, which will com- 
mand an extensive influence in the world ; advance him to 
some commanding station, and enable him to sustain himself 
in it with great ability and dignity ; will place such unbound- 
ed confidence in himself, and also have such towering ambi- 
tion, that he will attempt great things, and also have the tal- 
ent requisite to carry them through ; will not be satisfied with 
ordinary attainments, but will grasp at some gnat some im- 
posing object, and aspire to pre-eminence; will aim high; 
never trifle with himself, nor allow others to trifle with him ; 
and be emphatically magnanimous, yet not manifest pride or 
haughtiness, merely because he has too much good sense to 


do so The same combination of other organs, with self*! 
fery large, will produce the same result. 

Very large. — One having self-o. very large, willingly 
assumes the responsibility, will think too much of himself, 
of his opinions, plans, judgment, &c; and, with combat, 
large, and caus. and conscien. only moderate, will be likely 
to be regardless of the frown and of the favour of men ; 
deaf to reproof; liable to have many enemies ; intractable 
bold, proud, haughty, domineering, forward, ccnceited, jeal 
ous, austere, and repulsive ; to be blind to his faults, and un- 
able to see his errours, be they ever so glaring, because he 
will feel that he is well nigh infallible ; will look down with 
a kind of contempt upon the great mass of his fellow men, 
and treat even his equals as though they were his inferiours ; 
will be extremely ambitious to obtain power, and also arbi- 
trary in its exercise ; insensible to the shafts of ridicule, 
thinking that surely he cannot be intended ; by his manner 
and expression, will give an air of consequence and import- 
ance to what he says; with approbat. moderate or small, and 
firm, large or very large, will be perfectly independent ; will 
go straight forward in his own way, follow his own judg- 
ment, and defy the consequences, &c. Many of the combi- 
nations under self-e. large, will apply to self-e. very large. 

Full. — One having self-e. full, will think well of him- 
self, yet, when benev., conscien., and caus. are large or very 
large, his self-e. will manifest itself in creating a manly, no- 
ble, self-respectful feeling, which will prevent him from do- 
ing any thing beneath himself; will be sufficiently conde- 
scending, yet not servile, and enabled and disposed to pay a 
due respect, not only to himself, but also to his fellow-men 
will possess sufficient force and weight of character to do a 
good business and sustain himself; to mingle dignity with 
condescension and talent, and so conduct himself as to be 
generally respected; will neither assume too much to him- 
self, nor yield too much to others ; and will maintain his 
rights and his self-respect, so that others can have no fhee to 
trifle with or trample upon him, and yet, will not be haughty 
or conceited. 

Moderate. — One having self-e. moderate, places too low 
an estimate upon himself, upon his own judgment, and is too 
ready to give in to the judgment of others ; will lack the re- 
quisite independence, manliness, high-mindedness, and self 
confidence to beat his own way thrangh life, and will suffei 



from a feeling of uriworthiness ; will fear to trespass upon 
the attention of others, and not possess an influence equal to 
his character and talents, merely because he does not as- 
sume-enough to himself. One having self-e. moderate, with 
combat., firm., and conscien. large or very large, will possess 
genuine firmness of character, and much moral courage, yet 
will seldom manifest them in bold relief, except Avhen under 
excitement, or in the defenco of moral principle, or the cause 
of virtue, or in doing what he considers to be his duty: with 
firm, only full, may be too easily led away, and too ready to 
ask and to follow advice, and too obsequious, especially if 
cautious, is large or very large: with large intellectual 
faculties, may possess talents of a high order, yet, from want 
of self-confidence and boldness to pretend to considerable, and 
in consequence of occasionally letting himself down in his 
expressions and appearance, and trifling with himself and 
with others, will have much less influence than he might 
have if possessed of more self-e., &c. 

Small. — One having self-e. small, will sink into compar- 
ative insignificance in his own estimation, and be tormented 
with a feeling of unworthiness and inferiority; will feel too 
humble and submissive, and too dependant and diminutive, 
which will still be increased by large ven. and conscien. ; 
will underrate himself, his judgment, his talents, &c, and, 
therefore, be undervalued by others ; will make himself too 
common and familiar, and associate so much with inferiours, 
that he will fail to command general respect and confidence j 
will be too trifling- in his manners and expressions ; more apt 
to follow than to lead; and too modest and backward to ap- 
pear well; and will not be likely to advance himself to some 
bold and commanding position, and maintain himself in it, 
even though, with large ideal, and intellectual organs, and a 
large brain, his talents may be abundantly sufficient for that 
purpose; yet, with firm, very large, will nevertheless be de 
termined, persevering, &c. 

Very Small. — One having' self-e. very small , with con- 
e:ien. and cautious, very large, will be always dissatisfied 
with, and have a miserable opinion of, himself, and all he- 
does ; and, with hope only moderate, fear to attempt any 
thing which involves responsibility, lest he should fail to do 
all that may be required of him ; will feel ashamed to hold 
up his head, or look his fellow-men in the face; and be ah 
ways condemning himself. 



Location. — Self-e. is located on the mesial line of the 
head, about half an inch above the union of the lambdoidal 
sutures, and directly back of firm.; or, in the middle of the 
superiour-inferiour portion of the head, at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees with the plane of the base of the skull. 
Approbat. is located on the two external sides of it, and cau- 
toius. beyond approbat., in the same range. 

The existence of this faculty demonstrates the position, that 
the feeling or principle of liberty and of equal rights, is in- 
alienable, and inherent in the very nature and constitution of 
man ; that, therefore, it can no more be destroyed than hunger, 
or love ; that a purely republican and democratick form of 
government is the only one adapted to the nature of 'man, and 
the only one calculated to secure universal satisfaction and 
happiness ; and that the subjugation of man by his fellow-man, 
is an open violation of the principles of human nature. If 
our rulers only understood this principle of our nature, and 
if all the landmarks and all the regulations of government 
only proceeded upon it, subjection and servitude, in all those 
ten thousand forms which they assume in society, would be 
at once abolished. By creating every man free to choose 01 
refuse the evil or the good, God allows every man to govern 
himself; and, surely, then, men ought to allow one another to 
govern themselves, subject, however, in the latter case, as they 
are in the former, to those regulations which are necessary 
to the general good, and, also, to be " rewarded according to 
their deeds." 

There is no danger that this feeling will ever be extin- 
guished ; but, in case the subjugation and servitude of man, in 
any form, should be carried to a very great length, there 
is danger, ay, a moral certainty, of a revolution, and a rev 
olution, too, attended with a violence proportionate to the 
pressure laid upon it. In this country, there is no likelihood, 
nor scarcely a possibility, of a despofick form of government, 
but there is danger of a moneyed despotism — of aristocratiek 
monopolies, and of the powerful's tyrannizing over the weak, 
and because they are poor or friendless. This same love 
of being free ourselves, and of juling ourselves, reaches stili 
farther, and desires to govern others. Slowly but surely, as 
it were, in the insinuating, yet resistless, folds of the Boa 
Constrictor, is this serpentine aristocracy subduing and sub- 
Ugating, by piece-meal, particularly the virtuous and tht 
•eUented poor of our country ; and, should things progress, 



for sixty years to come, as they have done since the Revolu 
lion, this nation, the birthplace and the cradle of liberty, 
will be ruled by an aristocracy, not of government, but of 
monopoly, of wealth, &c, far more tyrannical than any na- 
tion under heaven. But, thanks to the great Author of our 
oeing, man's nature is unalterable ; the spirit of Seventy-siXj 
and the love of liberty, will live and will increase, and wo be 
to those that ride over it. The great doctrine of human 
rights— of liberty — of free government — of " INDEPEND- 
ENCE," will live and spread, and root up, and trample 
down, every vestige of tyranny, of aristocracy, and of ser 


Stability — decision of character — -fixedness of purpose — - 
iesire to continue — aversion to change. 

The necessity of some faculty, to which to refer that stead- 
fiistness, perseverance, and unwillingness to relinquish what 
has been undertaken, which are so indispensable to success, 
and so common phenomena of the human mind, is too ob- 
vious to need comment ; and the frequent instances of down- 
right obstinacy, and of blind adherence to what has been 
adopted, and solely because it has been adopted, afford con- 
clusive evidence of the existence of firm, as a primary faculty 
of the human mind. 

Large. — One having firm, large, will be so stable, de- 
cided, determined, &c, that he may be relied upon ; and 
be very unwilling to change his plans, opinions, purposes, 
course of conduct, or whatever he undertakes or adopts. One 
having firm, large, with combat., destruct., and self-e. full 
or large, will add perseverance to stability, and not only hold 
on to his plans to the last, but, also, drive them forward with 
great determination through opposing difficulties : with self-e. 
large or very large, is so sure and certain that he is right, 
that there will be the greatest difficulty in convincing him 
that he is wrong, or in turning him from his purposes ; yet, 
if the reasoning organs are very large, he may listen to 
strong and conclusive arguments : with cautious, large, may 
seem to waver, and to lack decision of purpose, but this will 
be the case only before he has fully decided, and openly com- 
mitted himself, and when his fear is so active as to overcome 
his firmness : with hope very large, ^nd cautious, only mode- 



rate, may start on foot so many new projects as to appear 
fickle, yet the phenomena will proceed rather from an exces» 
of hope, than from a deficiency of firm. : with adhes. and 
benev. very large, may be easily persuaded, or led, espe- 
cially by friends, yet cannot be driven the least : with com- 
bat., destruct., self-e., hope, and caus. large or very large, not 
only holds on to his own opinions and plans with great tena- 
city, but also drives forward whatever he undertakes with 
great energy, and can be turned aside or driven from his pur- 
poses only by compulsion or impossibilities ; is pre-eminently 
persevering, if not really obstinate, and is well qualified to 
complete what he undertakes : with the perceptive organs, at 
least, full, the reasoning organs very large, and cautious, 
large, will lay his plans for a long time to come, and pursue 
a preconcerted, systematick course of action, and thus effect 
important objects; may take some time to make up his mind, 
yet will seldom change it ; will be slow in undertaking, but 
unchanging in executing; and may always be relied upon: 
with combat, and self-e. large, ven. moderate, and the reasoning 
organs only full, will not be open to conviction, nor feel the 
force of reasons urged against him, but will blindly and tena- 
ciously adhere to his opinions and determinations, and seem 
to be much more firm than he really is, &c. 

Very large. — One having firm, very large, will be 
likely to be obstinate, if not really stubborn; and, with self-e. 
large, will be unbending, and yield only to dire necessity or 
compulsion; and, when he has once committed himself, will 
turn comparatively a deaf ear to the voice of entreaty, of 
threatening, of reason, and even of interest, and all for no 
other reason than because he will or will not ; with hope 
and combat, also large, will boldly encounter the greatest 
difficulties; "hope against hope;" and possess the greatest 
fortitude, and the most unbending determination: with self*, 
large, cautious, moderate, and caus. only full, will make up 
his mind at once, and upon a pardal view of the subject, 
and then absolutely refuse to change it ; will think himself 
willing to see his errours and listen to reasonable advice, whiie 
the doors of his mind will be barred and bolted against every 
thing designed or calculated to convince or turn him ; and 
may be called blindly obstinate and mulish : with the reason* 
ing organs large, will be loath, and even sometimes refuse, to 
change, when his reason tells him that he ought to do so, yel 
may be influenced by very strong motives, and very urgent 



reasons: but, if the moral and reasoning faculties predomi- 
nate over the selfish, firm, will seldom manifest itself in 
downright obstinacy. The combinations under firm, large, 
modified by an increase of the influence of firm., will apply 
to firm, very large. 

Full. — One having firm, full, will possess, except in a 
ess energetick and apparent degree, those qualities ascribed 
to firm, large, with this important exception, that he will be 
much more liable to abandon his purposes, and appear to be 
changeable, not because firm, is absolutely deficient, but be- 
cause the other more powerful faculties cause it to yield to 
their demands. When, therefore, his other faculties which 
are large or very large, act in conjunction with his firm., 
he will be so firm as to be thought obstinate, but, when his 
larger faculties act in opposition to firm., he will manifest 
fickleness. For example ; one having firm, full, aided by 
large combat, and self-e., (which add self-confidence and re- 
sistance to firmness,) and, also, by bright hopes of success, will 
show a great amount of decision and perseverance, especially 
when his feeling of resistance is awakened ; but, when hope 
is very large, he will be likely to become dissatisfied with 
his present situation and success, and to grasp eagerly at any 
new object to which his hope may allure him : with cau- 
tious, very large, and combat, only moderate, will often fear 
to proceed, and be irresolute, because he fancies there is 
"some lion in the way:" with self-e. small, will have so lit- 
tle confidence in himself, that he will be unwilling to trust 
his own judgment, and thus too often listen to advice : with 
approbat. very large, may frequently vary his course in order 
to adapt himself to publick opinion : with cautious, large, an'l 
caus. and compar. very large, will generally decide and pro 
ceed so judiciously as seldom to need to change ; yet, in almost 
any combination, the individual will maintain his opinions, 
however he may change his plans and course of conduct. 

Firm, full, large, or very large, acts witn the greatest 
vigour in combination with the other faculties that are most 
energetick. For example; one having firm, of a given size, 
with adhes. very large, and acquis, small, will be more con- 
stant in his adherence to friends than to money-making pur- 
suits in proportion as his adhes. is more vigorous than hia 
acquis.: with combat, large and philopro. small, will have 
Tery little patience or perseverance with regard to children, 
vet will manifest great determination, and even obstinacy 



when his spirit of resistance is kindled : with the intellectual 
organs large and self-e. small, will persevere in his literary 
pursuits, yet will be too easily made to believe that he ia 
wrong, and too easily led, &c. 

Moderate. — One having firm, moderate, will be likely to 
be inconstant, changeable, and fluctuating in his character ; to 
be doing one thing to-day, and another to-morrow, and can 
not be depended upon. One having firm, moderate, with ad- 
tes. large or very large, will love his friends ardently for the 
time being, yet frequently change friends for slight causes, 
loving those who are last and untned,the best : with combat, and 
destruct. large, in the prosecution of his plans, may drive all 
before him for awhile, yet will soon change his course; may 
be bold and courageous in the onset, yet will fail to carry the 
matter out, or execute his threats : with approbat. large, and 
self-e. only moderate, will do much as he is told to do ; follow 
the advice of every one ; and be always shifting to adapt him- 
self to circumstances: with cautious, large or very large, will 
be always " halting between two opinions," and always unde- 
termined as to his plan of operation : with the intellectual 
organs generally large, may be a rapid, but will not be a 
persevering, scholar ; will have a thorough and profound 
knowledge, of no branch of science ; and allow trifles to di> 
vert him from his purposes. 

Small. — One having firm, small, will begin man}*- thing?, 
yet complete very few ; cannot be depended upon ; will be 
fickle, unstable, inconstant in every thing, &c; may sow 
much, yet will not remain to reap the fruits of his labours, 
and thus bring to pass very little. The combinations under 
firm, moderate, modified by a still farther reduction cf the 
influence of firm., will apply to firm, small. 

Very small. — When firm, is very small, the subject will 
be the sport of the other faculties. 

Location. — Firm, is located in the back part of the top 
of the head. When the head is erect, a perpendicular line, 
drawn from the external opening of the ear to the top of 
the head, will pass through the anterior portion of the organ. 
It is usually the highest portion of the American and the 
English head. In the cut of the head of Aurelia Chase, k 
k very large. 



SPECIES II. — Moral and Religious Faculties. 

Man iias always been considered " a religious animal." 
It will hardly be denied that, aside from his 14 love of money," 
and the means employed to obtain it, religion of some kind, 
and religion in some form, have constituted, and still consti- 
tute, one of the leading, not to say, all-absorbing, objects of 
human contemplation and pursuit. Scarcely a single nation 
or tribe of men has ever been known to exist, whose religion 
did not enter into, if not even constitute, the very texture of 
all the habits and the character of that nation or tribe. Take 
away the religion of the Hindoo, of the Asiatick nations, of 
the Ethiopian race, of the tawny sons of our western Avilds, 
of the European nations or of their descendants in America, 
or, indeed, of any other " nation, or kindred, or tongue under 
heaven," and, with Micah, they would at once exclaim, "Ye 
have taken away my gods : what have I more?" And, so 
long as the nature of man remains unchanged, there is no 
possibility of his being less religious than he always has been. 
We have to fear only that his religious doctrines will be er- 
roneous, and his religious life and practices therefore incor- 
rect ; or, in other words, that his moral faculties will make 
him immoral. To avoid this evil, and to secure one of the 
greatest of blessings, namely, a correct religious belief and 
practice, let him fully analyze his religious faculties, and 
adopt those practices which they clearly point out. 

Now, reason teaches us, that the nature of man must neces- 
sarily be in perfect harmony with the moral government of 
God, and with the moral constitution of the universe ; and, if 
phrenology is true, the morality it inculcates, must necessarily 
be in perfect harmony with the nature of man : so that, upon 
the principle that any two things which are each like a third, 
are, therefore, like each other, it follows, that the moral prin- 
ciples of phrenology must be in perfect harmony with the 
moral principles and constitution of the universe; because 
each is in harmony with the nature of man. And, as the 
moral government of God must be in harmony with both the 
moral character and attributes of the Deity, and, also, with 
his natural kingdom, it follows, that phrenology, if true, 
must be in perfect harmony with the natural and the moral 
government and attributes of the great Creator and Governour 
of the universe. And if revelation is also true, its doctrines 
and precepts must be in harmony with those taught by phre* 



nology Ik other words ; if revelation and phrenology aro 
Doth true, there must be a perfect harmony and coincidence 
between the theology of phrenology, and the theology of 
revelation. In this case, each would assist to explain and in- 
terpret the other, and both together, would give a far more 
perfect view of theology and religion, than either can do 
separately. And if, through prejudice, or blindness, or wick- 
edness, any one should pervert either, he may readily be 
corrected by the other. 

The authors are free to acknowledge, that they have more 
hope that their fellow men will be brought to a correct 
knowledge of the only true religion, and, also, to a right un- 
derstanding and a proper application of revelation, through 
the instrumentality of phrenology, than by any, if not every, 
other means now in operation. The grounds of this hope 
will be more fully presented in a subsequent work, in 
which the theology of phrenology will be compared with 
that of revelation, the phrenological answer given to the 
question, " In what does true religion consist ?" and the moral 
and religious bearings of phrenology will be considered and 


Moral principle — sense of justice — regard for duty — 
feeling of moral accountability, incumbency, and obliga- 
tion — perception of the right and the wrong of feelings 
and conduct. 

The proposition that man is a moral and accountable 
agent — that he is governed by moral laws, and is capable of 
taking cognizance of the morality, or the right and the 
wrong, of feelings and conduct, and of performing actions and 
exercising feelings which are virtuous and vicious, and, as 
such, rewardable and punishable, is susceptible of demonstra- 
tion by an appeal to the moral feelings of almost every in- 
dividual of the human race. How often do men, when they 
are conscious of having done wrong, feel guilty and con- 
demned, and deserving of punishment ? This cannot be the 
result of education, nor of circumstances, for, without a fac- 
ulty for exercising this class of functions, men could no more 
be taught to feel guilty than they could be taught to see 
without eyes, or to breathe without lungs. And, since this 
class of functions is entirely distinct from every other class, 



is homogeneous in its character, and has for its end a very 
important object, and, above all, since it is always found to 
be manifested in proportion to the development of a given 
portion of the brain, it follows, that it is performed by a dis- 
tinct faculty of the mind, or by a mental power which is in- 
nate, and which forms a constituent part of the human mind. 

This being the case, it follows, that man's mind is consti- 
uted with a direct reference to certain abstract and first 
principles of right and justice. This is rendered evident 
from the fact, that every portion of the universe of God, is in 
perfect harmony with, and also adapted to, every other por- 
tion of it. Now, since the mind of man forms a part of this 
universe, and is, therefore, in perfect harmony and consist- 
ency with every other part of it, and since this same mind is 
likewise moulded and constituted with direct reference to, and 
proceeds upon, certain first principles of right and justice, it 
follows, that the whole system of" things, or the whole uni 
verse of God, is also constituted with direct reference to, and 
proceeds upon, these same principles of right and justice 
upon which the human mind proceeds, or, in other words, 
that the universe is a moral universe — that God's govern- 
ment recognises the morality and the immorality of feelings 
and conduct, and that its Governour rewards the one, and 
punishes the other. 

If there were no such thing as right and wrong, as virtue 
and vice, as morality and immorality, why should the great 
Author of nature tell us that some things are right, and 
others wrong, by implanting in our very nature this moral 
tribunal of right and wrong, and thus knowingly and egre- 
giously deceive us? If there exist no first principles oi 
right and wrong, why should the mind of man be so formed 
as to receive any such impressions? or why should the hu- 
man mind be adapted to that which does not exist ? 

Thus, by physical demonstration, and the language of 
facts, we are inevitably brought to the conclusion, that God's 
government is a moral government — that, consequently, its 
Governour is a moral Governour, and that mankind are his 
moral subjects. These are great and fundamental princi- 
ples of morality and of ethicks, and, farthermore, principles 
which have never before been fully established, unless, in- 
deed, it should be maintained that a revelation which is 
known, comparatively, to only a few, and believed in by fewer 



still, has established it by assuming it, and making it aft 
article of failh. 

Large. — One having conscien. large, will have a clear and 
an acute moral eye, and a ready perception of what is right 
and what is wrong, both in himself and in others, and will 
frequently, if not generally, direct his attention to this quality 
of actions and feelings ; will consult duty rather than expe 
diency, and pursue the course which he considers right, even 
though it may be in opposition to his interest ; will endeavour 
to be honest and faithful in the discharge of his supposed ob- 
ligations ; will often feel guilty, and unworthy ; be ready to 
acknowledge his faults, and condemn himself for them ; will 
strive to lead a moral, virtuous, and upright life; and possess 
a thankful, and grateful heart. 

One having conscien. large, with firm, also large, wil 
manifest firmness upon all occasions, but be particularly de- 
cided and determined in every case of duty, or justice, or 
right ; will take a firm stand upon the side of duty and 
moral principle, and maintain it, even to extremity; and, with 
combat, also large, will possess great moral courage, great 
boldness to go forward in advocating and urging on the 
cause of virtue or morality, and will also resolutely oppose 
whatever he considers to be wrong or unjust ; with large de- 
ttruct. and self-e. added to this combination, will not only 
quickly notice, but be inclined severely to censure, whatever 
he considers wrong; and, with self-e. very large, will be cen- 
sorious, and severe in his reflections upon others : with firm., 
caus., and compar. large, will regard the claims of duty and 
justice as of primary importance, and discharge them at al- 
most any hazard ; can be induced only with the greatest dif- 
ficulty, and by the strongest temptations, knowingly and wil- 
fully to violate them ; will make strenuous efforts to restrain 
his immoral, and excite his moral, feelings ; though he may 
sometimes be overcome by his still stronger faculties, and led 
into sin by them, yet will generally maintain the ascendency, 
and experience deep remorse and repentance when he is sen- 
sible of having swerved from the path of duty ; and, unless 
self-e. is very large, will readily acknowledge his faults : with 
adhes. and benev. large or very large, secret, only moderate, 
and destruct. and combat, only.full, will mildly, yet faithfully, 
reprove his friends ; tell them their faults in a plain and can- 
did, yet in a mild and feeling, manner, so as to do them the 
greatest amount of good, and yet injure their feelings as lit* 



tie as possible ; closely watch over their moral conduct ; have 
their good at heart, and, therefore, affectionately reprove 
them ; but, with combat., destruct., and self-e. large, will be 
rather harsh and censorious in his manner of administering 
reproof ; and, with secret, moderate or small, will find fault 
with others when they do not conform to his own standard of 
duty; and, if firm, and self-e. are very large, and cans, and 
benev. only full, will set up himself or his doctrines as the 
only correct standard of truth and rectitude; pronounce judg- 
ment upon the character of others ; be censorious and rigid 
in his moral and religious views and practices, &c. : with be- 
nev. large, and combat., caus., compar., hope, and self-e., at 
least, full, will possess great moral courage ; will never tem- 
porize upon questions of duty, but will stand up boldly and 
resolutely in defence of morality and truth ; and, let conse- 
quences be what they may, will never abandon them ; and 
never fly from persecution in the cause of virtue and benev- 
olence, but will boldly meet and face all opposition ; wiii not 
forsake his ground ; will drive forward moral, and religious, 
and benevolent enterprises with great energy; go all lengths, 
and make any sacrifices, in defence of moral principle, and 
in securing or maintaining what he considers right, chiefly 
on account of the principle involved in the matter, even 
though the thing itself may be unimportant ; and, if compar. 
and caus. are very large, will be admirably qualified to distin- 
guish himself a? a moral and religious leader; to fill stations 
of responsibility and trust, where judgment and talents are 
required to be combined with integrity and energy of mind 
and character : with large or very large selfish propensities, 
and only moderate or full firm, and reasoning organs, wil. 
struggle hard against his " easily besetting sins," yet be often 
overcome by them ; will do many things of which he will 
bitterly repent ; will resolve on amendment, but again yield 
to temptation ; and alternate between sinning and repenting : 
with very large cautious., in every case where he is not certain 
what his duty is, will be so fearful of doing wrong as often 
not to act at all, and thus fail to do right ; will frequently 
tremble for fear of apprehended punishment ; and, with large 
or very large ven. in addition, will have high ideas of the 
majesty, and holiness, and justice of the Deity; be filled^with 
dread and awe while contemplating his character and works; 
have great fear of incurring his displeasure, and of being 
visited with his judgment; and, with hope moderate or small. 



little expectation of pardon, or, at least, many " doubts and 
fears" concerning his salvation and future condition ; be given 
to religious melancholy ; and have but feeble faith ; but, with 
hope large, will look upon his Maker, not only as a sin-^zwi- 
ishing, brat also as a sin-forgiving God; generally have 
strong Christian faith, and be solaced by hopes of pardon 
through a Redeemer, yet experience occasional doubts : with 
philopro. large, will love his children, yet their moral char- 
acter and conduct will be the chief objects of his regard and 
anxiety ; and, if benev. is large, and destruct. full, will 
faithfully reprove, if not chastise, them for their faults : with 
large caus, and compar., will first investigate subjects with ref- 
erence to their moral character and bearings ; will take great 
delight in tracing out the connexion between moral causes 
and their effects — in reasoning upon the relations of man to his 
Maker, of man to his fellow-man, and of man in all his rela- 
tions as a moral and accountable being, &c; in investigating 
the attributes and the character of the Deity, especially as ex- 
hibited in his works ; in inquiring into the moral relations of 
things, &c; and will appreciate the full force of moral infer- 
ences : with compar. and caus. very large, will be a profound 
and acute theologian, and with large concent., will take orig- 
inal views of subjects, and be unable to leave any subject of 
moral inquiry or research until he has run it out in all its bear- 
ings; will be exceedingly interested in moral philosophy, in 
metaphysical and theological studies, &c. : with large or very 
large combat., compar., and caus., will delight in discussing 
religious and moral questions, &c. : with large self-e., and 
very large firm., will reluctantly open his eyes upon his 
faults, yet will then freely acknowledge them, and endeavour 
to reform: with only full secret, and acquis., and "large firm., 
self-e,, benev., and caus., and a large and active brain, will 
never be guilty of either a mean, or a dishonest action ; will 
be just, obliging, and faithful to his word, and possess true 
moral worth in a high degree ; and, with only full combat, 
and destruct., will be amiable : with approbat, very large, 
will experience a morbid sensibil jty to shame, and, with largo 
yen., and only moderate self-e., will often suffer intolerably 
from mingled feelings of guilt, unworthiness, and shame, and 
be unable to look his fellow men in the face: with large or 
very large benev. and adhes., and only full self-e., will bo 
very grateful for favours received, and glad of an oppor- 
tunity to return them; will feel strong attachment towards 



his benefactors, and think of them only with lively emotions 
of gratitude and love; will be thankful to those who will 
point out his faults to him ; be forgiving in his disposition, 
especially when forgiveness is asked; sincerely repent of 
his sins, both of omission and of commission, weep over them, 
and strive against committing more sin, &c. 

The functions of the other faculties are often mistaken for 
those of conscien., yet a close analysis will point out a radi- 
cal difference between them ; and, since those who have the 
least conscien., are the least sensible of their deficiency, and, 
also, of the functions ascribed to it, they will be likely to give 
themselves credit for much more conscien. than they actually 

Very large. — One having conscien. very large, will 
make morality and duty the pole-star of his life, and the 
only guide of his conduct ; will not, for the world, knowing- 
ly do wrong or injure another ; will make almost any sacri- 
fice sooner than incur guilt ; is tormented with the mere sus- 
picion of having done wrong or injured another ; frequently 
experiences the feeling of remorse for things that are even 
right; bitterly repents and loathes himself when he is appre- 
hensive that duty has been violated or neglected, and feels 
miserable until he is sure that all is right again ; is even 
scrupulously and unnecessarily exact in all his dealings ; 
is constantly tormented and harassed by the goadings of a 
guilty conscience : asd, when he has failed to fulfil any prom- 
ises, feels condemned and unhappy, even though to have ful- 
filled them was impossible. 

One having conscien. very large, with benev. and ven, 
large or very large, will experience the liveliest emotions of 
gratitude to his bountiful Creator for favours received, and, 
with adhes. large, to his fellow-men for acts of kindness, 
and feel strong attachment to his benefactors: with approbat., 
acquis., &c, only full, will sacrifice ease, property, happiness, 
and, friendship, if not every thing else, sooner than violate 
his conscience", with large combat., will do what he consid- 
ers right, regardless of consequences; Avill be as bold and as 
fearless as a lion in every case of duty, and in defending any 
moral principle; and will make every thing in which he is 
concerned, bend to his ideas of duty, and to those mora, 
principles by which he himself is governed : with moderate 
or small self-e., shrinks from publick responsibility : with 
ven. and cautious, very large, and hope and self-e. very eMail, 



contemplates the character of the Deity with the most pro 
found awe, mingled with dread and terrour, and himself aa 
sinful and unworthy in the extreme ; will tremble in view of 
the punishment he believes to await him ; have few and feeble 
hopes of pardon, and be driven to actual despair and religious 
melancholy or mania, &c. 

The combinations under conscien. large, modified by an 
increase of the influence of conscien., will apply to conscien. 
very large. It might also be added, that words cannot do 
full justice to the character jf this faculty, or to its influence 
upon the moral conduct and feelings of its possessor. 

Full. — One having conscien. full, will desire and en- 
deavour to do right, and feel condemned when convinced of 
having done wrong ; will recognise the claims of duty ; feel 
his moral obligations, both to God and man; and, unless his 
temptations, or, in other words, the solicitations of his strong- 
er faculties, overcome the remonstrances of conscien., will be 
honest and faithful, and live a virtuous, moral life, yet his 
conscien. will have a great deal to struggle with, and some- 
times lose the ascendency. 

The manifestations of conscien. full, are governed by the 
following general principle, namely, that one having con- 
scien. full, with such an organization as would be favourable 
to virtue and morality, or with the selfish faculties under the 
control of the moral and reasoning faculties, especially if 

filaced in circumstances calculated to promote virtue, will be 
ikely to possess a high standard of virtue, and of moral feeling 
and principle ; but, with the selfish faculties generally larger 
than conscien. and the other moral and the reasoning faculties, 
especially if placed in circumstances calculated to urge him 
into excesses, or. to create defects, will possess conscien. too 
feeble to turn the current of his stronger passions into a vir- 
tuous channel, or to supply his defects. Thus, one having 
conscien. full, with large combat., and only moderate secret., 
will be subject to ebullitions of passion, yet, as soon as the 
excitement of combat, has subsided, conscien. will create pun- 
gent remorse and contrition : with large combat, and destruct., 
and only moderate acquis., may be often led into- sin by his 
anger, yet will be perfectly honest in all his pecuniary trans- 
actions: with large or very large acquis., adhes., and secret., 
and only full caus. and self-e., may frequently take the ad-' 
vantage of strangers, and be even dishonest in his pecuniary 
transactions with mere acquaintances, yet will never wrong 



& friend, and will be likely to be honest in all his transac- 
tions where love of gain does not entice him astray: with 
only moderate acquis., and large or very large destruct, 
combat., approbat., and secret., may defame his rivals with- 
out a strict regard to truth, yet possess a moral character un- 
exceptionable in other respects, &c. Accordingly, we find 
- many persons to be perfectly moral in their general charac- 
ter, yet addicted to some grossly immoral, if not even vicious, 
propensity — some "easily besetting sin:" and this one fault 
is too often allowed to throw into the shade all their virtuous 

The combinations and descriptions under conscien. large, 
modified by a diminution of the influence of conscien., will 
apply to conscien. full. 

Moderate. — One having conscien. moderate, will expe- 
rience fewer and feebler compunctions of conscience, and jus- 
tify himself more than one with larger conscien.; will con- 
sider the moral qualities of actions far less than he will their 
effects upon himself; will frequently indulge his other facul- 
ties to excess, and, also, fail to do his duty, and will not be 
very particular to govern his feelings and his conduct by 
any fixed standard of moral principle ; will consult expedi- 
ency rather than duty ; and be less sensible of his faults, less 
open to conviction, less clear in his discernment between 
right and wrong, less correct in his reasoning upon religious 
subjects, the character of God, and the moral relations of 
man to man, and of man to his Maker, and will appreciate 
moral inferences less, than one with larger conscien. 

One having conscien. moderate, with very large self-e., 
and large selfish organs generally, will be likely to make 
euch demands upon others as his interest may dictate, without 
sufficient regard to what really belongs to him; and will not 
experience lively emotions of gratitude for favours received, 
because the feeling will be implanted in his mind that others 
are under a kind of obligation to do whatever he may choose 
to require of them : with large or very large self-e., adhes., and 
benev., and only moderate secret., may be perfectly honest 
and unexceptionable in his moral conduct, yet will be so from 
feelings of kindness or friendship, or because it will be mean 
and degrading to do wrong ; will govern his conduct by prin- 
ciples of nobleness, and do the honourable and the manly thing, 
yet will seldom feel guilty, or do right from conscientious 
■cruples : with large or very large approbat., will do ritrht 



when to do wrong, would injure his reputation, or tarnish 
his honour, yet, will do that which is wrong, and which large 
conscien. would forbid, when such things are generally 
approved; and do what is popular, without thinking or ca- 
sing whether it is right or not: with very large adhes., and 
benev., may be very kind, very affectionate, very willing to 
do favours &c; feel a great deal of sympathy for distress, 
and show much tenderness of feeling, which are liable to be 
mistaken for conscien., yet these feelings will not be ac 
companied with a deep sense of duty, of obligation, of grati- 
tude, of moral principle, &c. : with large or very largt 
ven. and a religious education, may be devout, religiously 
inclined, and, with cautious, large, fear to offend his Maker, 
and, with the selfish faculties only full, may live a blame- 
less, Christian life, yet will lack those nice moral qualitie? 
imparted by conscien. ; but, with small marvel., and with 
out a strict, religious education, will be likely to be irreli- 
gious, if not skeptical : with large or very large secret, and 
approbat., will be likely to do wrong in secret, and whei? 
there is little risk of detection ; and, with only moderate self-e., 
will be deceitful, if not hypocritical, yet, with ven. large 
may even profess religion, but will be a Pharisee : with large 
or very large reasoning- organs, may govern his conduct by 
the dictates of reason, feel the full force of philosophical con- 
clusions, and reason clearly and forcibly upon all subjects 
disconnected with morality and duty, yet will not appreciate 
the force of moral truths, &c. 

Small — One having conscien. small, will have but lit- 
tle idea of right and wrong in the abstract ; even when guilty, 
will be comparatively a stranger to the feelings of peni- 
tence, and to the compunctions of conscience ; will have but 
little regard ibr moral principle, and little concern whether 
his character conforms to its requisitions or not ; or care 
whether he is moral or immoral as such; will have few con- 
scientious scruples, and, perhaps, ridicule those who have; 
will lack that regard for pure justice, that desire to dc 
right, and that tenderness of conscience, which this faculty 
alone can impart, and be nearly destitute of moral acumer. 
and discrimination. 

The combinations under conscien. moderate, modified by 
a reduction of the influence of conscien., will app/y to con- 
scien. small. Other combinations, deduced from the princi 
pies there illustrated, may be added by the reader. 



Very smalt., — One having conscien. very small, will 
neither know nor feel the difference between right and wrong 
in themselves, nor have any moral discernment ; will have 
no conscientious scruples ; deny the doctrine of rewards and 
punishments, and the whole system of moral accountability ; 
be a stranger to the feelings of responsibility and repentance ; 
and, being unrestrained by the influence of conscien., do just 
what his other faculties dictate. 

The faculty of conscien. does not decide as to what is right 
or wrong, nor create that moral standard or tribunal by 
which the feelings and the conduct are tried, but merely ar- 
raigns them before such a tribunal as may have been settled 
by the combined influence of the other faculties, of educa- 
tion, of circumstances, &c. Suppose, for example, that two 
individuals, A. and B. possessed an equal share of conscien., 
while A. possessed very large acquis., and B. only small ac- 
quis. Let both be placed in given circumstances, and the 
conscien. of A. will allow him to take an unjustifiable 
amount of money, and even to demand it ; while the same 
degree of conscien. in B., would not allow him to take the 
same amount, even in case it should be offered to him ; yet, 
should A. possess a large endowment of ven., and B. but 
small ven., although the conscien. of A., might allow him 
to take more money than belonged to him, this same con- 
scien. might even compel him, out of a sense of duty, to attend 
upon certain religious observances, go to meeting, &c, more 
strictly than the same amount of conscien. would require of B. 
If the reasoning organs of B. were much larger than those of 
A., his views of right and wrong would be much more cor- 
rect and reasonable than those of A. The conscien. of the 
Indian doubtless urges him on even to commit deeds of cru- 
elty and vengeance upon that race which, he conceives, has 
wronged him. The conscience of the Catholick might re- 
quire him always to attend mass, and torment him for tasting 
meat on certain days, or for visiting a Protestant place of wor- 
ship., while that of a Protestant, might condemn a visit to a 
Catholick church as a heinous sin. 

This illustration will furnish a perfect and most beautiful 
■solution of the otherwise inexplicable phenomena, that the di- 
versity of opinion as to what is right and what is wrong, and 
as to what constitutes the test and standard of virtue and of vice, 
is well nigh infinite, or, at least, receives a different modifica- 
tion fsom almost every individual — that some approve as virt 

IS 34 


uous, what others condemn as wicked, and what others still, 

regard as neither — that almost every vice has been considered 
a virtue, and practised as such, and many forms of virtue con- 
demned as sinful — that a very conscientious man may be a 
very wicked man, and be even made the more wicked by his 
perverted or " seared" conscience, and that a man with but 
feeble conscien., may be comparatively virtuous, &c. 

The decisions of conscien. alone, then, form no criterion 
as to what is right or wrong; yet, in conjunction with the 
full development and unperverted exercise of all the oiaier 
faculties, it constitutes a great moral formula by which every 
feeling of the heart, and every action in life, may be tried, 
and its moral character determined. So that phrenology, in 
fact, teaches us, " what most we need to know," what is 
right and what is wrong. By a reference to a subse- 
quent chapter, the reader will see this point fully illustrated 
and applied. 

The diversity of opinion just alluded to, as to what is con 
sidered right and what wrong, does not, in the least, affect any 
of the arguments under this head, because they are predicated 
merely upon the existence of some standard of right — upon 
some code of morality, which standard and code actually ex- 
ist, though modified in their application. 

The influence of conscien. upon the conduct and the char- 
acter, is so great and so peculiar, as, in a measure, to baffle 
description. A person with little conscien., may be as honest 
a man, as kind a neighbour, as warm a friend, as trusty and as 
honourable in his dealings, &c, as another is who has large 
conscien., but from very different motives ; yet a deficiency of 
conscien. constitutes a palpable and a radical defect of charac- 
ter, a defect which is more observable in a want of moral feel- 
ing, and in a comparative destitution of moral principle, than 
in the mere conduct and dealings of the individual. 

The larger this organ, the more guilty will the individual 
feel. The reason of this is, that large or very large con- 
scien. being always awake, arraigns all the actions, and 
feelings, and motives before this moral tribunal, and brings 
them to a much more heart-searching trial, and thus creates 
a much greater sense of guilt and sinfulness than would be 
done by weaker conscien., even though the conduct, feelings, 
and motives, from which this feeling of guilt is derived, should, 
in both cases, be alike. 

This faculty, then, v» ftfle it actually prevents the truly con- 



scientious man from committing as much sin as he would 
probably commit with but feeble conscien., makes him feel 
the more guilty, and allows .those who have but little con- 
scien., and are therefore the less restrained from commit- 
ting sin, to live on, comparatively insensible to their faults, 
dead to the reproach of a guilty conscience, and justified in 
their own eyes. 

This fact refutes the doctrine that the goadings of a guilty 
conscience in this life, constitute the only punishment for 
Bin : for it is a plain dictate of reason and of conscience, that 
the punishment of sin must always be proportionate to the in- 
iquity committed. Yet we here see that the punishment in- 
flicted by conscien., is lightest upon those who sin the most, and 
most severe upon those who are least deserving of it, and that 
it is often inflicted when the actions punished are even virtu- 
ous. (See conscien. very large.) Conscien. has been shown 
to be merely the judge of sinfulness, and not its executioner. 

Now, by proving that the principle of accountability, 
which necessarily implies accompanying rewards and pun- 
ishments, enters into the very nature and constitution of man — 
that men are punishable for their sins, and punishable in 
proportion to their guilt, — and, that conscien. inflicts the 
lightest punishment upon those who are the most guilty, phre- 
nology proves that there is some other punishment for sin 
than the goadings of a guilty conscience, which, taken in 
conjunction with the fact, that those who sin most, often suffer 
least in other respects, and that the righteous are often se- 
verely afflicted in this life, brings us to the inevitable conclu- 
sion, that these rewards and punishments, which must be in- 
flicted somewhere, are reserved for administration in another 
state of existence. 

Not that rewards and punishments, as such, are not ad- 
ministered in this life ; for we know, indeed, that obedience 
to the laws of our corporeal organization, produces health, 
and with it, a great degree of happiness, and that the viola- 
tion of these laws, produces severe punishment, examples 
of which are to be found in those pains caused by cut- 
ting, bruising, burning, poisoning, or otherwise injuring our 
bodies ; but that the present state is not the only state of 
retribution. And since the administration of rewards and 
punishments in the present state of existence, is not only not 
incompatible with the benevolence and the government of 
the Deity, but is even demanded by both, why should not the 



same administration of rewards and punishments jn anothei 
state of existence, not only not be incompatible with the same 
character and government of the same unchangeable Being, 
Dut be even demanded in another world, in like manner as 
it is in this ? All sectarian prejudices aside, are not these 
fair inferences from phrenological principles ? 

In children and in females, this organ is generally found to 
be much larger (as the faculty is much stronger) than in males. 
Indeed, in children below ten years of age, it is almost invari- 
ably large or very large, while in men, especially in some 
sections of our country, the deficiency is quite common. We 
may hence conclude, that it constitutes a leading feature of 
the human character, and that its deficiency is mainly owing 
to a want of culture. A deficiency of conscien., then, implies 
a neglect of its cultivation ; and this want of cultivation im- 
plies the guilt consequent upon burying so important a talent 
in the earth. 

Location. — Conscien. is located upon the two sides of 
the posteriour portion of firm. Its protuberances are at right 
angles with those of firm., and parallel to those of hope. Its 
development can generally be determined without difficulty, 
yet, as hope is located by its side, it is sometimes difficult 
to determine with certainty to which a given protuberance 

16. HOPE. 

Expectation — anticipation— tendency of mind to contem- 
plate the future with bright expectations of happiness and 

This faculty expects to obtain and enjoy what the other 
faculties desire. This it does without basing this expectation 
upon any other grounds than the mere impression that things 
will happen as the individual desires that they should hap- 
pen. By promising the continuance, and even the increase, 
of present enjoyments, by diminishing the quantity and the 
bitterness of present sufferings, and by predicting that the 
burden will be lightened, or that sorrows will be turned 
into joys, it adds greatly to the sweetness and the fullness of 
die cup of human happiness; and by representing things 
as much more desirable, and more easily obtained, than 
they really are, it contributes greatly to enterprise and ef- 
fort. How many things do the fair promises of hope indue* 



as to undertake, and firmness, to carry through, when, with 
out hope, the undertaking would be scouted, and, without 
firmness, abandoned. 

This faculty not only embraces within its range, the present 
state of existence, but, leaping the dark chasm of death, it 
revels in the prospect of bliss beyond the shores of time, as 
those in whom it is large, generally believe in a future state 
of existence. 

Its function is, expectation in general— ■a, vivid and intense 
glow of delight in the mere anticipation of future happiness 
and success : and the beauty of its manifestation is, that the 
individual p] aces almost as much confidence in the promises and 
allurements of this faculty, as he does in the conclusions ol 
reason or experience. 

Large. — One having hope large, will contemplate the 
future with high expectations of happiness, and dwell upon 
his projects and his prospects with sanguine anticipations o! 
success; will magnify advantages, and diminish obstacles 
will dwell upon the fairer side of prospects, and take only a 
slight glance at discouraging circumstances ; will be likely 
to promise himself and others much more than is reasonable ; 
will be cheerful, lively, and sanguine ; will feast upon the prom 
ises of hope; will overlook past and present disappointments 
and troubles, in the brighter visions of the future ; and, though 
subject to frequent discouragements, will still indulge his 
hope, forgetting the past, and pressing onward to the future. 

One having hope large, with only full cautious., will hope 
much more than fear, yet, with caus. large, will seldom al- 
low his hopes to hurry him into imprudent measures ; but, 
with the addition of large or very large combat., firm., self e., 
and ideal., will seem to be imprudent, especially when in 
pursuit of some most desirable object, yet his forethought 
and judgment will not only guard against misfortune, but 
secure success, even though he will seem to be very impru- 
dent, and when hope is excited, even hazardous : with only 
moderate caus. and cautious., may sometimes attempt impos- 
sibilities, and, with only full caus. and cautious., improbabili- 
ties with very large cautious., will never expose himself 
to any of those dangers or losses which can be fore seen or 
provided against, even though he might thereby gain the 
more; will keep upon ths safe side of things, and risk but 
little, yet will anticipate and attempt considerable : with firm, 
and self-e. large or very large, will rise above trouble ana 


adversity, confidently expecting that the scale will soon turn 
in his favour ; will lay many new plans ; form many new pro- 
jects ; and be prone to try experiments; yet, if concent, is small, 
will frequently change or vary them : with self-e. large or 
very large, and only full caus., will feel himself capable of 
attempting and effecting great things ; think that he can sue 
ceed much better than others ; and thus often attempt wha 
he cannot accomplish ; yet will not learn, even by repeated 
disappointments, that he can do no more than others ; but 
with very large caus. and compar., and large intellectual or- 
gans generally, will hope for great things, yet hope within 
the bounds of reason ; like De Witt Clinton, will be capable 
of projecting some stupendous work, and, also, of devising 
the means for accomplishing it ; and will seldom or never 
fail in his projects, &c. 

Very large. — One having hope very large, mil literally 
revel in the bright anticipations of those enjoyments which 
fee fancies are before him ; and view the future with so high 
expectations as to be dissatisfied with the present, be it ever 
so satisfactory ; will always live in the future, and long for 
its arrival ; and thus often misimprove the present. 

One having hope very large, with cautious, and caus. only 
full, will be always in chase of some new and desirable 
object in prospect; will have too many irons in the fire at 
once; attempt too much, and things which are even chi- 
merical; will look upon even difficult attainments as very 
easy ; be subject to frequent disappointments, yet neither disap- 
pointments nor misfortunes will damp the ardour of his hope ; 
will be always upon tiptoe of expectation — always sanguine, 
cheerful, and lively, and, with large mirth., merry ; be con- 
stantly building castles in the air ; and hazardous in his un- 
dertakings: with large self-e., will think himself adequate to 
almost any undertaking : with large or very large benev., will 
promise much more than he can fulfil, yet, with large conscien., 
and only moderate secret, will make his promises with the best 
intentions, and feel sorry that he cannot fulfil them : with 
very large cautious., will be tantalized with hopes and fears, 
and have the highest anticipations, accompanied with suffi- 
cient solicitude to cause him to proceed with great care and 
deliberation, yet, with large combat., will combine discretion 
with energy: with only moderate acquis., and only full cau- 
tious., will live on, enjoying the present, and think that the 
future will take ample care of itself; and that plans will 



Buece<id to hii* utmost desire, even with very little effort, so 
that he will be predisposed to a life of ease, and idleness, and 
pleasure; and, with very large ideal., amat, and adhes. added 
to this combination, will be disposed to revelry and profli 
gacy, and will be a spendthrift. 

The combinations under hope large, modified by an in- 
rease of the influence of hope, will be found applicable to 
nope very large. In this case, as in many other similar 
ones, the reader is requested to exercise his own organ of 

Full. — One having hope full, will be reasonable in his 
expectations, and yet be spurred on by them to attempt import- 
ant undertakings ; will be cheerful, yet seldom elated with 
hope, &c. One having hope full, with large or very large cau- 
tious., will forebode more evil than good, and endure pre 
sent troubles well, yet live in dread of apprehended misfor- 
tunes ; but, with the addition of large or very large caus. and 
compar., will be pre-eminently judicious ; calculate with accu- 
racy ; realize about what he expects ; seldom be led astray 
by favourable prospects ; rely more upon the dictates of rea- 
son than the promises of hope; and, in the long run, succeed 
far beyond his expectations, and accomplish more than most 
others : with large or very large acquis., may make great 
calculations upon amassing wealth, because his love of riches 
will be so great ; and so of the other faculties that are large. 

The additional manifestations of hope full, will be inter- 
mediate between hope large, and hope moderate, and the op- 
posite of hope small. See combinations under hope large, 
modified by a diminution of hope. 

Moderate. — One having hope moderate, will expect too 
little rather than too much; make few promises, either to 
himself or to others ; will not be sanguine, nor have a high 
flow of animal spirits, &c. One having hope moderate, 
with large or very large cautious., will anticipate the worst 
rather than the best; fear much more than hope; generally 
realize more than he calculates upon ; dwell more upon the dis- 
couraging features of the case, than upon its encouraging pros- 
pects: with large or very large conscien., ven., and cautious., 
if a professing Christian, will have many doubts and fears 
as to his future condition, and lack Christian faith: with the 
propensities only moderate, will not be likely unaided, to un- 
dertake and prosecute with vigour, every important pro- 
ject, yet, with large firm., may hold on and persevere wheaa 



ne is once finally embarked, and is fully committed : with 
large or very large caus. and compar., may be sure of ot 
taining his ends, but will be so because he sees by what 
means they are to be brought about, &c. 

Small. — One having hope small, in addition to the man- 
ifestations described under hope moderate, will be hardly 
capable of having his hopes raised by the brightest prospects, 
and take little delight in contemplating the future: with 
large or very large cautious., and only moderate or full com- 
bat, and self-e., will be easily discouraged; generally fancy 
that he sees some lion in the way ; dwell chiefly upon the 
darker shades of the picture; brood over misfortune; borrow 
a great deal of trouble, even in prosperity ; fear to undertake 
or risk much, lest he should fail ; lack enterprise, and elas- 
ticity and buoyancy of spirits ; indulge, and even delight to 
indulge, melancholy feelings, &c. : with only moderate mirth, 
and large ven. and conscien., will be sober, sedate, and often 
cast down, if not ascetick : with large or very large combat, 
firm., self-e., and caus., may manifest a high degree of sta* 
bility and energy of character when once fully embarked in 
an undertaking; yet, unless actually obliged to undertake 
important operations, will shrink from them : with very large 
cautious., conscien., and ven., and only full self-e., will look 
upon the Deity with the strongest impressions of his justice, 
and holiness, and majesty, and be in great fear of offend- 
ing him, accompanied with little hope of the pardon of his 
sins, and with the most pungent feelings of remorse, and the 
most dismal forebodings, and fearful apprehensions, of future 
punishment, if not with actual despair. Thus we perceive, 
that they who have the most to fear in this matter, actually 
fear the least, and that they who have the least to fear, feai 
the most. The additional manifestations and combinations of 
hope small, will be found under hope moderate, and others 
may be ascertained by reversing the description of hope large. 

Very small. — When this organ is very small, its func- 
tions are too weak and too feeble to have very perceptible influ- 
ence upon the character, or to be experienced by the subject. 

The objects upon which hope fastens, will be determined 
by its combinations. One having full, large, or very large 
hope, for example, with small acquis., and large or very large 
philopro., will indulge the highest expectations concerning his 
children, yet exercise very little about property as such : with 
large approbat., and only moderate or small religious organs, 



will hope for distinction and fame ; yet his hopes will he con- 
fined chiefly to this life, and he will bz skeptical concerning 
another state of existence, &c. Thus it is, that hope acts with 
the greatest vigour upon those things which are the objects 
of the desires of the other faculties. Hence, some individuals 
are very sanguine about some things, while their hopes flag 
in relation to other things. 

Location. — Hope is located upon the two sides of the 
a?iteriour portion of firm., in front of conscien., and behind 
marvel., being elongated in the direction of the ears. 


Wonder — credulity — disposition to believe tchat is not 
proved, or what are considered supernatural manifestations., 
Sfc. — to regard with wonder and astonishment tha t which is 
somewhat strange or singular. 

There are things, the evidence of which the human mind 
;s incapable of grasping, and which must therefore be taken 
jpon trust, or, what is the same thing, which must be the ob- 
jects of credulity. Hence the necessity of some faculty, 
through the door of which such truths as are beyond the 
reach of reason or of observation, can be admitted to the 

It cannot be denied, that there exists a tendency in the hu- 
man mind to view things, as it were, through the medium of 
extravagance and wonder; to magnify uncommon phenome- 
na, or to regard them as supernatural ; to believe the mere 
declarations of others, even though they may be strangers, 
&c. This tendency of mind is more apparent in chil- 
dren than in adults. They listen with delightful astonish- 
ment to tales of wonder, and implicitly believe what is told 
them, even after they have been repeatedly deceived. With- 
out this faculty, they could be instructed no farther than their 
extremely limited observation, or their still feebler reasoning 
faculties, could demonstrate the truths presented to their 

It is by no means certain that this faculty is not adapted, 
among other things, to a belief in those portions of Revela- 
tion which are attributed to a supernatural agency, and that 
it is calculated to increase religious zeal and fervour. At 
least, it prepares the mind for a reception of some of those 
doctrines ♦.aught in the Bible, which reason does not te&cfa, 



because it cannot comprehend, and which can be believed 
only " by faith." By creating a love of the wonderful and 
the novel, marvel, is calculated to lead the way to many 
valuable improvements. 

Large. — One having large marvel., with large ven., will 
readily believe in special providences, the interposition of di 
vine agency, &c, and regard many things as providential 
which can be readily accounted for upon other principles: 
with full or large ideal., will gaze with surprise upon mag- 
nificent objects, and possess a wondering frame of mind: 
with large event, and ideal., will be passionately fond of 
hearing or perusing marvellous accounts, hair-breadth 
escapes, and such mysterious relations as are contained in 
Sir Walter Scott's writings, and in works of fiction gene- 
rally and be liable to be greatly injured by this kind of read- 
ing : with large or very large ven. and conscien., will be 
naturally inclined to believe in supernatural manifestations, 
in dreams, signs, lucky and unlucky days, &c. ; place impli 
:h confidence in every part of Revelation, and in what is told 
him by his religious teachers ; will contemplate the charac- 
ter and the works of the Creator with mingled emotions of 
awe and astonishment; be zealous and enthusiastick in his 
religious belief and practice, if he is not bordering upon re- 
ligious enthusiasm and extravagance ; and, with the addition 
of large cautious., will be afraid of ghosts, of staying in 
houses said to be haunted, &c. ; may even fancy that he has 
seen supernatural appearances, and, with only moderate se- 
cret, added, can be easily hoaxed and imposed upon by stories 
about witchcraft, &c. : with large or very large approbat, 
lang., event., and imitat., will be even enthusiastick in re- 
lating wonderful anecdotes concerning himself and his rela 
lives ; in narrating hair-breadth escapes, astonishing feats of 
dexterity, &c, &c. ; and will describe even common occurren- 
ces as very extraordinary : with large or very large conscien. 
and benev, and only moderate secret., will place perfect con- 
fidence in what is told him, even though it be extravagant ; 
pin his faith upon the sleeve of others ; seldom doubt the 
word of others ; and take things for granted without exam 
ining them for himself : with large or very large conscien., 
ideal., compar., and ven., will be likely to "fancy that he dis- 
covers a striking resemblance between the prophecies of 
Scripture and particular events, and also between spiritual 
and temporal things ; will imagine that he sees the special 




hand of divine Providence in almost every event of his life; 
believe that God often manifests his will in a miraculous 
manner ; be likely to experience what seems to him a re- 
markable, religious conversion, attended vith many subse- 
quent religious impressions which are extraordinary; and will 
have wonderful and ecstatick views of the character and the 
works of the Deity, &c. ; and, with large caus. added to this 
combination, like Swedenburgh, will adduce wonderful theo- 
ries to account for curious natural phenomena, and reason in a 
very extravagant manner : with large or very large cautious, 
and individ., will be likely to experience optical illusions, 
fancying that he sees ghosts, spectres, hideous shapes, &c, 
when the appearance may be caused by an indistinct vision 
of some natural object : with large or very large hope, ideal, 
imitat., lang., event., and compar., will delight and excel in 
relating marvellous stories, wonderful tales, " fish-stories," 
&c, which he will generally augment, and always adapt to 
the occasion. 

Very large. — One having very large marvel., with only 
moderate secret., will take for granted whatever is told him, 
however inconsistent it may be ; seem greatly astonished ai 
almost every thing which is a little uncommon, as thougll 
something mysterious had happened ; will religiously believe 
in supernatural agents and interpositions, the doctrine of 
ghosts, witchcraft, and in signs, the fulfilment of dreams, &c. 
Additional descriptions and combinations of very large mar 
vel., will be found under large marvel., especially when they 
have been modified by an increase of the influence of marvel. 

In Sir Walter Scott, this organ was large, accompanied 
with a very large and an active brain, very large imitat., lang., 
compar., and local., and large or very large intellectual, mo 
ral, and domestick organs generally, which gave him those 
unequalled powers of conception and description which he 
possessed, and thus furnishes an additional proof of the truth 
of phrenology, whilst his writings afford one of the very best 
illustrations of such a combination of faculties anywhere to 
be found. 

Full. — One having full marvel., will have a mind open 
to conviction, and possess sufficient credulity in what is pre- 
sented to his mind, to give it an examination, yet cannot be 
satisfied without considerable proof ; will require a good de- 
gree of evidence in order to produce entire conviction, yet 
will rest satisfied with less evidence, both in degree and 



amount, than he would if possessed of smaller marvel., and 
will not so thoroughly canvass the evidence presented to his 
mind: with only full caus., will frequently advance insuffi 
cient reasons for his belief, and believe without fully under- 
standing the grounds of his belief: with the religious organs 
generally full, large, or very large, may possess much relig- 
ious faith, and unhesitatingly believe in the truth of Reve- 
laiion, in special, divine providences, &c, and also be quite 
zealous as a Christian : with large or very large caus. and 
compar., on the first presentation of a subject, may believe 
upon insufficient data, yet will afterwards more closely exam- 
ine why and wherefore, he believes as he does, investigate the 
proof upon which his belief is founded, and reject that which 
will not stand the test of close investigation : with large or 
very large ideal., will feast his fancy, and revel in such fairy 
tales as the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, in the novels 
of Sir Walter Scott, and in fictitious works generally ; find it 
difficult to divest himself of a partial belief in them, and be 
liable to be injured, not only by perusing works of this class, 
but, also, in the revellings of his own fancy. 

The descriptions and combinations under large marvel., 
with a reduction of the influence of marvel., will apply to 
full marvel., as Avill also those under moderate marvel, when 
they are reversed. 

Moderate. — One having moderate marvel., cannot yield 
a full assent to things which are a little extraordinary or un- 
accountable, unless they are supported by evidence which is 
quite satisfactory, both in kind and amount, and will have 
many doubts as to the truth of what he hears. One having 
moderate marvel., with large or very large caus. and corn- 
par., will be hard to be convinced of the truth of that for 
which a satisfactory reason, or full explanation, cannot be 
rendered ; can be readily convinced by appeals made to his 
understanding; and, with only moderate perceptive facul- 
ties, may even question the evidence of his own senses, or, 
at least, attempt to account for uncommon phenomena upon 
such principles as are already admitted ; and, with the addi- 
tion of large or very large firm, and self-e., can be convinced 
only with extreme difficulty ; will, in a measure, close the 
doors of his mind against the admission of new facts or 
truths, and, with only moderate ven. added to this combina- 
tion, will not be likely to believe in the authority of great 
names, nor admit the correctness of opinions or customs 



upon the ground that they have been long established; nor 
make " ipse dixits" a part of his creed : with large or very 
large conscien., ven., and hope, may believe in the existence 
of a God, in the forewarnings, and interposition, and guidance 
of a special, divine providence, in a future state of existence, 
in Revelation, and the doctrines of Christianity, because his 
moral feelings will harmonize with these views ; and, with 
the addition of large or very large compar. and caus., may 
believe in the doctrines of Christianity, because they seem 
consistent and reasonable, yet not because he has been told 
that the one or the other doctrine is true ; upon religious 
subjects, will have views of his own, and think for himself; 
in common matters, which are disconnected with religion, 
will believe no farther than can be consistently explained, but 
may believe in the doctrines taught by religion, as articles of 
faith merely: but, with only moderate conscien. and ven., will 
no sooner believe the doctrines of religion, farther than he can 
see them proved, than he will any other doctrines ; be natu- 
rally skeptical, if not infidel, as to his religious creed ; trou- 
ble himself little about matters of this kind ; and consider zea. 
in religion as fanaticism, &c. : with only moderate secret., and 
large or very large adhes., benev., and conscien., will implicit- 
ly believe what is told him by a tried friend, and place quite 
too much confidence in the integrity and honesty of his fel 
low men, yet not believe reports of common fame, nor those 
new doctrines or statements which seem to him improbable: 
will put no confidence in signs, dreams, or supernatural ap- 
pearances, and will even ridicule those who do ; thus seeming 
to himself, and to others, as both credulous anc' i?ir redifous . 
with large or very large ideal., in'livid., and event., may be 
extremely fond of reading 'vo - ks of fiction, yet will not be- 
lieve them, &c. 

Small. — One having small marvel., will reject as untrue, 
whatever things are presented to his mind unsupported by 
demonstration, or, at least, by an abundance of the strongest 
kind of proof; will be very incredulous in regard to almost 
every thing new or uncommon ; and will receive facts and 
truths into his mind chiefly through the door of his other 
faculties. One having small marvel., with large or very 
large caus., must know upon what principles of reason, or 
of cause and effect, those things are to he explained, of the 
truth of which he is to be convinced ; will scrutinize closely 
erery point of the argument, and be convinced only oy an 



overwhelming mass of evidence ; and even then, for a iong 
time, his mind will refuse its full assent : with large or very 
large individ., will wish to possess some tangible evidence 
upon which to rest his belief ; and, with the perceptive facul 
ties strong, to see before he can believe : with large or very 
large self-e., and moral and reasoning organs, if religiously 
educated, may, perhaps, believe in Revelation, and the fun da 
mental doctrines of Christianity, yet will often have his 
doubts as to the truth of these matters ; will have religious 
views peculiar to himself; put no more confidence in what 
lie is taught by religious instructers, than he does in what 
he is taught by other men ; and have a religious creed of his 
own, especially in its details : with only moderate or small 
conscien. and ven., will have no door to his mind for the re- 
ception of moral and religious truths; doubt the truth of 
Revelation; reject the doctrines of Christianity; and be natu* 
rally inclined to skepticism, fatalism, and deism, if not athe- 
ism, &c. 

The descriptions and combinations under marvel, mode- 
rate, will generally apply to marvel, small, especially after 
a diminution of the influence of marvel. The descriptions 
and combinations under marvel, large, reversed, will also 
apply to marvel, small. The'same principle holds good in 
reference to all the other organs. 

Very small. — One having marvel, very small, will 
doubt almost every thing, and fully believe scarcely any 
thing ; will even doubt the evidence of his own senses, and 
be almost unwilling to say that he positively knows any 
thing, and much less any thing pertaining to religion, &c. 

Location. — Marvel, is located on the two sides of ven., 
between imitat. and hope. It runs lengthwise in the di- 
rection of the coronal sutures, and lies nearly under them, 
Very large imitat., throws it as far back as the middle of the 

The authors have seen many interesting examples of ex- 
treme developments, and of extreme deficiencies, of this organ, 
some of which will be presented in a subsequent portion of 
the work. In the American head, it is generally moderate or 
small, while in the English head, it is frequently large. In 
many very zealous preachers, they have found it large. In 
Methodists, this organ, and ven., and adhes., are generally full, 
large, or very large, while in Campoelites all these organs 
ere generally only moderate or sinal'., In the so-called new 



measure Presbyterians, it is generally small, while conscien. 
and benev. are generally large or very large. In Roman 
Cathclicks, marvel, and ven., are generally large or very 


Sentiment of adoration and worship for the Supreme Be- 
ing — reverence for what is considered above us — respect for 
superiority, Spc. 

That there exists in the human mind a disposition to " wor- 
ship God," and that this disposition constitutes one of the 
strongest of the human passions, are matters of universal his- 
tory and observation. Strike from the page of history, and 
from the customs of society, every thing pertaining to religion, 
or, rather, every thing connected with the worship of deified 
beings, and the unity, and even identity, of the whole would 
be destroyed. In producing this religious feeling and wor- 
ship, education, doubtless, has its influence ; but still they must 
be the exercise of some faculty of the mind. Education evi- 
dently cannot create this feeling. As well might we attempt 
to educate a man to speak who possessed no organs of speech, 
or to see without eyes — as well try to teach the brute crea- 
tion to worship God, as to attempt to teach man to worship 
when destitute of a faculty by which to exercise this feeling 
or even to conceive what it means. 

This class of functions is distinct and homogeneous ; anc 
if the mental economy requires a separate faculty for the 
exercise of any distinct class of functions, analogy shows 
us that this class, equally with any and every other class, 
must also be exercised by a distinct faculty. The history 
and the manifestations of this faculty, prove that the functions 
ascribed to it, are always reciprocally proportionate to the 
developments of a given portion of the brain. If, therefore, 
there is any truth in phrenology, the sentiment of worship 
for a Supreme Being, must be admitted to be the exercise of a 
distinct mental faculty — a faculty which is innate, and which, 
therefore, forms a constituent portion of the human mind. 
That the worship of a Supreme Being constitutes the pri 
mary, the legitimate, and the chief object of this faculty, is 
rendered abundantly evident by a reference to its nature, its 
discovery, its history, and the whole tenour of its manifesta 
tions j and that a reverence for those who are considered su 



periours, such as parents, the aged, the talented, the titled Ac., 
is only an incidental manifestation of ven., is rendered equal- 
ly evident by a similar reference. 

This faculty also throws the mind into a deferential frame, 
md creates a feeling of respect for all. 

Large. — One having large, ven., will think of the Deity 
only with feelings of awe, if not of devotion ; has a strong 
religious tendency of mind, and, indeed, can hardly be con- 
tented without some kind of religion ; pays great respect to 
the religious opinions of others ; always treats those whom 
he considers his superiours in age, standing, talents, &c. 
with deference, and his equals with respect ; and will never 
make light of what he considers true religion, nor of the 
Supreme Being. 

One having large ven., with large or very large adhes. 
and conscien., will experience a high degree of enjoyment in 
social meetings for religious worship and exercises ; will ear- 
nestly desire the conversion and salvation of his friends, and, 
with large philopro. added, of his children, and will pray 
earnestly for these objects; and, with the addition of mode- 
rate or small concent, will be exceedingly annoyed in his 
devotions, by the intrusion of wandering thoughts, against 
which he will strive, and for which his conscien. will con- 
demn him ; will find it exceedingly difficult to keep his mind 
fixed upon the prayer or sermon ; greatly prefer short pray- 
ers and sermons, and greatly dislike those that are prolix ; 
and will give variety to his religious exercises, and detest 
those that are monotonous or tedious: with large combat., 
will defend his religious opinions with great warmth and 
spirit, and contend earnestly for their advancement; and, -with 
destruct. also large, will be liable to employ considera- 
ble severity and harshness of expression ; with the addition 
of large or very large firm, and self-e., and of only full be- 
aev., will be much set, and somewhat bigoted, in his religious 
opinions and practices ; esteem his own sect, creed, and forma 
of worship, far more than he does any other, and even b/indly 
and tenaciously adhere to them, and denounce those who 
differ from him: with only moderate firm., large ideal, and 
hope, and full or large marvel., will be apt frequently to 
change his religious opinions and connexions, yet will be 
zealous as a Christian: with large secret., acquis., and appro 
bat., and only moderate conscien., if he pay any regard a? 
all to religion, ■ vill be likely to make great pretensions to 



piety; put on a fair outside show of religion; and connect 
himself with some popular religious denomir ation, yet will 
possess very little practical piety and every -day religion; 
will have the " form of godliness without its power will 
neglect duty, disregard justice, violate moral principle, and 
take shelter under the cloak of his religious pretensions ; 
will be a worldling all the week, yet a very strict Christian 
on the Sabbath, &c. : with moderate conscien. and small mar- 
vel., will not be likely to experience much religious venera- 
tion ; and may be even infidel in his religious creed ; but his 
ven. will be directed towards his parents, the aged, the tal- 
ented, the patriotick, or, it may be, his superiours in rank, 
office, and station: with large or very large conscien., benev., 
caus., and compar., will delight to study the character and 
the works, and contemplate the perfections, of the Deity; 
will be a consistent, every-day Christian ; rejoice to see the 
advancement of true religion, and labour zealously and ju- 
diciously to effect it ; impart an uncommon degree of fer- 
vour and warmth of feeling to his religious exercises, and 
take great delight in them ; adopt consistent religious opin- 
ions and practices, and be an honour to the Christian name, 
both in life and doctrine, &c. 

Very large. — One having very large ven., with con- 
scien. large or very large, will make every thing subservient 
to his religious views and feelings; will experience great 
awe upon the contemplation of God, and manifest great fer- 
vour and intense feeling while engaged in religious worship 
and exercises, and take hi? chief delight in them ; be pre- 
eminent for piety and religious fervour ; will make the wor- 
ship and the service of his Creator the paramount object of 
his life, and be liable to become over-zealous, if not enthusi- 
astick, in his religious feelings and views. 

The combinations under large ven., modified by an in 
crease of the influence of ven., will apply to very large ven. ; 
and the combinations and descriptions under moderate or 
email ven. reversed, will also apply to it. 

Full. — One having full ven., will pay a suitable respetA 
to religion, and will worship his Creator with sincere devo 
tion, yet will not be particularly devout. One having fun 
ven., with large or very large conscien. and benev., will be 
pve-eminently religious, and, perhaps, make religion the 
great object of his life, yet his religion will be characterized 
by a r:gard for moral principle, a desire to do good, &c* 



more than by a regard for religious worship, creeds, and 
ceremonies ■ will place a much higher estimate upon the du- 
ties and the first principles of religion, than he will upon 
any external observances : with conscien. and marvel, only 
moderate or small, will not be likely to pay much regard to 
religion of any kind, or, if he does, will be satisfied with the 
name and the forms of religious worship, &c. 

The additional manifestations and combinations of full ven., 
may be inferred from those under large ven., by diminishing 
the influence of ven. 

Moderate. — One having moderate ven., will not be par- 
ticularly religious, nor very zealous in his religious observ- 
ance; will not manifest a great deal of deference towards 
superiours, nor impart a great degree of warmth or fervour 
to his devotional performances. One having moderate ven., 
with large or very large conscien. and benev., if religiously 
educated, will maintain a consistent, religious walk, and " do 
works meet for repentance," yet will pay comparatively 
little regard to religious creeds and observances; will be 
likely to be very zealous in reforming the world, and in 
"converting men from the errour of their ways," yet will 
despise sectarianism, and regard only the " weightier matters 
of the law;" will make great sacrifices in order to do good, 
promote pure morality, and prevent sin, yet will not be par- 
ticularly devout ; will make the chief burden of his petitions 
to the throne of grace, consist in confessions of sin, and suppli- . 
cations for his fellow men, rather than in adoration and wor- 
ship ; will follow the dictates of his own conscience, even 
though they oblige him to forsake "the good old way," 
and adopt new measures ; will think more of doing good 
than of attending religious meetings ; will live an upright, 
and consistent, Christian life, and perform all the essentials 
of religion, yet will pay little or no attention to meats and 
drinks, &c. 

Small. — One having small ven., will experience but lit 
tie feeling of devotion, or love of religious worship, as such; 
will manifest little feeling of deference or respect for pa- 
rents, teachers, or superiours; and be deficient in the heart, 
and soul, and fervour, of devotion ; will not be very pious, 
nor at all particular in observing religious ceremonies, nor 
particularly impressed with a feeling of solemnity and awe, 
while engaged in religious exercises, &c. 

One having small ven., with moderate or small conscien 



and marvel., will have very little regard for religion ; seldom, 
if ever, attend religious meetings ; and when he does attend 
mem, will go from other than devotional feelings ; will be 
very little affected by solemn or religious exercises, or by ap- 
peals to his conscience, or to his fear of offending God ; be in- 
fluenced but little by the restraints of religion ; doubt almost 
every thing connected with religious belief ; be irreverent, 
irreligious, unprincipled, and skeptical ; and, with large mirth, 
and imitat. added, inclined to ridicule religious people and re- 
ligious services by imitating or mocking them ; and, with 
large combat., destruct., and self-e. also added, will oppose 
every thing pertaining to religion ; denounce it either as a 
delusion, or as a humbug, by which designing men impose 
upon the simple and the unsuspecting. 

The descriptions and combinations under moderate ven., 
after due allowance has been made for the diminished influ- 
ence of ven., will apply to ven. small. 

The office of ven. is simply to reverence and worship that 
which the other faculties select as the proper objects of its 

It has been already remarked, that its primary and legiti • 
mate object is, the worship of a Supreme Being, yet, as in 
the case of conscien., the other faculties, education, &c, modify 
the notions entertained of the character of the being to be wor- 
shipped. For example ; one having full, large, or very large 
ven., with a deficiency of the intellectual faculties, will be 
likely to regard the Deity as exercising the various human 
passions, and swayed by human prejudices, and to worship 
him accordingly : with large or very large self-e. and firm., 
as an omnipotent Sovereign, clothed with authority, immuta- 
ble and unchangeable, and ruling his creatures " according 
fo his own will :" with full or large destruct., firm., and self-e., 
and large or very large conscien., benev., and adhes., will re- 
gard him as " a God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, 
.and abundant in goodness and truth, and who will by no 
means clear the guilty ;" as perfectly holy himself, and, also; 
as requiring holiness of all his creatures ; as creating and 
governing his moral subjects with a special reference to their 
greatest ultimate good, and, in doing this, as rewarding those 
who obey his commands, and punishing such as disobey; as 
blending mercy with justice; or, rather, as infinitely benev- 
olent, yet as a God who will " not let the wicked go unpun- 
ished:" with veiy large benev., only moderate or full con- 



gcien., combat., and destruct., will consider the Deity toe 
benevolent and too merciful to punish the wicked : with large 
ideal., will fancy that he sees him clothed with splendour, 
and, while contemplating the beautiful, the perfect, or thfl 
sublime in the works of nature, will worship him with a tt ' 
vid glow of devotion: with large or very large individ., for*u, 
size, and local., will contemplate the Deity as possessed of 
form and size, a local habitation, &c. : with large or very 
large caus. and compar., will view God as the great first-cause 
of all things, and as effecting his purposes by means of causes 
and effects ; and, with the intellectual faculties generally 
large, as possessed of all possible wisdom and intelligence, 
and as governing his universe in accordance with the great 
principles of reason: with very large adhes. and benev., as a 
God of great sympathy and love ; and, with very large phi- 
lopro. added, as acting the part of a tender parent to his crea- 
tures, and as entering, with a feeling of tenderness, into all 
their little joys and sorrows : with very large destruct. and 
combat., and educated in uncivilized society, as capable of 
being propitiated by the sacrifice of human or animal vie 
tims, &c. 

According to this principle of phrenology, (which is con- 
sidered as established,) one with the moral and the intellectu- 
al organs large or very large, and the propensities full, and 
all unperverted in their education and exercise, will form cor- 
rect views of the character, attributes, and government ol 
God, and worship him with pure and acceptable worship. 
This is rendered the more evident from the fact, that the views 
entertained of God by different nations and different individ- 
uals, with the exception of the influence of association and 
education, generally correspond with their phrenological or- 
ganizations. Consequently, if an individual possesses a 
well-balanced, and a perfectly developed, phrenological organ- 
ization, his views of the character, the attributes, and the gov- 
ernment of God, must therefore be proportionally the more 
consistent and correct. 

This same conclusion is also strengthened by the principle 
of adaptation already alluded to. The mind of man must be 
eonstructed in perfect accordance Avith those great principles 
which regulate the structure of the whole universe, and the 
moral faculties of man's mind, in accordance with the moral 
censtitution and relations of things. Consequently, the mind 
©f man must be so formed as naturally to view his Creator 



through the medium of truth, and to form only correct no 
tions of him. 

This harmonizes perfectly with the doctrine taught by the 
great Apostle of the Gentiles, when he says, that " the Gen- 
tiles, who have not the law," that is, who are destitute of Rev- 
elation, " are a law unto themselves," and "show the works 
of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bear- 
ing them witness." Not that a divine revelation is unneces- 
sary, but, that phrenology opens up to our view another rev- 
elation, to wit, a revelation of natural theology, which per 
fectly harmonizes with that which is given by inspiration — 
a volume which every man carries, or should carry, within 
his own breast, and which " he that runs may read." 

Location. — Ven. is located anteriour to firm., in the mid- 
dle of the top of the head, and nearly beneath the union of 
the coronal sutures. 


Desire for the happiness of others — sympathy, compassion- - 
kindness, fellow-feeling, benignity. 

By creating in the breast of man, an interest in the welfare 
of his fellow-men, this faculty prompts its possessor to per- 
form those innumerable acts of kindness and generosity 
which, by gratifying his benev., greatly increase the happi- 
ness of the giver, and, by adding new comforts to those al- 
ready possessed, proportionally enlarge the enjoyments of the 
receiver. Though it is blessed to receive, it is still "more 
blessed to give than to receive." 

Let us suppose, for a moment, that every vestige of this 
feeling were blotted out from among men — let us suppose the 
human breast to be callous to the cries of suffering innocence, 
steeled against the wants and miseries of the world, and per 
fectly insensible to the happiness or unhappiness of all c:<> 
ated beings, and what a picture of moral desolation — whaf $ 
frigid region of suffering and sorrow, should we have p 
sented to our view ! Wrapped in his cold cloak of seizors 
ness, man might, perhaps, endure existence, but an exist? *c# 
to which annihilation would be preferable. Never to 
or receive, a favour, to say nothing of the mutual advau 
accruing to mankind from the principle of helping one an Jin- 
er, he would, of course, be a perfect stranger to the delightful 
■nd thrill/'iir emotion of gratitude, either to God or man. 



Let us suppose, in addition, that none of this feeling had 
entered into the Divine Mind, and that, in the construction 
of our bodies, and in the arrangement of the physica. a», 
the intellectual world, he had made no reference to, and ; 
stituted no adaptation of, any thing that concerns the hap 
ness either of man or of the brute creation, and existen* 
must have been the greatest of curses. But, on the contra- 
ry, we perceive that every possible arrangement and adapta- 
tion which could be devised by infinite wisdom and skill, 
prompted by infinite benevolence, and aided by infinite pow 
er, have been contrived by that adorable Being whose benef- 
icence knows no bounds. Every work of God is a perfectly 
benevolent work, planned and executed evidently with a view 
to secure the greatest amount of happiness to his creatures : 
and this fact incontestably proves, that the feeling of benev- 
olence enters largely into the Divine Mind. Even those 
pains which follow the burning, bruising, or otherwise in- 
juring of the body, whilst they are so many instances of di- 
vine punishment for sin, are, at the same time, a most benev- 
olent ordination, evidently designed and calculated to prevent 
those injuries and mutilations which would otherwise mar 
the beauty, and destroy the utility, of our corporeal frame : 
and if these punishments are a benevolent ordination, anal- 
ogy sanctions the inference, that all punishments are equally 
benevolent; and, if even punishments are benevolently de- 
signed, surely every other institution throughout the uni- 
verse, must be formed for benevolent ends. This brings us 
to the important conclusion, that all the miseries which man- 
kind endure, are brought by themselves (collectively) upon 
themselves, or, that they "give themselves the pains they 

Since, then, this principle of benevolence thus enters into 
the character and the works of God, and, also, into the whole 
constitution of things, it is evident, both a priori, and upon 
the principle that the human mind is adapted to that universe 
of which it forms a part, that the human mind must be so 
constituted as to appreciate and exercise the function of be- 
nevolence, or, in other words, that there must be some innate 
faculty of the mind adapted to the exercise of this class of 
feelings. That same train of argument which has been 
previously employed to show that other classes of functions 
are exercised by distinct faculties, proves that this class ©f 



functions is likewise exercised by a separate, primary facul- 
ty, created expressly and solely for this purpose. 

Of all the moral organs, this occupies the most prominent 
- portion of the head, and has allotted to it the greatest surface, 
thus apparently implying, that its function is designed to be 
one of the cardinal, human virtues, and that to do good to 
f h.ose around us, is both our privilege and our duty. Yet 
ow frequently is the soothing voice of benevolence drown- 
ed in the din of business, of pleasure, and of fashion ! In- 
deed, to learn to live in, and become a part of, society as it 
now exists, is to learn to be supremely selfish : and to " ac- 
quire a knowledge of the world," is to become acquainted 
with the maxims and the practices dictated by selfishness. 
In the little child, we sometimes see the feeling of benev. 
manifested in its pure state ; but, in adults, how seldom do 
Ave behold it unadulterated by the selfish passions, or un- 
stified by their hoarse clamours! Every thing can be had, 
and every thing done, for money ; but he Avho is dependent 
for support or for happiness solely upon the benevolence of 
mankind, runs but a poor chance of enjoying even the ne- 
cessaries of life. 

This faculty originates that feeling of sympathy which 
manifests itseif in an obliging disposition, and in reciprocal 
interchanges of kind offices, and, also, that feeling of hu- 
manity which willingly makes a sacrifice of personal hap- 
piness in order to relieve the miseries, and promote the 
enjoyment, of others. 

Large. — One having benev. large, in the expression of 
his countenance, in his manners, and in all his intercourse 
with his fellow-men, will manifest a warm and glowing feel- 
ing of kindness and good-will ; enter into the interests of 
others, and do much to advance them ; " rejoice with those 
that do rejoice, and w r eep with those that weep;" and expe- 
rience that strong desire to witness and promote the enjoy- 
ment of his fellow-men which will make him willing, and 
even glad, to sacrifice his own ease and interests in order tc 
alleviate the sufferings, or to augment the comforts, of his 
fellow-men, and even of the brute creation. 

One having benev. large, with large or very large adhes., 
will manifest this feeling to all, and be 'particularly kind and 
obliging to his friends ; will sympathize deeply in their dis- 
tresses or misfortunes, and, with Acquis, only moderate, add lib- 
uality to friendship ; be pre-eminently hospitable; willing to 


do and sacrifice much for those he loves, in serving whom h* 
will often injure himself ; and, with large or very large philo- 
pro. added, will be extremely kind to children, to the infirm, 
the aged, and the destitute, and ready to perform those acts o{ 
kindness which they require, and which sympathy, mingled 
with affection, alone can prompt : with moderate acquis., only 
full approbat. and self-e., and large or very large secret,, 
ideal., and conscien., will proffer his favours in a manner pe 
culiarly modest and delicate : with very large approbat.. and 
only full conscien. and cau3., will do and give partly on ac 
count of the approbation awarded to benevolent actions: with 
large or very large approbat., conscien., and adhes., will give 
partly to please others, and partly to make them happy, 
which union of motives will greatly increase the manifesta 
tions of benev. : with large acquis., will be more kind than lib 
eral ; unless a case of distress strongly excite his benev., win 
give sparingly and grudgingly, yet freely bestow his time, 
services, and whatever does not draw directly upon his acquis.; 
in his sympathy and kind feeling, (which, after all, are the 
better manifestations of this faculty,) will show a large share 
of pure benevolent feeling, yet will generally be considered 
very far from being benevolent ; but, with large or very large 
adhes., and only moderate or small acquis., will be ready to 
help his fellow-men, and particularly his friends, with both 
his services and his substance, ^and be quite too generous for 
his own good : with full or large acquis., and large or very 
large ven. and conscien., may give freely to religious and 
philanthropick societies; to the advancement of missionary 
enterprises ; and in cases of real distress ; but not upon 
other occasions : with only moderate destruct., cannot endure 
to witness suffering or death, nor see pain inflicted without 
experiencing a pang himself: with large combat, and de- 
struct, and an active temperament, will manifest a general 
spirit of mildness and kindness, and, when these organs are 
»j,ot excited, will be much moved at the sight of pain, yet, 
when his anger is thoroughly roused, will even inflict pain 
with delight; except in a fit of passion, will not cause corpo- 
real suffering, yet will be extremely bitter and sarcastick in 
'*:s expressions, and manifest strong indignation and resist- 
ance towards his enemies, and those whom he thinks would 
impose upon him : with large or very large cautious., full 
secret., and only moderate or full destruct., will be careful 
not to do or say any thing designed or calculated to wound 



the feelings of others ; yet, with only moderate secret., will 
often speak before he reflects, and speak in such a manner 
as to injure the feelings even of his best friends, but will 
soon be sorry for it : with large or very large adhes. and 
firm., when he undertakes to help a friend out of trouble, 
will help him effectually ; but, with only moderate or full 
firm., will espouse the cause of a friend with great warmth 
of feeling, which, however, will soon become cool, and leave 
him in a worse predicament than he would have been in 
without his help : with lajge or very large conscicn. and 
caus., will be actuated to do good both by feelings of genu- 
ine benev., and, also, by a sense of duty ; endeavour to make 
men happy by first reforming them and making them virtu- 
ous; and, with large ideal., and only full self-e. added, will 
manifest his benev. in so refined and delicate a manner as 
not to oppress the recipient with a sense of obligation : with 
large or very large mirth., will endeavour to augment the 
enjoyment of all around him by his mirthful effusions, and, 
except when provoked to it, will not be sarcastiek : with 
large or very large self-e., and only moderate or full consci- 
en., will show favours to those who acknowledge their obli- 
gations to him, and render him all the tribute of respect he 
may claim, yet will bestow but few favours upon those who 
wound his pride : with large or very large caus., compar., 
and individ., will lay judicious plans, and employ the best 
means for doing good and relieving distress : take hold of 
benevolent enterprises in the right way, &c. 

Very large. — One having benev. very large, with large 
or very large conscien., will possess, as it were, a deep and 
an overflowing fountain of kind and tender feeling, and have 
a heart full of sympathy and goodness ; cause trouble to 
those around him with great reluctance ; grieve over the 
miseries of mankind, and sacrifice almost any personal com- 
fort and interest upon the altar of his benev. ; be pre-eminent 
for his philanthropy and his real goodness of heart, and ail 
from feelings of disinterested benev.; and, with large ven. 
added, will gladly devote himself and spend his all in pro- 
moting the salvation of his fellow-men, and in advancing the 
cause of humanity and religion : with large or very largo 
adhes., will be likely to ruin himself by assisting his friends, 
and will ask what they want, rather than what he can afford 
to give; and, with large or very large philopro. and consci 
en., will be pre-eminently qualified to endure the fatigues oi 



attending upon the sick ; watch, with the utmost anxiety, 
over a sick friend, and perform ten thousand acts of kindness 
which nothing but the strongest feelings of benev., increased 
by the tenderest feelings of friendship, could suggest or sup- 
port him under ; with only moderate or full destruct. added, 
will be nearly overcome by the sight of suffering or death, 

The combinations and descriptions under benev. large, 
modified by an increase of its influence, will apply to benev. 
very large. 

Full. — One having benev. full, will experience, in a good 
degree, the phenomena described under large benev., yet 
will manifest less active benev. ; not be very willing to make 
personal sacrifices, or waive his own interests, in order to 
oblige others, yet will experience considerable benevolent 
feeling ; and will be more apt to give from selfish motives 
than one with large benev. For example ; one having be 
nev. full, with several of the selfish faculties large or very 
large, and conscien. only full, in general, will first gratify 
these larger organs, even though he must do so at the ex- 
pense of his benev. ; will be habitually more selfish than be- 
nevolent, and seek his own interest, though he thereby in- 
fringe even upon the rights of others : with other large or 
very large organs acting in conjunction with benev., may 
manifest a large share of generosity and liberality; yet, with 
these same, or any other, organs, acting in opposition to his 
benev., will appear to be comparatively destitute of these 
qualities: with approbat. very large, and conscien. only full, 
may give " to be seen of men' 1 and take some pains to show 
others what he has done: with approbat. or self-e., or both, 
large or very large, may give even lavishly, but it will be 
from selfish or mercenary motives : with large or very large 
combat., destruct, firm., and self-e., or approbat., to gain his 
will, may assist in building churches, and in advancing good 
objects, yet the feeling of pure benev. will be only secon- 

Moderate. — One having benev. moderate, will, perhaps, 
ao favours which cost him little or no self-denial, yet will 
exercise but little sympathy for his suffering fellow-men, and 
seldom step aside from his own selfish pursuits in order to 
relieve their distresses, or increase their enjoyment j and ex- 
perience but few benevolent remonstrances or promptings. 

The manifestations and the combinations described under 



benev. large, reversed, will apply to benev. moderate, and, 
also, to benev. small ; and those under benev. small, due al 
lowance being made for the increase of benev., will also ap 
p.y to benev. moderate. 

Small. — One having benev. small, will seldom disoblige 
himself in order to oblige others ; seldom think or care how 
much loss or inconvenience he subjects others to; and, with 
any or all of the selfish organs large or very large, be selfish 
in the extreme ; and seek, exclusively, the gratification of his 
own selfish passions, regardless of the consequences to oth- 
ers : with large or very large combat, and destruct., will not 
only, not be moved to pity by the sight of suffering and 
death, but even take delight in witnessing and causing 
them : with large or very large adhes., may love ardently, 
yet will never add kindness to affection, &c. 

The combinations and descriptions under benev. large or 
very large, reversed, will apply to benev. small. 

Very small. — One having benev. very small, will never 
feel his heart beat with the emotion of pity; never heed the 
most heart-rending cries of distress ; and, with the selfish 
organs large or very large, and the reflective only moderate 
or full, will be literally a fiend incarnate. 

This faculty is generally much stronger in females than 
in males, and creates, in the former, a much greater mani- 
festation of sympathy, of tenderness, of " the milk of human 
kindness," of benignity, of pure sensibility for suffering and 
desire to relieve it, than is manifested by the other sex. From 
this fountain spring those innumerable acts of kindness, and 
those ten thousand attentions to the wants and woes of oth- 
ers, for which woman is so pre-eminent. 

Location. — Benev. is located in the anterior superiour 
portion of the head, just forward of ven., and of the union 
of the coronal sutures, and beneath the posterior superiour 
portion of the frontal bone. (See cut of the female head, 
and contrast it with the scull of Aurelia Chase.) 

SPECIES III. — Semi-intellectual Sentiments. 

Improvement seems to be the watchword of our race, 
and its spirit is manifested in those almost innumerable in- 
ventions and contrivances which so greatly augment our 



comforts, multiply our conveniences, and give new charm* 
to our existence. These improvements result from a class 
of faculties which partake of the nature and qualities of 
both the sentiments and the intellectual faculties, constituting 
as it were, a stepping-stone between them. 


Mechanical ingenuity and talent — ability to make, build, 
construct, and manufacture. 

Well has the philosophick Franklin observed, that " man 
is a tool-making animal ;" and with equal propriety he might 
have added, " and the only tool-making and tool-using ani- 
mal, because the only animal which unites constructiveness 
with causality." Unquestionably man is calculated for liv- 
ing in houses, wearing apparel, and, by the aid of machinery, 
effecting objects which are even necessary to his well-being. 

Mechanical principles, by the application of which vas* 
additions can be made to the sum total of human happiness 
and human improvement, are also found to exist, and, 
likewise, to pervade the physical world. Now, since man 
forms a part of this physical world, and is, in part, under 
the dominion of these laws, there exists an absolute necessi- 
ty for him to possess some innate and primary faculty, the 
office of which is to take cognizance of these principles, 
and, also, to exercise this class of the mental functions. In- 
deed, without such a faculty, man would not be adapted to 
that physical state of existence in which he is placed, but 
would be imperfect, and perish. This faculty is found in 

Men are not made skilful mechanicks and artisans sole- 
ly, nor even chiefly, by instruction; for, if they were, (other 
conditions being equal,) their skill and dexterity would always 
be in proportion to the amount of instruction received. But 
such is by no means the case ; for we frequently observe 
that some who have every advantage of instruction, make but 
indifferent workmen, whiist others seem intuitively to un- 
derstand the art of manufacturing. Proper instruction may, 
indeed, improve the natural talents even of the latter, and 
greatly facilitate their operations, yet they possess a natural 
capability of being taught to make — a docility which often 
manifests itself very early in life, and of which others are 
comparatively destitute. Who taught Michael Angek how 



to build, or Canova how to use the chisel, or Benjamin West 
how to paint while yet not nine years old, and entire\y ig- 
norant of the art of painting? Nature, mainly. Their 
powers were innate, or, in other words, they possessed ex- 
traordinary construct., aided by other faculties. 

Developments of this faculty, and, also, a want of it, exist 
in combination with almost every conceivable variety of 
character and talents. Men of feeble intellects often possess 
it in a remarkable degree, whilst others who have gigantick 
minds, are sometimes almost entirely destitute of it. The 
conclusion, therefore, is inevitable, that a talent for making 
and building, must depend upon a distinct and primary, 
mental power. 

Large. — One having construct, large, will possess a high 
degree of natural skill in making, building, contriving, re- 
pairing, &c. ; be prone to whittle and scribble ; be delighted 
with mechanical operations ; and, with large imitat., aided 
by some practice, can become an excellent mechanick. 

In effecting mechanical operations, other organs contribute 
as largely as construct. For example ; one having large 
construct., with large or very large imitat, will be uncom- 
monly dexterous in making after a 'pattern, and can readily 
learn to do with tools what he sees others do ; with large or 
very large form and ideal, added, will give a peculiar finish 
and neatness to his work, and succeed in making fine and fancy 
articles, such as combine utility with richness and elegance; 
but, with ideal, only moderate, will succeed only in making 
common and useful things : with large firm, and self-e., large or 
very large form, size, ideal., caus., and compar., and only mod- 
erate imitat., will excel in superintending mechanical opera- 
tions ; in directing others what to do and how to do it, and 
in judging of the qualities of work, and will be a first-rate 
foreman, yet will not himself excel as an operative mechan 
ick; can plan and oversee much better than execute; but 
with large or very large imitat. added, will excel in both.; 
be a natural mechanick *or artist of a very high order; be 
capable of turning his hand readily to almost any branch of 
mechanical business ; and frequently contrive new methods of 
accomplishing his work ; with large or very large conscien. 
added, will never slight his work ; with large weight and indi* 
vid. added, be highly delighted with the operations of machine- 
ry ; able to comprehend it and judge of its adaptation; and 
possess an extraordinary talent for drawing, draughting, 



modelling, planning, and probably for inventing ; be remark* 
ably ingenious, and very successful, in every branch, of me* 
chanicks which he may undertake : with large or very large 
concent., will dwell patiently upon any piece of work until 
it is entirely completed, and rendered as perfect as possible ; 
and will be able to engage in only o^e kind of labour at a 
time; but, with moderate or small concent., will leave much 
of his work unfinished ; generally have on hand several 
pieces of work at a time, and feel a desire frequently to 
change from one to the other ; be rather " a jack at all trades" 
than perfect in any, &c. : with large or very large combat, 
and destruct., and only full conscien., when his work does 
not please him, will become angry with it, and feel like 
breaking or tearing it in pieces : with very large self-e., hope, 
and ideal., will be induced to try many mechanical experi- 
ments ; to engage largely in heavy operations, and even 
speculations ; and be likely to spend much time in endeavour- 
ing to invent : with very large ideal., imitat., mirth., form, size, 
colour, local., and compar., can design and execute ludicrous 
pictures or drawings, burlesque representations, caricatures, 
&c. ; copy hand-writings ; draw after a pattern ; recollect, 
for a long time, the shape of faces, landscapes, machines, 
&c, which he has seen, and make their fac similes, or draw 
and make from memory ; and, with large or very large caus. 
and compar. added to this combination, can readily adapt 
mechanical principles to the accomplishment of desired ^ne- 
chanical objects ; readily detect the faults in machinery and 
remedy them ; invent and improve machinery, &c. : with 
large or very large imitat., individ., form, size, weight, order, 
and calcu., and full or large compar. and caus., will make a 
first-rate engineer, surveyor, &c. 

Very large. — One having construct, very large, with 
very large ideal., imitat, individ., form, size, colour, and 
compar., will literally possess a passion for the pursuit of 
the fine arts ; be able to perform almost any operation be- 
longing to mechanicks or the arts with wonderful and intui- 
tive skill, and with extraordinary facility and success ; to 
make almost any thing within the attainment of human in- 
genuity ; to become an artist or mechanick of the very first 
order ; and will be likely to break away from all hinderances, 
and to surmount every obstacle, in order to indulge this pas- 
sion ; will be able to impart a peculiar beauty and a richness 
to all his works, and combine perfect accuracy with taste, 



end will excel m every undertaking of the kind, even though 
obliged to use indifferent tools. 

The descriptions and combinations under large construct., 
due allowance being made for the increase of the construc- 
tive power, will apply to construct, very large. 

Full. — One having full construct., with large imitat., will 
possess a respectable share of mechanical ingenuity ; and, 
with the addition of large or very large form and size, and 
fall individ., have all the natural talent requisite for becom- 
ing an excellent mechanick, especially in those branches 
which require but little more than making after a pattern ; 
can learn to use tools with tolerable dexterity, yet will re- 
quire considerable practice, but with it, will become quite suc- 
cessful; can repair articles that break, and "fix up" such 
things as he may have occasion to use in his family and his 
business ; yet his success will depend as much upon art as 
nature : with imitat. only full, will seem to possess this fac- 
ulty only in an inferiour degree, especially if circumstances 
do not imperiously urge its exercise, and will be dependant, 
in some degree, for any mechanical skill or success which he 
may manifest, upon his other faculties, such as form, size, 
local., ideal., compar., caus., &c. 

The additional descriptions and combinations under con- 
struct, full, will be found under construct, large, after due 
allowance has been made for the diminution of construct. 

Moderate. — One having moderate construct., with only 
moderate imitat., may learn, with considerable effort, some 
of the less difficult " trades," yet will never be eminent for 
his skill in any ; may, perhaps, learn to construct those plain 
articles which are often called for in the family and in busi- 
ness, yet will show but little skill and dexterity in such op- 
erations, and prefer to pay a mechanick for executing them ; 
will dislike to use tools, and choose some occupation which 
•is not mechanical : with imitat. and form large or very large, 
may succeed well in making after a pattern ; manifest con- 
siderable skill in copying, and easily learn to do what he 
sees done by others, yet will owe his success mainly to these 
last-named faculties ; and, with large or very large compar. 
and caus. added, may, perhaps, direct others, and improve their 
inventions, and even invent, yet will not possess much inde- 
pendent, mechanical talent, &c. 

Small. — One having small construct., with only moderate 
imitat., will be able to learn to perform even simple median' 



ical operations only with great difficulty, and then rat* 
as an automaton ; will manifest but little skill or dexterity in 
the use of tools or the pen ; dislike a mechanical occupation 
more than almost any other ; do every thing in which the 
exercise of this faculty is requisite only by main strength, 
and without contrivance or ingenuity ; and be a mere bungler 
in almost every thing of the kind which he undertakes. 

The additional combinations and descriptions of small 
construct, will be found under moderate construct., the influ- 
ence of construct, being diminished. 

Very small. — One having very small construct, will be 
apparently destitute of all mechanical ingenuity and incli 

In the sculls and casts of several North American Indi- 
ans, in the scull of a New Zealander and of a Charib Indi- 
an, examined by the authors, this organ is either small or 
very small, which harmonizes perfectly with the fact, that in 
every mechanical art and effort, these tribes are quite inferiour 
to many races of men. 

Location. — Construct, is located just above the middle 
of a line connecting the top of the ear and the external cor- 
ner of tne eye ; or, just below ideal., and a little forward 
of it* 

"When both organs are large or very large, they form an 
obtuse angle, ideal, extending in a nearly horizontal direc- 
tion, and construct, uniting with it in nearly a perpendicular 
direction. When the intellectual organs are large and long, 
it spreads itself upon the sides of the head, and thus presents 
but little prominence. This, together with the temporal 
muscle, which passes over it, and varies in thickness, causes, 
except in the case of children, an occasional mistake. It 
may likewise be added, that many individuals who possess, 
by nature, no small share of the constructive power, think 
they havo but little, because they have never been so situated 
as to call it forth, and, also, because they suppose that con- 
struct, applies exclusively to the use of tools as employed by 
a professed mechanick, yet, when occasion requires, they are 
found quite skilful in executing repairs, and have a whittling 
and tinkering propensity. 

* It may be proper here to remark, that, in the large cat, acquis, and conttrosfc 
re located too far Jomeard and aliment., too law. 




imagination — fancy — love of the exquisite, the beautiful, 
the splendid, the tasteful, and the polished — that impas- 
sioned if-stacy and rapture of feeling which give inspi- 
ration to poetry and oratory, and a conception of the sub- 

That there exists in the human mind some faculty, the 
function of which is to inspire man with a love of the beau 
tiful and the exquisite — a fondness for the sublime, tne ele- 
gant, and the tasteful, will appear evident when we compare 
man with the lower order of animals, or civilized man with 
the savage, or the refined inhabitants of a city with the com- 
mon population of the country. Were it not for the influ- 
ence of this faculty, these things would be held in no higher 
estimation by man than by the brute, or by one man than by 
another. Were it not for its influence, mankind would have 
no higher relish for the exquisite, the tasteful, the beautiful, 
and the sublime, than for the insipid, the dull, the homely, 
and the vulgar. Were it not for this faculty, we should no 
more highly prize the bold images, the glowing flights of 
fancy, the daring thoughts, and the impassioned bursts of 
eloquence which characterize the productions of Homer, of 
Shakspeare, of Milton, of Byron, of Addison, of Irving, of 
Chalmers, of Patrick Henry, and of Daniel Webster, than 
we do the plainer and dryer style of Locke, Dean Swift, 
William Cobbett, and many other still more homely writers. 
Without idealit}', the splendid productions of a Raphael, a 
Corregio, a Canova, a Phidias, and a Praxiteles, would find 
no more favour in our eyes than the rudest paintings, and 
the roughest carvings, of the most uncivilized nations. 

Although poetry is one form in which this faculty mani 
fests itself, yet it is by no means exclusively confined to a 
relish for the inspirations of the muses. Though essential 
to the poet, it takes a wider range. It adds to the delight 
we take in viewing an elegant statue, an exquisite painting, 
a splendid temple, or any other finished production of art. 
It causes and increases the glow and rapture experienced in 
beholding the beautiful landscape, the rugged cliff; the bold 
promontory, and the lofty mountain. It now loves to see 
the "wilderness and the solitary place" ma^e glad, and "the 
desert rejoice and blossom as the rose ;" and " at the peep of 



dawn," when fair Aurora "sprinkles with rosy light the 
dewy lawn," it delights to see " old ocean smile ;" and then 
" to ride upon the wings of the wind ;" and then " upon the 
circle of the heavens;" and then, again, to see the untied 

" Take the ruffian billows by the top, 

Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging them 

With deaf 'ning clamours in the slipp'ry clouds." 

Ideality gives elevation, and fervour, and polish, to the 
mind ; inspires man with a love of improvement and refine- 
ment, and assists him in forming and realizing splendid con- 
ceptions and undertakings. With approbativeness large, it 
often manifests itself in a fondness for splendour in apparel, 
equipage, houses, and pleasure-grounds, and is an important 
element in gayety, fashion, and elegance of manners. 

Large.— One having ideal, large, will possess refinement 
and exquisiteness of taste and feeling, a lively imagina- 
tion, and a brilliant fancy ; an admiration of the elegant, the 
beautiful, the gorgeous, the ornamental, the perfect, and the 
sublime ; of the fine arts and polite literature ; of poetry if 
of a high order, and of eloquence ; and will relish every 
thing fanciful and exquisite wherever it is to be found. 

One having ideal, large, with colour, form, and size large, 
will gaze, with intense delight, upon a splendid and well- 
proportioned painting, and be able to appreciate its merits ; 
and, with form and local, large or very large, upon a beau- 
tiful landscape, cascade, flower, &c. : with lang. and compar. 
large or very large, will employ many metaphors, hyper- 
boles, and other figures of speech ; will express himself in 
a glowing and elevated style ; and, with a full-sized and an 
active brain, have the natural talents for becoming quite elo- 
quent in the expression of his thoughts and feelings : with 
hope large or very large, will have high flights of fancy, 
delight to indulge in the revellings of his imagination, and 
be enraptured with his own contemplations ; yet, if concent, 
is only moderate, his flights will be vivid and intense, but 
not long-sustained, and he must dash them off at the mo- 
ment, or they will vanish : with self-e. and compar. large, 
will not often allow an uncouth or a low expression to escape 
his lips, but will be disgusted with vulgarity : with only a 
moderate-sized head, and only full caus. and compar., will 
manifest more of refinement than solidity ; of sound than 




sense ; of rhetorick than logick ; of sickly delicacy than 
vigorous intellect ; of finely turned periods than important 
ideas ; and overload his style with figurative expressions : 
with combat, and destruct. large or very large, throw invec- 
tive into the form of poetry : with large or very large indi 
vid., event., and lang., may make a good speaker and writer, 
and a popular lecturer, yet will be indebted for these quali- 
ties more to his manner than to his matter — to his style than 
to his ideas ; may please the fancy, and communicate many 
facts, yet will not reason closely or clearly : with amat. and 
adhes. large or very large, will take a special interest in sen 
timental poetry which breathes much of the passion of love 
and fires the fancy, and in romantick and dramatick compo- 
sition : with mirth, large, will relish humourous poet 
ry, such as John Gilpin, the Dunciad, Beppo, &c. : with 
ven. and conscien. large, devotional and religious poetry : 
with the reflective faculties large or very large, will despise 
light and trashy poetry, or even that which, though beautiful 
in expression, is deficient in power of thought ; will relish 
only that which, while it flows in smooth and equal num- 
bers, bears upon its bosom a rich cargo of important ideas, 
and sound, moral sentiments ; and, if he attempt to compose 
poetry, will imbue it with much sound, practical sense, and, 
also, prefer those authors, both in poetry and prose, who em- 
ploy a glowing, elevated style, but pay far more attention to 
the arrangement and the argument than to the expression, &c. 

Very large. — One having ideal, very large, will possess 
a rich and glowing fancy, and experience emotions accompani- 
ed with a kind of rapture and enthusiasm, or, rather, ecstacy; 
be disgusted with that which is commonplace or imperfect ; 
be excessively fond of poetry and fiction ; an enthusiastick 
admirer of the fine arts ; and revel with ecstacy in the re- 
gions of fancy. 

One having very large ideal., with very large adhes. and 
compar., and full lang., can make poetry of a high order, 
which will breathe forth the tenderest feelings of friendship ; 
and will consider the common standard of friendship so very 
low, and its exercise so imperfect, as to make him dissatisfied 
with life, because he will be able to find few minds of kin 
dred sympathy and pathos with his own ; will long for a 
world where friendship will be pure and perfect, and unmix- 
ed with the least alloy; and mourn deeply over the imper 
factions of human nature: with large perceptive organs 



j&rge or very large reflective organs, and full or large met 
al organs, accompanied with an active and a full-sized brain, 
will be possessed of a deep fund of thought, which will flow 
cn a style, rich, but not gaudy, copious and powerful, but not 
)ow or commonplace, splendid, but not bombastick ; will be 
admired for his talents, and beloved for his amiable qualities ; 
will produce the best of sentiments, and yet manifest the 
most exquisite feelings ; and rise far above his fellow-men, 
both in genius and virtue ; be devoted to belleslettre, the fine 
arts, and polite literature, and also to the more substantial 
branches of learning ; and, with full self-e,, firm., and com- 
bat., will be qualified to become a splendid speaker ; will 
make almost any sacrifice in order to listen to a splendid or- 
atorical performance ; and will possess the feeling and the 
power of eloquence and poetry in the highest degree. 

The manifestations and descriptions under ideal, large, 
modified by an increase of the qualities imparted by it, will 
apply to ideal, very large. 

Full. — One having ideal, full, will possess considerable 
refinement of feeling, and some poetick fancy, yet they will 
De exercised only in a subordinate degree; will be fond of 
poetry and the fine arts, yet not by any means devoted to 
them; may relish poetry for its sentiment or its argument, 
or the love it describes, the history or philosophy it imbodies, 
&c, more than for its glowing imagination or vivid fancy. 

One having ideal, full, with large or very large perceptive 
and reasoning faculties, will confine his attention chiefly to 
matters cf fact, and to the investigation of first principles, 
without reference to the splendour or the drapery of style ; 
express his thoughts in a straight-forward, plain, and forcible 
manner, with less reference to elegance and finish of style 
than to the facts and arguments ; prefer those speakers whp 
do the same, and possess much more of the eloquence of 
thought than of diction ; prefer plainness and utility to 
beauty and ornament ; and seem, at times, to possess less 
taste, and refinement, and delicacy of feeling, than is com- 

Moderate. — One having ideal, moderate, will seldom 
experience the glow and elevation of feeling which ideal, 
imparts, nor manifest a great share of refinement of feeling, 
nor express himself with elegance and taste ; will regard 
poetry, belleslettres, the fine arts, polite literature, works of 
imagination, painting, sculpture, &c, with less enthusiasm, 



and prefer plainness to ornament, and be rather plain and 
awkward, than polished and refined, in his manners, dress, 
&c, and, with self-e. moderate, take up with inferiour arti- 

The combinations and descriptions under ideal, large, re- 
versed, will convey to the mind of the reader a correct idea 
of the additional descriptions and combinations of moderate 
or small ideal. 

Small. — One having ideal, small, will be coarse and vul- 
gar in his manner of expression ; have but poor ideas of 
taste, of propriety, and beauty, and little relish for poetry or 
oratory, or fine writing, and be but a miserable judge of any 
thing of the kind ; will be coarse and uncouth in his man- 
ners, and very awkward, plain, and commonplace in every 
thing he says or does. 

The combinations and descriptions under ideal, full, and, 
also, those under ideal, large and very large, reversed, will 
apply to ideal, small. 

Very small. — One having ideal, very small, will be 
nearly destitute of the feelings and manifestations described 
as pertaining to this faculty. 

Location. — Ideal, is located upon the sides of the head, 
about the spot in which the hair begins to appear, upwards 
and backwards of construct., beneath the temporal ridge, 
and near its union with the parietal bone, and nearly in a 
line with compar., caus., and mirth. When large or very 
large, the sides of the head, where the hair makes its ap- 
pearance, are widened and heightened, but when it is small, 
'hey are narrow and depressed. 


Ability to represent, ccpy, describe, and do what we see done 
— the power of imitation and copying in general. 

Man is emphatically a creature of imitation. In perform- 
ing nearly all the actions of his life, the power of imitation 
»s more or less important, and a want of it exhibits an essen 
iaal deficiency of character. In learning to speak or write 
either a foreign language, or our vernacular tongue, the fac- 
ulty of language furnishes us with words; but it is imitation 
■lone which enables us so to enunciate them as to make ouf" 
•elves understood. 



The skill of the mechanick depends, in a very great de- 
gree, upon the extent of his imitative powers ; and the ges- 
ticulations of the orator, by means of which he often ex- 
presses more feeling, and makes a stronger impression, than 
words could possibly convey, are the promptings of this fac 
ulty. So vastly diversified, indeed, are the feelings and the 
practices of men, that, without some faculty to direct them 
into even the common usages of society, different individu- 
als would hardly be recognised as belonging to the same 
race ; yet, with this faculty to give a degree of uniformity to 
most of their habits and practices, and thus to attract them 
towards a common centre, it is easy to determine, not only 
in what country, but, frequently, in what section of the coun- 
try, the manners of an individual have been formed. Hence 
we infer, that man must be possessed of a primary faculty, 
the exclusive function of which is imitation in general. 
The experiments of the authors upon this organ, have been 
both numerous and satisfactory. 

Large. — One having imitat. large, will find it easy and 
natural for him to copy and represent, and possess both the 
ability and the disposition successfully to exercise this fac- 
ulty, either in his gesticulation, his manner of description, 
his talent for drawing and writing, his desire to adopt the 
manners of others, or in almost any thing else demanded 
by his circumstances in life, and his other faculties. 

One having imitat. large, with construct, and the per- 
ceptive organs also large or very large, will manifest hii 
imitative power in making after a pattern, in drawing, e» 
graving, writing a copy-hand, &c. : with secret., ideal., an? 
lang., only moderate, cannot mimick, nor describe, nor ar 
out any thing well ; but, with secret, full or large, and ideal, 
individ., event., lang., and compar. large or very large, har 
a happy talent for description ; can relate anecdotes to ad 
miration, a fund of which he will have always at commanc 
so that he can always tell one story to match another ; car 
represent things which he wishes to describe, in so clear g 
manner, and act them out so naturally, that the hearer will 
seem to see just what the speaker wishes to convey ; by the ear- 
nestness of his manner, his attitudes, gestures, the expression 
of his countenance, the apparent pathos of his feelings, &c. 
will make a far deeper impression than language alone cou.d 
produce, and be able to heighten the effect by the addition 
•f elegant, and even eloquent, deliverv : with form, size, con 



atruct., and ideal, large, will be capable of becoming an ex- 
cellent penman: with self-e. full, and ideal., individ., and 
lang. large, can readily adopt the manners and customs of 
those with whom he associates ; talk and act as others do; 
and make himself easy and acceptable in almost any society 
in which he may be placed, &c. 

Very large. — One having imitat. very large, has a re 
markable talent for imitating almost every thing he under- 
akes to imitate : with large secret., can conceal his real feel- 
ings, while he appears to feel what he does not: with large 
mirth., and moderate or small ven. and conscien., will have a 
propensity to ridicule religion by imitating the peculiarities 
of its professors : with large adhes., can assume the manners 
of a friend: with large or very large combat., destruct., 
self-e., and ideal., can mimick and portray the several pas- 
sions of haughtiness, of indignation, of revenge, of anger, 
contempt, &c. : with any of the other selfish organs large 
or very large, can imitate the several passions exercised by 
those faculties : with large or very large event., will notice 
all the actions and peculiarities of others, and be able to 
mimick them perfectly ; with large ideal, added, can ima- 
gine and represent the action appropriate to any given senti- 
ment, and express it to admiration ; and, with large or 
very large lang. and secret, added, can carry on a dialogue 
in several voices, and adapt the expression of his countenance 
to the feelings represented; can imitate the accents and 
brogue of the Englishman, the Scotchman, the Irishman, 
the Frenchman, &c, and even imitate the forms of expres 
sion adopted by these different countrymen ; easily learn 
both to read and to speak foreign languages : with large or 
very large ideal., mirth., individ., event., lang., compar., and 
adhes., and full or large secret, and combat, is capable of be- 
coming a first-rate mimick and play-actor, and will have a 
predominant passion, and a remarkable talent, for the stage, 
and find it extremely difficult to avoid imitating the actions, 
conversation, sty.e, &c, of others. 

Full. — One having imitat. full, will manifest this faculty 
only in a subordinate degree, which will seldom amount to 
mimickry ; still, its influence upon the whole character will 
be considerable, and may be inferred from the descriptions 
and combinations of imitat. large, by diminishing the influ- 
ence of imitat. 

Moderate. — One having imitat. moderate, will possess 



this power in only an mferiour degree, and experience some 
difficulty in copying and describing ; fail to impart a natural 
expression and accuracy to his attempts at copying, and, with 
self-e., caus., and compar., large or very large, will disdain 
to copy others; prefer to strike out, and pursue, a path of his 
own ; fail to adapt himself to the customs of the society with 
which he is not familiar ; and will be original, if not eccen- 
trick, in his manner of thinking and acting : with secret, 
only moderate or small, can never seem to feel otherwise 
than he really does. 

Other combinations and descriptions maybe inferred from 
those under large and very large imitat. reversed. 

Small. — One having imitat. small, will have but little 
ability to imitate or copy, and none to mimick ; fail in his 
attempts to describe or represent, and will almost, spoil a 
story by attempting, in relating it, to act out the several parts ; 
will not be at all natural in his gestures, and be a poor 
penman, and experience great inconvenience from the defi- 
ciency of this faculty. 

The combinations and descriptions under imitat. moderate, 
the influence of imitat. being still farther diminished, and 
also the descriptions and combinations under imitat. large or 
very large, reversed, or negatiyed, will generally apply to 
imitat. small. 

Very small. — One in whom imitat. is very small, will 
manifest none of the power in question, and be utterly unable 
to imitate or copy. 

Location. — Imitat. is located upon the two sides of be- 
nev. When large, it extends nearly as far back as the organ 
of benev., and the. coronal sutures, and causes a protuber- 
ance, especially when marvel, is small, which runs down- 
ward from benev., and towards ideal, and construct. 


That faculty of the mind which looks at things through a 
ludicrous medium, and thus forms humorous ideas and 
conceptions — a quick and lively perception of the ridicu- 
lous and the absurd — facetiousness, pleasantry, humour, 
wit, fun. 

That certain conceptions, ideas, opinions, and occurrences 
in life, are in themselves absurd and ridiculous, is a position 
that will readily be admitted. This being the case, it natu 



rally follows, that the mind should be possessed of some pri- 
mary power or faculty, the office of which is to detect such 
absurdities, and expose their ridiculousness : and this office 
is performed by the faculty of mirthfulness. Its legitimate 
function seems to be to aid caus. and compar. in determining 
what is true, by intuitively discerning whatever in thought 
or argument, is ridiculous or absurd : and the fact, that 
mirth, is located by the side of caus., and in the same range 
with compar., caus., and ideal., appears to strengthen the pro- 
bability of the correctness of this supposition. 

Unless we admit, that there is some primary faculty, the 
proper operation of which is to detect that which is absurd 
and ridiculous per se, how are we to account for the prone- 
ness of mankind, when attempting to show the fallacy, or 
expose the sophistry, of arguments, to endeavour to make 
them appear ridiculous ? — how account for the very common 
method of reasoning by the reductio ad absurdum, the prin- 
cipal ingredient of which is, mirth. ? The fact is, the mind 
rests assured, that what is ridiculous, cannot be true ; or, 
that the enlightened operation of mirth, is always in harmo- 
ny with the principles of reason and analogy. 

The existence of such a faculty as mirth., is rendered still 
more evident from a consideration of that general tendency 
of the human mind to make sport, to jest, joke, and seek for 
something that will raise a laugh ; and, also, from the utility 
of such a faculty ; which may be inferred from the fact, that 
indulgence in laughter, merriment, lively conversation, hi- 
larity, and rational amusements, by promoting respiration, 
digestion, appetite, and the circulation of the fluids, contri- 
butes greatly to health and bodily vigour, and, likewise, by 
imparting buoyancy and elasticity to the spirits, greatly aug- 
ments the power and activity of the mind. The old adage, 
" laugh and be fat," though quaint, accords both with the 
philosophy of human nature, and the experience of mankind, 
and, moreover, with man's phrenological developments. If, 
then, according to the vulgar notion, " every sigh drives a 
nail into our coffin," this argument shows, that " every laugh 
should draw one out." 

Religionists often consider the exercise of this faculty as 
wrong, nay, as wicked ; but the mere fact of its existence, 
sanctions its exercise, and even makes its proper exercise a 

Large. — One having mirth, large, has a quick and lively 



perception of the ludicrous, and a strong propensity to tarn 
singular remarks and incidents into ridicule, and to make 
sport in various ways ; laughs heartily at any thing humor- 
ous or funny, and enjoys it with a keen relish. 

One having mirth, large, with large compar., destruct., and 
combat., and caus. full or large, will mingle the sarcastick, 
the pungent, and the bitter, with the purely humorous ; and, 
with compar. very large, hold the object of his displeasure 
up to ridicule by comparing him to some most disagreeable, 
or even loathsome, object ; and be pre-eminent for his dry, 
terse, witty, and appropriate comparisons, which will be al- 
ways in point, and very laughable, and sting while they 
tickle : with large or very large secret, and imitat., will 
have a happy faculty of saying a witty thing in a peculiarly 
witty and laughable manner, and, with large lang., compar., 
and event, added, can work up the feelings of the hearer by a 
most agreeable suspense, and mingle so much of the cunning 
and the sly in his manner of expression, that his humorous 
effusions will take admirably, and create a large amount of real 
sport ; will be able to make fun of others without their seeing 
it, and to keep those in whose company he is, in a roar of 
laughter, and yet appear perfectly sober himself; to employ 
insinuations and the double-entendre with effect: to hoax, 
and quiz, and play his cunning pranks upon those around 
him ; will make very happy allusions to ludicrous incidents ; 
and be very quick and opportune in his mirthful sallies : 
with compar. large, approbat. very large, and caus. only full, 
may say witty things, but will generally spoil them by laugh- 
ing at them himself : with large or very large adhes., appro- 
bat., benev., hope., ideal., imitat., event., lang., and compar., 
will make a social, obliging, cheerful, companionable, and 
pleasant friend, who will be full of good cheer, humorous 
anecdote, and entertaining conversation : with large or very 
large ideal., will express his mirthful effusions m a pecu- 
liarly refined and delicate manner, and, with secret, large, 
can say even a vulgar thing without giving offence: with 
secret, and imitat. moderate or small will have a fund of lu- 
dicrous ideas, and a ready conception of the truly ridiculous, 
but will generally fail to give them so ludicrous an expres 
sion as to make others laugh ; will relish a joke, yet spoil 
his own jokes, and those of others which he attempts to re« 
late, by his defective manner of expressing them ; but, with 
imitat, large or very large, even though secret, is only mod 



erale, will be able to express himself in so blunt, and dry, 

and eccentrick, and even comick a manner, as to cause a 
burst of laughter : with lang. large, anl compar. very large, 
will be a ready punster ; have a happy talent of reasoning 
by the reductio ad absurdum, or, by carrying out, and apply- 
ing, the arguments of his opponents in such a manner as to 
make them appear supremely ridiculous : with hope large 
or very large, will be both cheerful and witty, and mingle a 
high flow of spirits, with a happy talent for humour ; but, 
with hope only moderate or small, even when borne down 
- with melancholy, may say many witty things : with appro- 
bat, and cautious, very large, and self-e. small, except among 
his familiar acquaintances, will have too little self-confidence 
to venture a joke, or will show so much fear in his manner 
of expressing it as to spoil it : with ven. and conscien. large 
or very large, will be frequently annoyed by the intrusion 
of ludicrous thoughts, even upon solemn occasions ; feel 
guilty upon this account, and endeavour to banish them from 
his mind, yet, in spite of all his efforts, they will frequently 
arise: with compar. and caus. large or very large, like 
Franklin, will express important ideas, containing a great 
amount of practical sense, in a witty manner, and imbody 
many moral lessons, and much practical philosophy, in his 
mirthful effusions ; and, whenever he attempts to joke, will 
be dry, sententious, pithy, and always in point, &c. " Poor 
Richard's Almanack" furnishes an admirable illustration of 
the combined manifestation of very large caus., compar., and 
mirth. ; which combination is most strikingly exhibited in 
all the busts of Dr. Franklin. 

Very large. — One having very large mirth., will look 
at almost every thing, as it were, in a ludicrous light ; man- 
ufacture fun out of almost every passing incident ; find it 
difficult to restrain that strong current of humorous emo- 
tions which sweeps through his mind, and which will be 
likely to burst forth, both upon proper and improper occa- 
sions ; and be unable to express himself without a strong 
mixture of facetiousness with sober thought, and often car- 
ry his jokes too far. 

The descriptions and the manifestations of mirth, large* 
modified by an increase of the power and the influence of 
•nirth., wfu appiy to mirth, very large. 

Full. — One having mirth, full, may have a good share 
©f humorous feeling, and enjoy the mirthful effusions of 



others, yet, without the aid of other faculties, will not him- 
self be remarkably quick to turn a joke : with large or very 
large desti ict., combat., and compar., will be cogent and bi- 
ting in his attempts at wit, yet his wit will sting more than 
it will tickle, and be too harsh, and severe, and personal to 
please, and, consequently, will often give offence ; will, per- 
haps, frequently indulge his teasing and pestering propen 
sity, yet his mirthful effusion will not be characterized so 
much by pure humour, as by satire and raillery ; may be 
eminent for his sarcastick and appropriate, if not ironical 
comparisons, yet the whole point and ludicrousness of his 
jokes will turn upon the aptness of the comparison : witk 
hope very large, may have a large share of glee and hilarity, a 
cheerful, lively disposition, and a sprightly mind ; enjoy a fine 
flow of spirits, and be exceedingly fond of amusements, yet 
the pure " attick salt" will not highly season his mirthful 
effusions : with the assistance of other faculties, particularly 
of imitat., lang., secret., hope, and compar., may express what 
ludicrous ideas he has in so laughable a manner, act them 
out so naturally, and accompany them with so much quaint- 
ness, as to create a great deal of sport, and pass for a real 
wit, yet he will owe more of this celebrity to his manner oi 
communicating his witticism, than to the witticisms them- 
selves, or to the faculty of mirth ; but, with secret., self-e., 
lang., individ., and event, only moderate or full, will be un- 
able to give half the jest to his mirthful expressions which 
is contained in his ideas, and thus be generally considered 
as comparatively destitute of the faculty. 

Moderate. — One having mirth, moderate, will generally 
look at things through the sober medium of fact; seldom 
succeed well in his attempts at wit; generally think of his 
jokes too late to make them ; and be more sober than jovial. 
One having mirth, moderate, with compar., combat., and de- 
struct. large, may be sarcastick, yet his jests will be too un- 
kind and harsh to please ; be more biting than humorous, 
and often give offence : with approbat., combat., and destruct. 
large, will be unable to take a joke in good part, and, when 
rallied, frequently become angry : with self-e. and caus. only 
moderate or full, approbat. large or very large, and secret, 
large, will frequently labour under the false impression that 
he 5s the object of ridicule when he is not ; will be quite too 
jealous upon this point, and easily offended by jokes, cape- 
dally if they bear upon facts, &c. 



Small. — One having - mirth, small, will he likely to con- 
sider wit as either impertinent or silly ; will rather lack 
sprightliness and vivacity in conversation and appearance; 
be slow to take a joke, or to appreciate a witticism, and 
slower still to make or turn one : with ven. and conscien. 
large or very large, and hope only moderate, will seldom 
smile, and probably think it wicked to do so : with appro- 
bat, and adhes. large or very large, will be extremely alive 
to the lashes of ridicule, and the ringer of scorn, and greatly 
tormented by them ; and be completely confused and routed, 
when the battery of this organ is opened upon him. 

Very small. — One with this organ very small, will never, 
in any perceptible degree, manifest the functions exercised 
by this faculty. 

Location. — Mirth, is located beneath the temporal ridge, 
externally from caus., but a little lower, and nearly in the 
range of compar., caus., and ideal. 

ORDER II. — Intellectual Faculties. 

These faculties constitute what is commonly termed intei* 
led, as contra-distinguished from feeling, or emotion ; and 
have to do with three classes of things, the physical, the 
metaphysical, and the abstract; or, in other words, with the 
various conditions, relations, and qualities of things, and 
with the physical, mental, and moral phenomena that are 
produced by the operation of those first-principles or causes 
by which these things and their respective phenomena are 
regulated and governed, as well as with the principles them- 

They consist of two genera. The first genus embraces 
the Perceptive Faculties ; and the second, the Reasoning 

GENUS I. — Perceptive Faculties. 

These bring us into communion with the external world 
through the medium of the senses ; perceive natural objects 
and their conditions, physical qualities, and phenomena, and 
some of their relations, and collect facts and statistical infor- 
mation for the use of the other faculties. 



SPECIES I.— The Faculties of the Externa* 



Cognizance of the impressions made, and of the effects pro 
duceck, upon the body by the contact of physical objects with 
the nerves of sensation. 

Without a faculty of the mind whose legitimate office it is 
to perform this class of functions, the contact of physical ob- 
jects with the body, could produce no sensation — without 
this ever-watchful sentinel of our corporeal frame — whose 
organ (through the medium of the nerves of sensation) per 
vades the whole external surface of the body, including the 
intestinal canal — placed, as it is, to guard from external in- 
jury, this delicate machine — to keep in tune this harp of a 
thousand strings, its safety would be put in constant jeopar- 
dy, and its organization, liable soon to be destroyed. Negli- 
gence here, even for a moment, might expose the body to ir- 
reparable injury, and render this citadel of life liable to be 
taken by the first rude hand that should assail it. Hence 
we infer the necessity of a distinct faculty whose exclusive 
office it is to perform the function of sensation. 

The principle, that such a contact of physical objects with 
the body as is calculated to injure it, causes pain, which pain 
warns us of danger, and that such a contact as is beneficial 
to it, produces a pleasurable sensation, will generally hold 
good, and bear the scrutinizing test of experiment. To man, 
then, as a corporeal being, this faculty is indispensable. It 
is, in short, the natural instinct in him which intuitively 
comprehends those principles that regulate the preservation 
of the body from external injury, and is likewise in perfect 
harmony with those principles. 

The mediate function of the sense of feeling, is common- 
ly called touch, of which the sphere of activity is very con- 
siderable and important. The nerves of this faculty are 
closely combined with those of voluntary motion ; and the 
two kinds together, may assist the functions of all the inter- 
nal faculties, as well the affective as the intellectual. Hence 
the reason why the nerves of feeling and the nerves of mo- 
tion are so intimately connected with the organs of the af and the intei'iectual faculties. 



This faculty is much more active in some animals than in 
Others ; and we find that the nerves of sensation are much 
larger in the former than in the latter. In combination with 
large cautiousness, this faculty produces that dread of pain, 
which is often worse than the pain itself, and that instinctive 
shrinking from corporeal suffering, which it endeavours to 

For a more extensive analysis of this faculty, as well as 
of the other external senses, the reader is referred to the ex- 
cellent remarks upon the subject in Dr. Spurzheim's work 
upon Phrenology. 


Vision — power of taking cognizance of the appearance of 
physical objects by means of the optical organs. 

There exist in nature certain optical laws, the object of 
which is to furnish animated beings with a knowledge of 
the physical world by means of the eye and its accompany- 
ing apparatus. Mankind intuitively understand and apply 
these laws or principles of vision, and see just as well with- 
out any theoretical or scientifick knowledge of them as with. 
Since, then, this power of vision is possessed intuitively, and 
is exercised by a given portion of the brain, the induction as 
obvious, that men, and, indeed, all animals that see at all, 
possess an innate, primary power, the proper function of 
which is to see. 

The fact that new-born infants possess the power of vision 
but imperfectly, does not at all militate against the foregoing 
conclusion, for, it is well known, that, at the birth, their eyes 
are in an imperfect state, and are not able to receive, modify, 
and transmit strong impressions of light, until they are 
about six weeks old. Hence, it is only by degrees that the 
eye of a child becomes fit to perform its natural function 
with full power ; but, as soon as the powers of this organ 
are fully matured, a child can see, and without either habit 
or education, just as well and as accurately as the greatest 
philosopher. The same argument will apply to all animals 
whose organs of vision are imperfect at the birth, 

It is, moreover, a singular fact, that that portion of tha 
brain in which the optick nerve terminates, or, in phrenolog- 
ical language, the organ of seeing, is found, in different an- 
imals, to be proportionate to their power of vision — is found) 



for example, many times larger in the eagle and the hawk, 
than in other animals of a corresponding size in which the 
power of vision is much Aveak er. 

Defects in noticing and recollecting the form and colour 
of objects, are often attributed to an enfeebled vision, when, 
in fact, they belong exclusively to imperfections in the facul- 
ties of form and colour. For example ; one whose sight ia 
perfectly good, and who is deficient in the faculty of form, 
but possessed of a large organ of colour, often finds it ex- 
tremely difficult accurately to ascertain by the eye, and to 
recollect, the configuration of an object, when, at the same 
time, he gets a distinct idea of its colour ; but, with form 
large, and colour small, can readily judge of its shape, but 
not cf its colour. Many cases illustrative of these points 
have fallen under the observation of the authors, some of 
which will be stated in another part of this work. 

Allusion is here made to these facts as clearly showing 
the necessity of the mind's possessing the faculties of form 
and colour, as distinct from that of vision, in order perfectly 
to perform some of its ordinary functions. 


Power of taking cognizance of sounds by means of the an 
ditory apparatus. 

It cannot be denied, that the principles of acousticks ex- 
ist in nature, nor that all animals possessed of an auditory 
apparatus, are capable of perfectly applying these principles, 
unaided by habit or instruction : and hence it follows, that 
the faculty of hearing is a primary power of the human 

As has been shown in regard to the sense oi vision, that 
seeing is its sole function, so can it be proved with reference 
to the auditory faculty, that hearing is its only function. The 
common and prevailing opinion, that an individual possesses 
the faculty of tune or melody of sounds, and the gift of 
speech, in proportion to the acuteness and perfection of his 
auditory apparatus and the excellence of his voice, can easily 
be shown to be erroneous. The question may be put to the 
most superficial observer, whether all those who have equal- 
ly good hearing and fine voices, possess an equal talent for 
musick, or equal fluency of speech. Indeed, the authors are 
prepared to prove, by many facts that they have witnessed, 



that many individuals wnose voices and hearing are excel- 
lent, but who are defective in the organ of tune, are not ca- 
pable of distinguishing one tune, or one note, from another. 
How is it, that, among birds, the song of the male is far more 
melodious than that of the female ? Can it be, that the au- 
ditory or the vocal apparatus of the one is less perfect than 
that of the other 1 

But, that the sense of hearing cannot produce musick, is 
evident from the fact, that the auditory apparatus is excited 
solely by sounds from without, whereas, musick must pro 
ceed from an internal impulse given by a primary faculty of 
the mind, for it is impossible that the first musician could 
have previously heard the sounds which he produced. It is 
well known, too, that musicians who have lost their hearing, 
continue to compose. Singing birds, also, when hatched by 
strange females, instead of employing the notes of their adopt- 
ed parents, sing naturally, and without any instruction, the 
song of their species. 

In regard to the faculty of speech, we know that the nai- 
uaal language of every animal, is that which is peculiar to 
its species, and that its perfection does not particularly de- 
pend upon the perfection or imperfection of its faculty of 
hearing. A duckling reared by a hen, does not adopt the 
language of the hen ; nor does the young robin hatched by 
the bluebird, learn the chirp of the bluebird. A kitten rais- 
ed with a dog, does not learn to bark ; nor does a lamb rais- 
ed among cattle, learn to low : but each animal naturally 
adopts the language of its species. 

So, in artificial language, as there is no natural connexion 
between the names or sounds employed to denote certain ob- 
jects, and the things signified, it is evident, that, in the for- 
mation and use of words, some other faculties of the mind 
are more intimately concerned than the sense of hearing. 
When we pronounce the word book, the sound suggests to the 
hearer the idea of the thing signified ; but it would be ab- 
surd to suppose, that either his auditory apparatus, or his 
organs of speech, conceived the idea of a book. The con- 
ception was formed by his internal faculties alone. The 
reason why the monkey cannot talk, is not because it is 
destitute of the faculty of hearing, or of the proper organs 
of the voice; but because it has not the faculty of language, 
end certain other internal faculties, which are necessary to 



the formation of words, and the application of them to the 
various conceptions of the mind. 

Thus it is obvious, that the function of the sense of hear- 
ing, is confined to the production of impressions called sounds; 
and that the production of melody and language, depend upon 
other intellectual faculties. 


Gustatory sensation produced by food, and, also, by othei 

This faculty differs materially in its function from that of 
alimentiveness, to which it seems to be but the handmaid. 
Alimentiveness produces hunger, and a relish for food, and, 
without the assistance of taste, would be but a blind instinct, 
producing merely the desire to feed ; while taste, acting as 
the caterer for alimentiveness, is capable of being exercised 
upon substances which can, and which cannot, be converted 
into food, and of selecting the one, and rejecting the other. 

That this faculty, in its ordinary state in civil society, does 
not, under all circumstances, inform us Avhat is, and what is 
not, adapted to the nourishment and health of the body, will 
readily be admitted ; but that, unpampered by luxury, and 
unperverted by cookery, it would be capable of doing so, is 
highly probable. Among the lower order of animals — in 
Deasts, birds, and fishes, where it is unperverted, it secures 
this object to perfection, abundant evidences of which are 
furnished by natural history. Why, then, should it not, in 
its natural state, be equally perfect and serviceable in man? 
Analogy would certainly give an affirmative answer to this 


Olfactory sensation — cognizance 'of the scent or odour of 

By means of this faculty, the material world acts upon 
man and animals from a distance. When detached, odor- 
ous particles come in contact with the olfactory nerve, they 
inform us of the existence, and some of the qualities, of the 
bodies from which they are separated. Taste has been de- 
scribed as the purveyor of alimentiveness ; and smell may 
be denominated the puxieer of taste, ana assistant handmaid 



of alimentiveness ; for it often acts as the guide to ta&te in 
selecting food, and frequently decides upon what is good, 
and what is bad, without the assistance of taste. 

But the office of smell is by no means confined to the se- 
lecting of food. Its function decides upon the agreeableness 
or disagreeableness of the sensation produced by all odours 
that are wafted to the olfactory nerve; and here its office ceases. 
It maybe remarked, however, that the pleasurable or opposite 
sensation produced by an odour, depends much upon the habit 
of the individual, or the training of the faculty ; for odours 
that are delightful to some individuals, are unendurable to 
others. Some persons take great delight in scenting them- 
selves and their clothes with musk, burgamot, cologne, &c; 
whilst to others, these smells are an abomination. 

Some of the lower animals excel man in the acuteness of 
their smell, as their olfactory apparatus is larger. 

Odours act powerfully upon the brain. Hence, the appli 
cation of stimuli to the olfactory nerves, often revives sensi- 
bility in cases of suspended animation. 


The existence of a mental faculty, the exclusive office ot 
which is to superintend and direct the action of the muscles, 
has not yet been demonstrated, but is considered as quite 

SPECIES II. — Observing and Knowing Faculties. 
For a description of these faculties, see page 50 


Power of noticing single objects as separate existences, and 
of considering each as a distinct identity and individw 
ality — desire to see and know, and to examine, objects- - 
curiosity to see things — power of observation. 

The material world is composed of single objects, arranged 
and combined into one grand whole ; but without a faculty 
whose function it is to individualize these objects, and take 
cognizance of them one by one as distinct and separate ex- 
istences and entities, mankind would perceive them only as 
a confused and indistinct mass, and be unable to distinguish 


one single thing from another. It is doubtful, indeed, whether, 
without such a faculty, we could form clear notions, or dis- 
tinct ideas, upon any subject. 

This faculty gives the desire, accompanied with the ability, 
to become acquainted with objects as mere existences, without 
reference to their qualities, such as form, size, colour, weight, 
&c, or to their modes of action ; and, inasmuch as it leads 
to observation, it becomes an important element in a literary 
taste and talent. 

Large. — One having individ. large, has a great curiosity 
to see and examine whatever comes within the range of his 
observation ; is deeply interested in the mere examination of 
individual objects, aside from their causes, uses, relations, 
and conditions ; is quick to see what is passing around him, 
and allows few things that come within the range of his vision, 
to escape his observation ; is a close and practical observer 
of men and things; and, by associating his thoughts and 
arguments with some visible object, and by thus giving them 
a distinct identity and individuality, imparts to them a pecu 
liar clearness and definiteness, and seeming tangibility. 

One having individ. large, with event, also large or very 
large, will not only be quick to see what is passing around 
him, but, also, have an excellent memory of what he has 
seen ; with large or very large compar. added, will not only 
have the ability of comparing things together, and noting 
wherein they resemble, or wherein they differ from, each 
other, but will also take great delight in this exercise ; with 
good advantages, will possess a rich fund of general and partic- 
ular knowledge ; a ready command of facts, and a great fond- 
ness for reading and study, and have the requisite talent and 
disposition to become a superiour natural scholar; yet, to 
become a finished scholar, he must also possess form, local., 
ideal., and caus. large or very large: with large caus.. 
will first notice things in their individual capacity, and then 
investigate their relations of cause and effect, their design 
and utility, and the effects they are capable of producing; or 
in other words, will be a close observer of things, and, also, 
strongly inclined to philosophize upon them ; and, with the rea- 
soning organs very large, will observe closely, yet reason more 
than observe ; have excellent ideas, and also impart to them 
a clearness and tangibility that will render them easy to be 
understood, and thus greatly add to their power ; and, with 
the addition of large form, will be an enthusiastick and a 



•uccessful investigator of human nature, and generally form 
correct opinions of the character and talents of men by their 
physiognomy, conversation, deportment, &c, and can suc- 
cessfully apply himself both to details and general princi- 
ples: with ideal, large or very large, will regard objects 
as clothed with peculiar splendour, natural beauty, high per- 
fection, &c. 

Very large. — One having individ. very large, will pos- 
sess an unconquerable desire to see, see, see — whatever it is 
possible for him to see ; before he is aware of it, will take 
up things and look at them, even when propriety would re- 
quire him to leave them untouched ; have a prying curiosity 
to become acquainted with things as mere existences ; can 
hardly rest satisfied without thoroughly exploring and sur- 
veying every thing within the reach of his observation ; is 
a real looker, and even given to gazing, or, perhaps, to sta- 
ring : with caus. only full, looks much more than thinks, and 
is so much devoted to the examination of objects, that his 
power of abstract thought is thereby weakened, or, at least, 
frequently interrupted by the operation of this faculty ; finds 
it difficult to confine his attention to abstract contemplations, 
because it is so frequently arrested by physical objects ; will 
be given to personification, and, with compar. large, to met- 
aphor, simile, &c, and be apt to consider mere abstract ideas 
or notions, such as virtue, vice, justice, reason, &c, as per- 
sonal identities ; may readily learn things, but will not pos- 
sess an unusual share of depth of intellect, &c. 

The additional manifestations and combinations of indi- 
vid. very large, may be inferred from those described under 
individ. large, the compar. of- the reader being allowed to 
supply the increased influence of individ. 

Full. — One having individ. full, with the reasoning or- 
gans large or very large, will reason much more than ob- 
serve, think more than look, and examine objects chiefly as 
connected with their causes, relations, effects, qualities, uses, 
&c: with moderate event., will be liable to forget things, 
and have but an indifferent memory of facts ; will manifest 
gome curiosity to examine objects, and see whatever comes 
in his way, yet not be at much pains merely to gratify his 
looking propensity, and will not be distinguished, either for 
his observing powers, or for the want of them. 

Moderate. — One having moderate individ., will be some- 
what deficient in his powers of observation ; have rather indis 



tinct ideas of things, and describe them rather in a sun. rnary 

and general, than in a particular, manner, and, with the rea- 
soning organs large or very large, be much more en glossed 
with general principles than with their details, and more in- 
terested in investigating the causes, reasons, and relations of 
things, than with their physical qualities. 

Small. — One having individ. small, will fail to observe 
what is passing around him ; take little interest in the mere 
examination of objects; have little of that prying curiosity 
to see and handle things, which is imparted by large indi- 
vid. ; often have but indistinct notions of objects which he 
has seen ; fail to identify particular things, be vague in his 
descriptions of them, and find attention to details and the mi- 
nutiae of business, unpleasant, and not suited to the character 
of his intellect. 

The descriptions and combinations mentioned under indi- 
vid. large, reversed, or read with a negative added to them, 
will apply to individ. small. 

Very small. — One having very small individ., will re- 
gard things, as it were, in a mass ; see nothing which is not 
forced upon his attention ; seldom regard objects in their in- 
dividual capacity, and, with marvel, small, may be led to 
doubt even his own personal identity. 

Location. — Individ, is located at the root of the nose, 
and when large, it separates the eyebrows from each other, 
and, causes them, as they approach the nose, to arch; but, 
when small, the eyebrows nearly meet, and are nearly hori- 

The organ of individ. is generally much larger in children 
than in adults ; which goes far to show, that it is highly 
useful in the process of forming ideas : indeed, aided by 
compar., whose office it is to compare things together, and by 
event., which remembers what is observed and compared, 
(and both of which are found highly developed in children,) 
it constitutes the great medium of intellectual converse with 
the material world, and assists us in treasuring up most of 
the knowledge which we acquire. 

25. FORM. 

That mental power which takes cognizance of the shape or 
configuration of objects, and recollects them. 
A Mr. Gibson, of Washington, D. C, suggested to one 
©f the authors, the idea that the superfices, or shape, of ob- 



jects, consists of nothing more than angles connected by 
straight or curved lines, and that these constitute the form of 
objects ; and, moreover, that the faculty of form observes and 
recollects these angles, and size, the length of the lines con- 
necting them. This view of the subject, is, at least, ingen- 
ious, and worthy of examination. 

Tnat no materia, object can exist without possessing the 
property of form or shape, is a self-evident proposition; 
and without some mental power the function of which is 
to convey to the individual a distinct idea of the forms of 
different objects, no such idea could possibly enter the mind, 
any more than could the idea of the colour of an object 
without an organ of vision and a faculty of colour, or that 
of a savour or an odour without the faculty of taste or of 
smell. To the perfection of the human mind, then, some 
faculty whose office it is to take cognizance of the various 
forms of objects, becomes absolutely necessary. 

The nature and operation of this faculty, may be inferred 
from the principle which proves the necessity of its existence. 

Large. — One having form large, finds it easy to observe 
and retain forms ; readily catches the distinct appearance of 
things, and recollects them for a long time ; generally at- 
tributes certain shapes to particular things which he hears 
described, and even to immaterial objects, &c. 

One having form large, with individ. large, both notices, 
and recollects, the faces and countenances of those whom he 
sees, and thus is enabled to know a great many persons : 
with individ. only moderate, does not notice the shape or the 
physiognomy of persons with sufficient accuracy to obtain a 
clear idea of their appearance, but, when his attention is once 
arrested by any thing special, and he has obtained a distinct 
impression of its looks, he seldom forgets it : with individ. 
and local, large or very large, when he sees a person a second 
time, will generally be able to identify and locate him, though 
he may be unable to call his name, and, with event, large, 
will not only recollect that he has seen him before, but 
often, where he has seen him, and also many incidents which 
transpired at the time, and yet may feel mortified that he 
cannot call him by name : with imitat. very large, will be 
able to copy from memory : with large or very large indi- 
vid., size, local., order, and compar., will have all the talent re- 
quisite for becoming a good naturalist, botanist, anatomist, and 
chymist, and, with ideal, also large or very large, will expe« 



rience the greatest delight in the pursuit of these branches 
of science: with construct., size, and imitat. large or very 
large, will be able to give the proper shape to the articles he 
may make, &c. : with size large, can read writing that is in- 
distinct, and, with individ. also large, easily learn to read cor 
rectly; and seldom miscal a word. 

To the mechanick, the artist, the naturalist, the anatomist, 
the botanist, and all those in publick life who have to trans- 
act business with many individuals, a large development of 
this faculty, is not only of the greatest utility, but even indis- 
pensable to success. 

Very large. — One having form very large, obtains, as 
it were, by intuition, a distinct impression of the form of the 
objects he sees ; will very seldom forget the shape or the ap- 
pearance of things he has once seen ; if he once fairly looks 
at a person, will almost always know him when he meets 
him again ; be able to recognise individuals even by a par- 
tial view of their face, by seeing them at a distance, &c. ; 
can readily discover family resemblances, and also detect dif- 
ferences in the looks of persons and things; frequently re- 
collects the name of a person by remembering its appear- 
ance upon paper ; can readily detect typographical errours, 
and, with lang. large, easily learn to spell correctly ; can see 
things that are very minute or indistinct, or at a great dis- 
tance, and, with size and individ. large or very large, can 
read very fast and very correctly, and at a distance which 
would enable ordinary form and individ. hardly to perceive 
that there were letters : with large or very large local., will 
be able to study botany, mineralogy, geology, anatomy, and 
all the natural sciences with remarkable ease and success, &c. 

The additional descriptions and combinations under form 
large, modified by an increase of the quality imparted by 
form, will apply to form very large. 

Full. — One having form full, after seeing an individual 
several times, and becoming somewhat familiar with his 
looks, will be able to recollect his physiognomy and appear- 
ance, yet cannot be considered as remarkable for this power; 
will have a respectable memory of faces and countenances, 
yet a .ong interval will weaken, or, perhaps, nearly obliter- 
ate, his recollection of them, especially of those with whom 
he is but partially acquainted; upon meeting those whom he 
has before seen, will have an indistinct recollection that he 
has seen them, but will be less certain and distinct in his re- 



collection, than if it had been produced by large or very 
large forrn. 

One having form full, with individ. large or very large, 
will have a very good recollection of the countenances, form, 
and gait of persons, and partly because he is so great an ob- 
server ; but, with individ. only moderate, will have but an 
indifferent memory of such things, partly because he will 
fail to notice them so particularly as to obtain a clear and 
fixed impression of their shape, appearance, &c, and partly 
because his memory of those which he does observe, is not 
remarkably tenacious. 

Moderate. — Qne having moderate form, retains only an 
indistinct and confused memory of persons, animals, and 
different objects, and must see them several times in order to 
know them again, especially after a considerable lapse of 
time ; is often quite uncertain whether he has, or has not, 
seen individuals whom he meets ; is capable of making but 
moderate progress in the study of the natural sciences ; can- 
not clearly distinguish forms at a distance, nor certainly 
identify a person or an object until he is near it, or has a 
full view of it; will make many mistakes in reading; find 
it difficult to read hand-writing, especially if it is not very 
plain, &c. 

The additional manifestations and combinations of form 
moderate, may be inferred from a negative of those under 
form large. 

Small, or very small. — One having form small or very 
small, will be exceedingly troubled by forgetfulness of per- 
sons ; may meet an individual one day, and even converse 
with him, and not recognise him at a subsequent meeting, 
even though it may be very soon after : with approbat. large, 
will feel mortified on account of this deficiency, and endeav- 
our to notice and recollect shapes, yet his efforts will be una- 
vailing ; in reading, will miscal many words, especially if the 
print is fine or indistinct, and hardly be able to decipher 
hand-writings : with individ. large, will see those whom he 
chances to meet, but will seldom notice the expression of 
their countenance, appearance, &c, and, therefore, not often 
recollect them; but, with individ. small, neither sees nor no- 
tices hose whom he meets ; so that, even those with whom 
he is quite intimate, are sometimes not recognised by him. 

The descriptions and combinations under form moderate, 
modified by a diminution of the power of form, and also 



those under form large and very large, reversed, will appij 
to form small or very small. 

Location. — Form is located upon the two sides of the 
crista galli, and, when large or very large, causes great 
breadth between the eyes, and sometimes turns them out 
wards ; but, when small, they more nearly approach eacfe 

26. SIZE. 

That mental power which takes cognizance of magnitude 
and proportion — ability to judge of length, breadth, 
height, depth, distance, SfC 

Since no material object can exist without occupying 
space, it necessarily follows, that magnitude or bulk is a nat- 
ural property of matter : and hence it also follows, that the 
human mind would be defective, were it not possessed of a 
distinct faculty the proper function of which is to distinguish 
this property of matter. Without such a faculty, man could 
not distinguish the difference between a mountain and a 
mole-hill, a river and a rill, an ocean and a fountain. 

That the faculty of form cannot execute the function at- 
tributed to size, is clearly shown by the fact, that there exists 
no proportion between the shape of an object and its magni- 
tude or bulk. The configuration of certain things, may be 
the same, but their size widely different. Nature would be 
at fault, therefore, did she not endow man with a separate 
faculty adapted to the cognizance of each of these properties 
of matter. 

Again, the place, position, weight, and colour of objects* 
are conditions or properties each demanding a separate fac- 
ulty of the mind to judge of it. 

Large. — One having size large, will be able to judge 
very correctly of the height, length, distance, middle, centre, 
magnitude, &c, of objects ; to determine with considerable 
accuracy, whether given points are on a water level ; to 
judge very nearly of the weight of animals, men, and 
other objects by their size, ascertained merely by looking at 
them ; by a cast of the eye, can readily determine about how 
much is, or can be, enclosed in a certain space ; whether 9 
given thing is in an exact perpendicular or horizontal posi- 
tion, and will, in this way, always measure objects with a 
view to ascertain these and similar points ; will judge quite 


accurately in regard to the centre of a circle, the size of an 
angle, and proportion generally, &c. 

One having size large, with form and construct, large, will 
have a very correct, mechanical eye, by which he will be 
often guided instead of by measuring- instruments ; with imitat. 
and local, added, can draw by the eye mathematical and 
other figures with great accuracy ; decide correctly upon the 
qualities of proportion and magnitude, and impart these 
qualities to his drawings and mechanical operations ; and, 
with weight added, is naturally a first-rate marksman, and 
will need comparatively but little practice to make himself 
quite expert with fire-arms, &c. In Col. Crocket, these or- 
gans were all developed in a remarkable degree. 

Very large. — One having size very large, will possess 
the powers described under the head of size large, in an ex- 
traordinary degree — be able to form his judgment of the 
magnitude, distance, &c. of objects with surprising accuracy, 
and, as it were, by intuition ; seldom need to employ instru- 
ments to measure with, because he will be able to measure 
so accurately by the eye, and calculate size correctly where 
no instrument can be employed ; seemingly without an effort, 
will be able to detect even a slight deviation from a hori- 
zontal, a perpendicular, or a rectangular position, and be 
greatly annoyed by it ; and not only perform all those func- 
tions described under size large, but execute them with as- 
tonishing accuracy and facility. 

The combinations under size large, will hold good when 
applied to size very large, except that the degree of the pow- 
er of the organ, must be much increased. 

Full. — One having size full, will possess a respectable 
share of the power described under size large, ye* will not 
be distinguished for this talent ; will manifest a deficiency of 
this faculty only when he is called upon to measure either 
long distances, or short ones with considerable precision ; 
and possess a sufficient share of this power for all ordinary, 
practical purposes. 

Moderate. — One having moderate size, will be able, by 
practice, to measure short distances by the eye, especially 
jn those things with which he is acquainted, yet will not be at 
all distinguished for his accuracy in doing it ; find considerate 
difficulty in comparing different magnitudes, and will have 
but" an indifferent, mechanical eye. 

Small. — One having size small, will be decisively defi 



cient in the power and qualities described under size large, 
be very inaccurate in his judgment of distance and propor 
tionate bulk ; and entirely fail in his descriptions and com- 
parisons of the size of objects. 

The descriptions and combinations under size large and 
very large, when reversed, or read with a negative, will ap- 
ply to size small. 

Very small. — One having size very small, will form ex- 
tremely inadequate ideas of proportionate size, and, indeed, 
of size generally, and hardly understand the meaning of the 

Location. — Size is located at the internal termination of 
the eyebrows, and develops itself on the two sides of the root 
of the nose. When it is large, it causes the internal portion 
of the eyebrow to project, or shelve, over the internal portion 
of the eye nearly an inch ; but, when moderate or small, it 
js nearly perpendicular from the inner corner of the eye to 
hat of the eyebrow. By inserting the thumb into the angle 
formed by the arch of the eye and the nose, when the organ 
is large or very large, and weight only moderate, a protu- 
berance will easily be observed, in shape somewhat resem- 
bling a bean. 

27. WEIGHT. 

Intuitive perception and application of the principles of 
specifick gravity — ability to judge of the force and resist- 
ance of bodies, and of equilibrium — to preserve the cen- 
tre of gravity, fyc. 

The whole physical world (including man, of course) is 
under the influence of the laws of attraction or gravitation. 
By their all-pervading influence, these laws bind together 
the whole material universe. They hold the sun, the moon, 
the stars, and the planets in their orbits as they perform their 
respective journeys through the trackless fields of space ; 
cause the winds to blow, the waters to flow, the seasons to 
return, and chain to the earth all things that rest upon its 
surface. They also bind together those innumerable parti- 
cles of matter which enter into the composition of all the 
different material substances that exist ; and but for their op- 
eration, these various particles of matter which compose the 
universe, coukl never have been held together for a moment, 


but must have been promiscuously scattered and afloat 
throughout the illimitable tracts of immensity. But for the 
operation of these laws, the earth would still be " without 
form and void," and no animate or inanimate thing would 
have existence. 

By some philosophical writers, a distinction has been 
made between the attraction of cohesion, and the attraction 
of gravitation; but, unless it can clearly be shown, thai 
there is a difference between that primary power which 
biings the particles of matter together, and that which holds 
tnem together, this distinction between the two kinds of at- 
traction, will prove a distinction without a difference, and, 
consequently, not a proper one. Can such a difference be 
shown? or can it be shown, that the principle or power 
which brings together the larger masses of matter, differs 
from that which binds together the particles of the smaller 
masses ? 

The object of these remarks, however, is not so much to 
prove, or disprove, a difference between the laws of cohesion 
and the laws of gravitation, as to throw out the general idea, 
that for every set of laws in nature, and their accompanying 
phenomena, with which man has to do, he requires a distinct 
faculty of the mind, adapting him to these laws and phenom- 
ena ; and that, therefore, if the attraction of cohesion is gov- 
erned by one set of principles, and the attraction of gravita- 
tion, by another, each of these sets requires a separate faculty 
of the mind. 

The faculty of weight has to do, mainly, with those prin- 
ciples which relate to the specifick gravity of bodies, in 
judging of the consistency, density, softness, hardness, light- 
ness, and heaviness or resistance of bodies — qualities which 
<:annot be decided upon by the mere sense of feeling or touch. 

Large. — One having weight large, will seldom lose his 
oalance, even in difficult positions, and the instant he has 
W the centre of gravity, be warned by this faculty, and di- 
rected to the muscular effort requisite to regain it ; seldom 
slip or fall ■ readily adapt himself to the laws of specifick 
gravity generally, and apply them to the accomplishment of 
his designs; can sling a stone, pitch a quoit, &o, very near 
the mark; will naturally and intuitively understand the laws 
of momentum, staticks, and resistance : if much accustomed 
t< riding on hr.-seback, can be thrown o^ly with great diffi- 
culty; will easily learn to skate, and take great delight in 



the exercise, and seldom fall upon the ice ; with grea£ 
ease, can balance things which those v. ith weight small, can- 
not, and perform other feats of a similar nature with appa- 
rent ease and intuition ; will walk upon a pole or a spa? 
stretched across a stream, the frame of a building, a fence, 
&c, without falling, or fearing to fall, especially if 
large ; and, with construct, form, and caus. large or very large, 
will intuitively understand the power and the principles of 
machinery, and skilfully apply them to effect mechanical op- 
erations ; is capable of becoming a good machinist, and, with 
large or very large size, individ., local., and calcu. added, a 
first-rate engineer, or superintendent of machinery ; can, at 
once, comprehend and apply the principles of hydraulicks, 
hydrostaticks, pneumati'cks, &c, and judge of powers and 
projectile forces with uncommon facility and accuracy. 

Very large. — One having very large weight, will pos- 
sess the powers described under weight large, but in a much 
higher degree, so much so as to stand out alone, and excite 
the astonishment of those who witness his skill : — and all 
this he will be able to do seemingly by intuition, and with- 
out effort. 

Full. — One having weight full, will apply the principles 
of weight, balancing, equilibrium, and resistance, with suffi- 
cient facility and correctness to get along with the ordinary 
business of life, but will not be remarkable for this quality; 
aided by considerable practice, may possess those powers 
described under the head of weight large, yet they will be 
the result of practice moTe than of nature, &c. 

Moderate. — One having weight moderate, where only a 
moderate share of this faculty is required, as in the case of 
walking, running, &c, may manifest little, if any, deficiency 
in this respect, yet will not possess those powers described 
under the head of weight large ; will be liable occasionally 
to lose his balance, to stumble, and, perhaps, fall, and to be 
thrown from a skittish horse ; to experience dizziness, espe- 
cially over running water, or from heights ; will not be 
able to throw a quoit, stone, or other missile, just high enough, 
or low enough, just far enough to the right or left, and w ith ex- 
actly momentum enough to hit the mark, &c. One having 
weight moderate, with large or very large imitat., form, and 
construct, will be able to use tools with great skill, yet will be 
no machinist, and will not readily and intuitively understand 
the operation and the powers of machinery, &c. The probabil- 



hy is, that shooting running or flying game, depends more 
upon weight than upon, any other faculty. 

Small. — One having small weight, will be decisively de- 
ficient in those qualities described under weight large and 
very large ; can be easily thrown from his balance, or from 
a horse ; frequently stumbles, and, with large or very large 
cautious., will fear to trust himself where he is liable to fall, 
because he will feel unsafe, &c. 

Very small. — One having weight very small, will be 
extremely deficient in all those functions which belong to 
this faculty, and be liable to be thrown to the earth by slight 

Location. — Weight is located adjoining to size, and a 
little internally from the middle of the arch of the eye. It 
is generally moderate or small in the American head. 

28. COLOUR. 

Ability to perceive and recollect the various colours of ob- 
jects, to compare them, and judge of the harmony or dis- 
cord of their different shades when mingled. 

In speaking of vision, it was remarked, that the eye could 
perceive the rays of light, and be agreeably or disagreeably 
affected by t»heir various modifications or colours, but, that 
an ability to conceive the relations of colours, and compare 
them, to judge of their harmony or discord, and remember 
their teints, must depend upon another faculty of the mind ; 
otherwise, all painters who possess equally good eyesight, 
and who have had the same amount of practice, would be 
equally happy in colouring: but this is by no means the 

The organ of colour is larger and more active in women 
than in men, and in some nations, and some individuals, than 
in others. Indeed, the authors have seen many persons who 
were possessed of excellent powers of vision, but who were 
utterly incapable of distinguishing (except black and white) 
one colour from another. Many other similar cases are also 
on record — all of which go to prove, that natu e, in perfect' 
tag her own handiwork, has seen fit to bestow upon the hu- 
man mind, a primary faculty whose sole function it is to per- 
ceive, and judge of, colours. 

Large. — One having colour large, will readily notice 
and remember, and be able to compare, different colours, and 



even their various shades and teints; will often notice the 
colouir of a person's eyes, dress, hair, &c. ; manifest uncom- 
mon taste and skill in selecting, arranging, comparing, and 
mingling colours, and, as far as a natural talent for applying 
them is concerned, he will excel : with large or very large 
ideal, will be highly delighted with splendid paintings both 
as regards their colours and the composition, or imagination 
and taste displayed in them, and, with large form and imitat., 
can easily learn to puint, and that with uncommon skill ; and, 
with very large form, size, imitat., and construct., aided by 
practice, may be an excellent portrait or miniature paintei ; 
and, in examining and purchasing articles of dress, furniture, 
&c. will have a particular reference to their colour. 

Very large. — One having colour very large, notices the 
colour of objects as soon as he does any other quality, and 
recollects it as long; is a natural and original colourist, and 
capable of painting with extraordinary skill and facility : 
with compar. and ideal, large or very large, is a first-rate 
judge and critick of colours, and has a passionate fondness for 
employing the pencil or brush; and is highly delighted with 
rich and lively colours : with caus. only full, and approbat., 
individ., and ideal, large or very large, will be excessively 
fond of gayly coloured and gaudy articles of dress and furni- 
ture, and even run into extravagance in this respect : w r ith 
very large form, and large or very large ideal., construct., 
imitat., size, order, and individ., is capable of becoming a 
portrait painter of the first class, and, with event, and com- 
par. also large, a historical painter; of using the brush 
with Avon derfu I effect ; and of transferring to canvass both 
the conceptions of his imagination, and real characters. 

Full. — One having coiouryw/Z, by considerable practice, 
will be able to distinguish colours readily and accurately, yet 
this talent will be the product of art more than of nature, or, 
rather, of nature greatly improved by culture; will notice 
colours that are striking, or that are very well or very ill ar- 
ranged, yet will seldom pay much attention to those that are 
ordinary : with ideal, large or very large, may display much 
taste and good judgment in mingHng and arranging colours, 
and, with imitat. large, be able to learn to paint well, yet the 
mere colouring will form a less important feature in his pro- 
ductions ; will gaze with enthusiasm upon a splendid paint- 
ing, but will be more interested in the imagination and taste 
displayed in it, than in the mere colouring ; but, with ideal. 



moderate, will not be at all partial to pictures or paintings 
and only an indifferent judge of colours. 

Moderate. — One having moderate colour, will not take 
much interest in colours, unless something special calls his 
attention to them, and will seldom notice or recollect them ; 
can seldom describe persons by the colour of their eyes, 
dress, &c. ; and can learn to select and match colours only 
with considerable practice and effort : with ideal, large or 
very large, though he may be highly delighted with splendid 
paintings, will generally be more gratified with some of their 
other qualities and beauties, than with the mere arrangement 
of their colours ; may distinguish one colour from another, but 
will not be able to distinguish their nicer shades and feints. 

Small. — One having small colour, will very seldom no- 
tice the colour of people's eyes or hair, or of any article of 
their dress, and even though familiar with them, will be unable 
to describe them by these indications ; will seldom notice, or 
take any interest in, colours, regarding them all as amount- 
ing to about the same thing; will find great difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing their different shades, and, perhaps, between the 
different primary colours ; occasionally mistake one for an- 
other, and be comparatively insensible to the beauty produced 
by the arrangement and blending of different colours. 

The additional combinations and descriptions of colour 
small, may be inferred from those under colour large or very 
large, reversed, or read with the addition of a negative. 

Very small. — One having colour very small, even 
though his eyesight and his ability to distinguish form and 
other qualities of objects, may be excellent, will be able to 
form little or no idea even of the primary colours, and, much 
less, of their shades ; can perceive very little, if any, differ- 
ence between the colours of different cloths, or even those of 
• th^^rism or rainbow, as an indistinct, whitish appearance 
will seem to him to characterize the whole ; and can distin- 
guish between those objects only that are black or white, or 
bordering upon this appearance. 

Location. — Colour is located under the arch of the eye- 
brow, a little externally from the middle, and between the 
organs of weight and order. In ascertaining it, there is 
occasionally some difficulty in consequence of the thickness 
of the bone that covers it. 



29. ORDER. 

Systm — sense of physical arrangement — desire to hav* 
things in their places. 

" Order is heaven's first law." As far as our feeble powers 
are capable of ascertaining, the whole universe is found to 
be a perfect system of things. Perfection of arrangement 
and perfect order characterize every part of it, the most mi- 
nute details not excepted. In the marshalling of " tbe heav- 
enly hosts," and appointing to each its time and place, in 
limiting the growth of the various kinds of vegetation to differ- 
ent portions of the earth's surface, in the arrangement and 
structure of the constituent parts of even a flower, in the 
formation of every portion of the human body, the system- 
atick order displayed, is wonderful and perfect. In short, 
throughout the whole kingdom of nature, every thing has 
assigned to it a particular place, and can be expelled from 
that place only by doing violence to the system of nature. 

Can we suppose, then, that the infinitely wise Architect 
of the universe, would institute such a harmonious and 
beautiful arrangement, without adapting man to it by creating 
in him an ability both to appreciate and practise it ? Indeed, 
we are conscious of possessing, to a great extent, a delight 
in order, and a desire to practise it. 

This, then, brings us to the inquiry, whether this class of 
functions is exercised by a faculty devoted exclusively to 
this office or not. The obvious answer is, that, inasmuch 
as the other classes of the mental functions, are each per- 
formed by as many separate and innate mental powers, this 
class is also exercised by a distinct, primary faculty. 

This faculty has nothing to do with the logical arraM^ . 
ment of ideas, (if we except the physical signs employeTRo 
express them,) the structure of an argument, or the taste dis- 
played in expression ; nor does it singly produce taste in 
dress. At a recent, publick examination, one of the authors 
observed of an individual, that he was remarkable for his 
order and arrangement, but defective in taste and niceness : 
and this proved to be the fact. He also knows a lady who 
is uncommonly neat and tidy in her dress, and one of the 
nicest of housekeepers, and yet she possesses only moderate 
order, is often troubled to find her needle, thread, gloves, &c. 
Such instances are even quite common — the first kind being 


accompanied with only moderate ideal, and the last, with 
this organ large or very large. 

Large. — One having order large, with local, large or 
very large, will have a particular place for every thing, and 
every thing in its place ; instead of leaving his tools, books, 
papers, clothes, and whatever he has occasion to use, where 
it happens, he will return them to their respective places ; 
can readily find what he wishes, provided it has not been 
disarranged by others; will be systematick in his business; 
not only precise himself to keep things in place, but partic- 
ular to have those under him, do the same ; and, with ideal, 
also large, be exceedingly annoyed by disorder, and thus 
possess an indispensable requisite for regularity, correctness, 
and despatch in whatever he undertakes. 

One having large order, with large combat, and destruct., 
will be rendered as impatient 3ud as angry by disorder, as 
by almost any thing else, and thus manifest much more pee- 
vishness of disposition, and appear more passionate and 
harsh, than he otherwise would : with ideal, large, will be 
always cleanly, and tidy, and very nice and particular about 
his person ; greatly annoyed by a rent in his garments, or a 
spot upon them, or by their being soiled, not clean, or their fit- 
ting badly ; by a long beard, disordered hair, or a dirty or disor 
dered room ; or by anything irregular, contracted, or broken, 
even though it may have been repaired, &c., and will often 
overdo in order to serve this faculty; and, with ideal, very 
large, will be even fastidious in these respects, and take 
many an unnecessary step on this account; but, with ideal, 
only moderate, though he maybe systematick, and have a place 
for every thing, and every thing in its place, and always able 
to lay his hand on such things as he uses, and about as quick 
in the dark as in the light, yet will be neither nice nor par- 
ticular in his personal appearance ; will, perhaps, seem to 
others to have his things in utter confusion, and yet, what 
wLl appear disorder to them, will be order to him: with time 
targe, will fulfil his appointments punctually, and have a 
lime, as well as a place, for every thing. 

Very large. — One having order very large, will know 
iust where to lay his hand, both in the dark and in the light, 
upon any article he wishes to use, provided no one has dis 
placed it ; when he puts off his clothes, or has done using hi* 
tb >ngs, he lays them away in the particular places assigned 
V \bem : in all he does, is perfectly systematick and precise s 



and, in the matter of order, is what is termed " old-maidish,** 
instantly notices the least disarrangement, and is annoyed be- 
yond measure, if not rendered perfectly miserable, by con- 
fusion, disorder, &c. 

One having order very large, with adhes. large or very 
large, will love the company of his friends sincerely, but be 
so much disturbed by one thing and another about their per- 
son, their furniture, house, &c, and by the disarrangement 
they cause him, that he will almost dread to visit, or receive 
a visit from, them, and, on this account, frequently feel vexed 
at those he really loves ; in the selection of his friends, will 
have a special reference to this quality in them, and be unable 
to endure the company of the slovenly or the negligent: 
with combat, and destruct. large, will frequently be angry at 
those who leave things out of their places, and severely rep- 
rimand, and even scoid, men, though they may be his best 
friends; and. with ideal, large or very large, will be so extreme- 
ly fastidious and over nice as to cause a great deal of trouble 
to those around him, and be even a trouble to himself and a 
slave to this iaculty; and. to gratify it, will frequently do 
much more than there is any need of doing, or than his 
strength will bear- and, if a woman, will scrub her finger- 
nails off, and the nail-heads from her floors ; worry her ser- 
vants to death : scour the paint off the ceilings and mould- 
ings, the silver oft' the door-kn^b and knocker, the brass off 
the andirons, the tin from her poos and the hoops from he? 
churn ; and still scrub and wash, and wash and serub, till 
.she scrubs the patience out 01 her husband, and washes the 
threads out of his Linen. 

The descriptions and combinations which apply to order 
large, modified by an increase of order, will apply to order 
very large. 

Full. — One having order full, will be pleased with ar- 
rangement, and, if brought up to habits of system and order, 
will seem to possess a high endowment of the dualities de- 
scribed under order large, yet much will depend upon hia 
education and his ideal. ; will possess enough of this faculty 
to got well in business, yet not enough to msVe him 
fastidious, or cause him to make any great sacrifices' upon 
this account ;^ and generally preserve order, partly fro*** an 
innate love of it, and partly from the necessity a»4 uti'ifc? 
of it 


The combinations under order large, modified by a dimi- 
nution, of the power of order, will apply to order full. 

Moderate. — One having order moderate, though, per 
haps, a little disturbed by disorder, and rather fond of seeing 
things in place, will not possess enough of this faculty to 
prompt him to much effort in order to keep them properly 
arranged ; will generally leave his things at loose ends ; be 
less systematick in his business than would be to his advan 
tage; may preserve something like system and arrangement 
in his affairs, but will do so more from the necessity, than 
ihe love, of them : with ideal, large or very large, though he 
will be neat and nice in his person, dress, &c, will leave 
things where it will trouble him to find them, often forget 
where they are, and manifest taste and cleanliness without 
system or arrangement : with self-e., combat., and destruct. 
large or very large, will possess enough of this faculty to 
command others to preserve order, and will even scold them 
for allowing disorder, but will not keep things in order him- 
self, and, perhaps, disarrange the things of others, as well 
as his own. 

Small. — One having order small, will be apt to leave 
things where he happens to use them, or anywhere else, 
either in, or out of, their proper places, and, consequently, be 
greatly troubled to find them again when he wants them, 
thus subjecting himself to much inconvenience and delay; 
will operate without system, and, of course, without despatch, 
and thus consume much time in accomplishing but little ; 
but, notwithstanding, will fail to amend, or to feel troubled 
with disorder, or to appreciate the importance of order and 
system ; and, with time only moderate, will seldom appor- 
tion his time to specifick objects, and generally be behind- 
hand in fulfilling his engagements, plans, and appointments. 

The descriptions and combinations under order large and 
very large, reversed, will apply to order small. 

Very small. — One having order very small, will be al- 
most insensible to the beauty and utility of systematick ar- 
rangement ; will scarcely notice ihe difference between order 
and disorder, and leave whatever he may have occasion to 
use, scattered about in utter confusion. 

Location. — Order islocatedunderthe arch of the eyebrow, 
at the external corner of the eye, and beneath the origin of 
the superciliary ridge. When it is large or very large, the 
external angle of the lower portion of the forehead, appears 
~ 9* 



projecting aftd full, the eyebrow, at the union of the temporal 
ridge, arched and elongated, and sometimes sharp but, 
when it is moderate or small, the external portion of the eye- 
brow will appear straight and shortened. The thickness cf 
\he bone in this portion, increased by the temporal ridge, 
vauses an occasional mistake in deciding upon the size of 
this organ. 


Intuitive perception of the relations of numbers and pro- 
portions — ability to reckon figures in the head — numerical 
computation — numeration— mental arithmetic. 

In addition to the other qualities and conditions of things 
which exist in nature, we naturally attach to them numerical 
relations, such as are denoted by numbering them with the 
signs one, two, three, and so on ; adding them together ; as 
four and three make seven ; multiplying them ; as four times 
three are twelve, &c. : and, for the purpose of facilitating 
such calculations, mankind have instituted arbitrary signs, 
by combining which, in various ways, they are enabled to 
express these numbers with great accuracy and brevity 
Since, then, these relations expressed by numbers, actually 
exist in nature, it is a fair induction to suppose, that the hu- 
man mind requires a primary faculty the sole function of 
which is to comprehend them, and apply them to the prac- 
tical purposes of life. 

That the mental faculty which perceives, comprehends, 
and applies these numerical principles, is intuitive, and de- 
voted exclusively to this class of functions, is moreover evi- 
dent from the fact, that extraordinary, calculating powers, are 
often found to be possessed by individuals whose talents, in other 
respects, are quite ordinary ; whilst, on the contrary, men of 
extraordinary reasoning and other faculties, are frequently 
found to be deficient in their computing powers. Many 
striking cases of both kinds have fallen under the observa 
tion of the authors, some of which will be stated in the 
chapter upon facts. 

Large. — One having calcu. large, will be quick to compute 
llgures, and be able to perform numerical and arithmetic?.] 
calculations, even in his head, with accuracy, facility, and 
despatch, and will delight in the study of figures, and 1* 
an expert accountant. 



Onw having calcu. large, with caus. and compar. also 
kiTge, will be able to seize even the abstract relations of num- 
bers with intuitive ease, and to solve difficult problems in his 
head, as well as on the slate, and will succeed well in the 
higher branches of arithmetick and mathematicks ; be quick 
to detect errours in the calculations of others, but seldom 
make them himself, and excel both in the reasoning, and the 
figuring, parts of arithmetick ; and be able to study with 
success, the higher branches of mathematicks; with large 
order, individ., event, and imitat. added, is capable of be- 
coming a good accountant and book keeper, and of casting 
up accounts in his head, which others would be obliged to 
do ufon the slate; and, with local, and construct, added, will 
possess all the natural talents requisite for the study of sur- 
veying, geometry, algebra, mensuration, navigation, astron- 
omy, conick sections, &c. ; will be deeply interested, and 
great <y delighted, in studies of this description; possess a 
remarkable talent for prosecuting and practising them; and 
be a natural mathematician : with caus. only moderate, and 
Individ., local., and form large, though he may be good in 
arithr stick, and quick in figures, will be poor in the higher 
branches of mathematicks. 

Veuv large. — One having calcu. very large, will intui- 
tively comprehend, and be able, at once, to solve, almost any 
arithmetical problem proposed ; go through with difficult 
anc! abstruse arithmetical problems with great ease and perfect 
correctness ; cast up accounts, even though they may consist 
of several columns of figures, and substract, divide, and 
multiply with several figures at a time ; calculate chiefly in 
his head without a pen or pencil, anc! even without the aid 
of rules; seize, by intuition, and with perfect certainty, upon 
his conclusions, and be impatient at the errours and dulness 
of those with only moderate calcu. : with caus., compar., indi- 
vid.. form, size, and local, largo or very large, will be a natural 
mathematician of the first order, and be unrivalled for his 
mathemrticai and astronomical powers; can solve, in his head, 
the most abstruse questions even in the higher branches of 
malhemaJ ; cks, and will be passionately fond of these stud- 
ies ; can p ;rform, with wonderful ease, both the figuring, and 
the reasoning, parts of these studies, and will excel both in 
the principles and the details of mathematical science; be 
great in the demonstrations, and in the principles involved, 
«nd, with marvel, moderate or small, believe nothing which 



he cannot, see, or see mathematically demonstrated: witfi 
these last-named organs only moderate or full, may be, like 
Zera Colburn, unrivalled in his arithmetical or calculating 
powers, and readily solve all numerical questions propounded 
to him ; yet will be unskilful in those branches of \he math- 
ematicks which demand the higher powers of reason and of 
thought, &c. 

Full. — One having full caleu., though he may be re- 
spectable, will not be extraordinary, for his quickness and 
correctness in performing numerical calculations ; and, 
though practice may make him rather expert in the ordinary 
routine of calculations, yet he will not succeed remarkably 
well out of this line ; will not be able intuitively to grasp 
the results of complicated sums or problems ; may succeed 
in the pursuit of arithmetick, but will be obliged to study in 
order to succeed well ; and, with a high degree of culture, 
may become, not only expert, but even eminent, as an arith- 
metician and accountant. 

The influence of calcu. full in combination, may be infer- 
red from the combinations under calcu. large and very large, 
modified by a diminution of the influence of this faculty. 

Moderate. — One having calcu. moderate, from habit aac. 
much practice, may, perhaps, become respectable as an ac- 
countant, and in arithmetical calculations generally, yet wil . 
not readily come at the result of new and abstruse questions : 
be obliged to perform his calculations with his pen or penci. 
in his hand, and progress slowly and carefully, aid then 
make an occasional mistake ; and, upon the whole, will dislike 
numerical calculations and the study of arithmetick : with 
very large caus. and compar., though he may be highly de- 
lighted with the reasonings and the demonstrations contained 
in the mathematicks, will be by no means partial to the mere 
figuring part, and will make his numerical calculations 
chiefly by the help of reason, and the cause and effect by 
which they are governed ; though he can at once see the 
force and application of the rules, and comprehend the prin- 
ciples of arithmetick and of mathematical science generally, 
will consider figures rather a drudgery than a delight; with 
large or very large individ., form, size, local., imitat., and. 
construct, added, will be naturally a first-rate mathematician^ 
but a poor arithmetician ; be passionately fend of the studj 
of geometry, surveying, mensuration, navigation, astronomy 
&c., in case his attention be called to them, and capa 

LOCALlf if. 

hie of excelling m them, yet, in every thing in figures dis- 
connected with reason and demonstration, his talents will be 

Small.— One having calcu. small, will have a strong 
aversion to figures; succeed in them but poorly, and do that 
only with great labour ; be slow, and often incorrect, in cast- 
ing up accounts ; can add, substract, divide, and multiply, 
only by rule, and with his pen or pencil in his hand; and, 
though he may go through a mechanical course of arith- 
metical calculations, will not advance rapidly, nor without 
great effort. One having calcu. small, with large or very 
large individ., event., lang., ideal., and compar., and caus. 
only full, will be exceedingly fond of reading, of poetry, of 
works of fiction, and. of polite literature, and, with large or 
very large form, size, and local, added, of the study of natu- 
ral history, geography, botany, chymistry, &c, yet dislike 
arithmetick exceedingly. 

Very small. — One having very small calcu., will be un- 
able to perceive numerical relations, or even to perform sim- 
ple, arithmetical calculations; will find extreme difficulty 
even in common adding and substracting, multiplying and 
dividing, and be almost unable to count. 

Location. — Calcu. is located externally from order, and 
a little lower, at the external termination of the arch of the 


Cognizance of the relative position of objects — recollection 
of the looks of places — knowledge of the geographical 
position of things, the points of the compass, <$-c. 

Location, or relative position, like form and size, enters 
into the constitution of things. That a material substance 
should exist without any location, or relative position with 
respect to other things, is both inconceivable and impossible. 
Hence the necessity of some faculty the exclusive function 
of which is to perceive and apply this property to the objects 
of the physical world; and the same train of argument 
which proves that form, size, weight, or any of the other 
faculties, is a separate power of the mind, likewise proves 
that local, is also an i.inate, primary mental faculty. 

Lauge. — One having local, large, wiil retain, for a long 
time, a clear and distinct impression of the looks of the places 
he has seen, and, with imitat. and lang. also large, be able to 


give a correct description of them ; can form correct ideas 
of places which, he has not seen by hearing them described ; 
will seldom lose himself, especially if he has seen the place 
before, and easily retrace his steps ; can calculate, with un- 
common accuracy, the relative positions and bearings of differ- 
ent places ; find his way in the dark with ease ; is very fond 
of travelling, of visiting places, and of viewing natural 
scenery, and, with acquis, only moderate, and ideal, large, 
will spend his money very freely for this purpose ; but, with 
acquis, large, and ideal, only moderate or full, will still seek 
to gratify this propensity, though at a cheaper rate; will 
travel in indifferent and cheap conveyances, and take up with 
inferiour fare: with self-e., approbat., and ideal, large or 
very large, and acquis, only moderate or full, will be even 
extravagant in his travelling expenses, and always journey 
in the best style he is able to reach: with ideal., imitat., corn- 
par., and lang. large or very large, will recollect places, and 
be able to give a correct and a picturesque description of 
scenery, roads, &c. : with large or very large inhab., will 
call to mind, with vivid and intense feelings of delight, the 
mountains, hills, dales, fields, groves, streams, &c. which 
he was wont to gaze upon in his childhood or juvenile 
days, and have a strong desire to revisit them: with event, 
full, or even deficient, will often recollect incidents by re- 
membering the place in which they transpired, and also 
what he has read, by calling to mind its location upon the 
page, and will discover uncommon tact in finding particular 
passages : with large or very large individ. and form, will 
notice, and also recollect, the houses, trees, rocks, and other 
objects near the road which he has travelled, and not only be 
very fond of the study of geography, and make rapid ad- 
vances in it, but, with large or very large form, size, and 
imitat., be able to draw, with great accuracy and skill, maps, 
sketches of natural scenery, &c. 

Very large. — One having local, very large, with large 
or very large form, will retain in his mind, a distinct and 
perfect recollection of the appearance of nearly every place 
he has ever seen, and, with large or very large Jang., give a 
lively and correct description of each, and, with event. aJso 
large, be excessively fond of reading travels, voyages, &c. ; 
can recal to his mind, not only the general aspect of places 
which he has seen, but Will distinctly remember the geogra- 
phy, roads, scenery, rocks, houses, and other things, and. 

fclso, the position even of insignificant objects ; will have a 
6ne taste and talent for pursuing the study of geography, ge- 
ology, &c, and will be likely to break from every restraint 
to indulgj his roving, strolling desire. 

The combinations and descriptions under local, large, 
modified by an increase of the power and desires imparted 
by local., will apply to this faculty very large. 

Full. — One having local, full, will be able to recollect 
places with considerable distinctness, yet not be remarkable 
for this power; will understand the relative bearings of 
places, and the position of objects, and, unless a long absence 
has obliterated the impressions which they have made upon 
this faculty, will seldom be troubled by a deficiency of it; 
yet he will not distinctly recollect objects which he may pass, 
unless, from some cause, they particularly arrest his atten- 
tion ; may notice and recollect important things, yet be apt 
to forget little things : with large or very large individ., will 
have a strong desire to travel in order chiefly to gratify his 
strong propensity to examine physical objects, and partly to 
see places, &c. 

The combinations and descriptions under local, large, 
modified by a reduction of the influence of local., will gen- 
erally apply to this faculty full. 

Moderate. — One having moderate local., will not pay par- 
ticular attention to the location of objects, nor form or retain 
very distinct notions of the aspect of places, roads, &c, and, 
consequently, be often at a loss to find such places as he 
wishes, to go a second time to obscure places, or return by a 
given road; will frequently lose his way, especially in cities 
and forests, and sometimes experience considerable inconven- 
ience and delay from the want of a stronger development of 
this faculty. One having local, moderate, with individ. and 
ideal, large, will appreciate the beauties of splendid natural 
scenery, yet will not retain a clear and correct impression of 
ihe appearance and beauties which produced the delightful 
impressions : with very large inhab. and only full ideal., in- 
divid., and hope, will seldom go from home unless compelled 
by urgent business, and will then see but little on his jour« 
ney, and dread the fatigues of travelling, and long to be at 
hisjourney's end: Avith acquis, large, will dwell pathetically 
upon the expenses incident to journeying : with individ. and 
form only moderate or full, will have but a very imperfect 
idea of the places which he has seen, and, if living in a 


city, frequently pass his own door without knowing it ; and, 
with only full lang. and imitat., will be utterly incapable of 
giving even a tolerably correct description of places which 
he may have seen many times. 

Small. — One having local, small, will find it very diffi- 
cult to recollect, or return to, places ; often lose his way, es- 
pecially in woods, cities, or streets; can become familiar with 
places only by seeing them many times ; will form only con- 
fused and incorrect ideas of the geography of a country, or 
the appearance and localities of places described to him ; be 
often uncertain and incorrect as to the points of the compass; 
consider travelling a burden, rather than a pleasure; have 
but little curiosity to see different places, &c. One having 
local, small, with form and individ. small, will seldom notice 
places, and then not distinctly recollect their appearance ; will 
seldom observe or recollect such objects as he may pass upon 
the road ; and fail to remember a road which he may have 
often travelled, and also to find his way back, &c. : with form 
large or very large, will frequently recollect the countenances 
of persons, but will be utterly unable to locate them: with large 
or very large event., will recollect distinctly that he has read, 
or heard of, certain occurrences, yet will not be able to call 
to mind the place in which they occurred, or where he read 
them, &c. 

The combinations and descriptions under local, moderate, 
modified by a reduction of the power of local., and, also, those 
under local, large, reversed, will apply to this faculty small. 

Very small. — One having local, very small, w T ill find 
it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to form any clear 
ideas of the relative position of objects, to keep the right 
road in travelling, or to follow the same road back when 
returning on his journey ; be greatly perplexed to find 
any particular spot, tree, rock, or other object, even on 
the second or third visit to it ; and be very apt to lose him- 
self, especially in the woods, in a city, &c. : and find hia 
abilities in the exercise of this faculty, directly the opposite 
of his in whom local, is large or very large. 

Location. — Local, is located directly over size and 
weight, and nearly above the internal orbit of the eye. It 
extends diagonally in the direction of mirth. The frontal 
sinus sotoetimes increases the apparent size of this organ \ 
out this subject will be more fully presented in another por- 
tion of the work. 


SPECIES III. — Semi-perceptive Faculties. 

These faculties perform a class of functions intermediate 
between those exercised by the perceptive, and those by the 
reasoning, faculties ; and the location of their organs cor- 
responds with their character. The perceptive faculties take 
cognizance of material objects and their various physical 
properties, such as their form, size, weight, colour, &c. ; 
whereas, the semi-perceptive are of a more subtle nature, 
having to do with facts, and the various phenomena produced 
by physical objects, and form, as it were, a steppmg-stone to 
the reasoning organs. Eventuality, for example, takes cog- 
nizance of, not physical objects themselves, but their actions, 
and the incidents and events thus produced; time, of the par- 
ticular period in which these events occur; language, of the 
vocal sounds employed to name these objects ; and tune, of 
the melody of sounds produced by them: and thus, both the 
perceptive and the semi-perceptive faculties are employed as 
the subordinate agents of the reasoning faculties, furnishing 
them with materials to scan, digest, and reflect and reason 
upon. Hence it would appear, that, in the mental economy, 
the functions of the semi-perceptive faculties, are no less im- 
portant than those of the perceptive, especially if we consid- 
er, that they constitute as essential a part of the intellectual 
machinery when viewed as a whole. 


Memory of events — power of calling to mind those circum- 
stances, occurrences, incidents, /iistorical facts, <fyc, which 
have previously come to the knowledge of the individual. 

It has been shown, that to notice the existence ef material 
objects and their various qualities, requires a set of faculties 
whose various functions correspond with those ascribed to 
individuality, form, size, and the other perceptive powers; 
and that this requisition is the imperative demand of nat- 
ure — which must be answered. But it is not only true 
that things exist, and possess various properties, but equally 
so that they act. If, then, the human mind requires faculties 
whose proper functions are to notice the existence, conditions, 
nnd properties of material substances, it follows, that it also 
requires a faculty whose function it is to take cognizance of 


their various actions, and other phenomena. In phrenolog 
icaJ language, the faculty that performs this portion of tha 
mental operations, is called Eventuality. 

The importance of such a faculty as eventuality, in th« 
mental economy, as well as of individuality, and, indeed, ot 
all the other perceptive and semi-perceptive faculties, may be 
farthei illustrated by noticing some points in the process of 
forming ideas. In order successfully to apply the principle 
of causation, the antecedent cause and the consequent effeci 
must necessarily both be before the mind at the same time, 
otherwise a comparison of them would be impossible. In 
the language of phrenology, then, individuality notices and 
recollects the physical object that acts, or the procuring 
cause, and eventuality, the consequent action, or phenomena 
produced ; and then comparison and causality compare, con- 
trast, analyze, and draw deductions from, the materials thus 
furnished by individuality and eventuality : and this consti- 
tutes thinking or reasoning. The same principle applies to 
the modus operandi of individuality and eventuality with 
benevolence, adhesiveness, and all the other mental faculties, 

Again, this view of the subject is strengthened by a refer 
ence to the intellectual developments, and the intellectual ad- 
vancement, of children. In them the organs of individuality 
and eventuality early appear largely developed and exceed- 
ingly active ; and almost as early, comparison ; and soon after, 
causality. Individuality, aided by sight, is found to be very 
busy in noticing objects ; eventuality, equally so in remember- 
ing all their various actions and other phenomena ; compar- 
ison, in combining and comparing these things or notions 
brought forward by the first two ; and causality, in prying 
into their nature and reason : and thus the process of form- 
ing ideas, or of thinking, goes forward at a rapid rate. And 
this process is still farther extended and perfected by the pro- 
gressive increase and activity of the organs of form, size, 
colour, calculation, &c. 

Large. — One having event, large, will have a clear, a 
distinct, and a retentive memory of what he sees, hears, oi 
reads ; according to his advantages, will possess a mind well 
stored with historical and scientifick facts, with the news of 
the day, and narrative and historical information generally; 
will seldom be troubled with forgetfulness, or with an indif- 
ferent or indistinct recollection of circumstances, incidents 
&c t ; will treasure up a rich fund of anecdotes upon such 



•ubjects as are interesting to the other stronger faculties, or 
of such of them as have come within the range of his 
knowledge ; and, with large lang. added, in relating them, 
will not fail to mention all the particulars; and, with large 
concent, also added, will present them all in their proper or- 
ier ; but, with concent, moderate or small, will fail to connect 
the several circumstances which compose a story so as to 
give it unity ; will frequently omit important particulars, or 
state them in a wrong connexion, and thus create confusion, 
and lessen the effect of his narrative : with individ., lang., 
and compar. large, will show a marked partiality for read- 
ing and study, and succeed well as a general scholar ; will 
be able, also, to make a good use of what information he 
may possess, and have a happy faculty of communicating it 
to others : with large or very large ideal., individ., form, size, 
local., and compar., and full, large, or very large caus., will 
possess a literal passion for study, reading, the pursuit of 
chymistry, mineralogy, geology, geography, botany, natural 
history, and every thing pertaining to the treasuring up of 
facts ; according to his advantages, will be a superiour schol- 
ar ; will allow nothing to divert him from literary and scien- 
tifick pursuits ; will be even enthusiastick, remarkably suc- 
cessful as a student, and have a great amount of circumstan- 
tial information upon matters and things in general ; with 
large lang. added, can converse sensibly and fluently upon 
almost any subject ; with full concent, also added, will have 
a happy talent for compiling and arranging facts, for investi- 
gating subjects, and attending to any complicated operation ; 
but, with caus. only full, will appear to know a great deal, yet, 
when held down to a close, logical or metaphysical process 
of reasoning, will betray a deficiency of mental strength and 
power, and of logical acumen : with compar. large, will 
notice, recollect, and be able to compare, the operations of his 
own mind : with lang. very large, will be able to repeat con- 
versations with great accuracy and clearness. 

Very large. — One having very large event, will pos- 
sess a remarkably clear, distinct, and retentive memory of 
events and transactions, and even of all the minute, and 
eeemingly unimportant, circumstances connected with them; 
seldom allow any thing to escape his recollection ; have at 
command more facts than he can manage to advantage ; have 
an insatiable desire to learn all that is to be learned ; be 
given quite too much to narration, and thus frequently 



weaken his arguments ; make a short story long, and a long 
one, very long, by relating all the little particulars : with 
caus. and compar. only full, will have a great fund of infor- 
mation, which, however, will not be well digested ; be rather 
a bookworm than a deep thinker ; attend much more to facts 
and details than to general principles, and attempt to prove 
his positions rather by narrating facts, than by logical infer- 
ences : with large or very large individ., will see all thai 
passes around him, and remember all he sees, and thus know 
a great deal, &c. 

The descriptions and combinations under event, large, 
modified by an increase of the power of event., will apply to 
this organ very large. 

Full. — One having event, full, will have a respectable 
memory of incidents, and a distinct recollection of those oc- 
currences to which his attention has been particularly di- 
rected, yet will seem to be deficient in his knowledge of those 
things which have not made a distinct impression ; when he 
has an occasion to adduce facts, will recur to them with tolera- 
ble correctness and facility, and seldom manifest a striking de- 
ficiency in this respect : with caus. and compar. large or very 
large, will generally be able to command and collect a suffi- 
cient amount of facts by which to substantiate and illustrate 
his arguments, but will reason rather than narrate ; regard 
phenomena chiefly in connexion with those principles which 
produce them - , and remember generals much more than 
particulars : with lang. and imitat. large, will be able to relate 
anecdotes in a happy style, yet, with only moderate lang., 
imitat., and concent., will relate them very poorly, and have 
a better memory in reality than he seems to have ; will re- 
collect the substance and the main features of whatever has 
passed before his mind, &c, better than the particulars. 

Moderate. — One having event, moderate, will be less 
distinct and certain in his recollection of incidents and cir- 
cumstances than one with large event. ; have rather a general 
than a particular memory of facts and events, and, with 
caus. and compar. large or very large, may recollect distinct- 
ly the points of an argument, and the substance of what he 
hears or reads, yet will deal more in general principles than 
in phenomena, and argue much more than narrate ; find 
considerable difficulty in summing up, and in calling to 
mind particular incidents, or in going into details. 


The descriptions and combinations of full event, dim in 
«*hed, will generally be found applicable to event, moderate, 

Small. — One having event, small, will often fail to recol- 
lect incidents and facts, and, consequently, to do important 
things which he wishes to accomplish ; have a poor, indis- 
tinct, and confused memory of occurrences of which he has 
heard or read, and even of those which have fallen under 
his own observation ; will seldom, if ever, enter into t\\e par- 
ticulars, and have great difficulty, and little success, in at- 
tending to details ; find it hard to command the knowledge, 
or apply the talents, he really possesses ; can learn things in 
general only with great labour and application, and even 
then, with caus. and compar. large, will learn principles 
much sooner than phenomena ; and be often greatly troubled 
to call to mind facts which he wishes to employ. 

The descriptions and combinations under event, moderate, 
modified by a diminution of the power of event., and also 
the descriptions and combinations under event, large or very 
large, reversed, or read with the addition of a negative, will 
describe this faculty small. 

Very small. — One having very small event., will forget 
almost every incident or phenomena which he has seen, 
heard of, or read of; be extremely confused and uncertain in 
attempting to call to mind almost any occurrence, and suffer 
very great loss and inconvenience from a deficiency of this 

Location. — Event, is located about the middle of the 
forehead. When the surrounding organs are large and 
event only full, there will be an apparent depression just above 
individ. and between the two lobes of local., which will re- 
sult rather from the size of the surrounding organs, than 
from an absolute deficiency of event. In children, the organ 
is generally large or very large, and gives a full and spher- 
ical form to this part of the forehead, while the correspond- 
ing depression often obser vable in men, is an evidence of a 
deficiency of it. The tenacious memories of children, com- 
pared with the more obscure memories, and palpable forget- 
fulness, of men, furnish both a strong proof of the truth of 
phrenology, and a happy illustration of tfc e faculty in ques» 



33. TIME. 

Cognizance of succession — that mental power which no 
iices and recollects the lapse of time, and the relative 
distance of time, and order of succession, in which event 

The phenomena of succession, or the lapse of time, com- 
pose a part of that system of things to which man is adapted, 
and enter into that condition in which he is placed on earth. 
Day and night follow each other in quick succession, and 
approaching seasons tread upon the heels of their predeces- 
sors, and, in their turn, retire to make room for their suc- 
cessors. Generation after generation passes away, and 
sleeps with those beyond the flood. The present instantly 
becomes the past ; and, were it not for this wonderful ar- 
rangement, there would be but one eternal, monotonous now, 
(a thing impossible, and, to us. inconceivable,) without any 
change or succession, either of birth or death, or days, sea 
sons, years, or ages. 

The wisdom which devised this arrangement of chrono- 
logical succession, is too obvious to need comment; and the 
necessity of some faculty in man by which he is qualified to 
perceive this state of things, and enabled to adapt himself to 
it, is equally apparent. In deciding upon this point, how- 
ever, we are not left to the guidance of any uncertain a pri- 
ori inferences, but, by the unerring evidence of facts, are 
assured of the existence in the human mind, of such a fac- 
ulty as time. 

In common with all others who have inquired at the shrine 
of nature touching this subject, the authors have seen many 
individuals who, seemingly without an effort, are able to tel. 
the year, and even the day, of almost every birth, death, or 
particular event which has come to their knowledge; howj 
old every person is whose age they have ever learned ; whaW 
time every house in their neighbourhood or town was erect- 
ed ; and the exact time of the occurrence of nearly all their 
village affairs and business transactions. They have also seen 
hundreds of others who, without consulting the family record, 
could not tell either their own ages, or those of their brothers 
and sisters, or even those of their own children. Though 
they might have a distinct recollection of certain occurrences, 
hey could never recollect when they took place. 



On the other hand, they know a gentleman who is accus- 
tomed to relate many anecdotes, and who is always particu- 
lar to mention the year, month, and day of the month, and, 
sometimes, even the time of the day, on which the event re- 
lated, took place: and this is done because it is perfectly 
easy and natural for him to do so — his organ of time is very 
large. They were recently in company with a lady in whom 
this organ was decisively small, and who, when asked how 
Jang she had been married, replied, with perfect honesty, 
44 about three years;" but, upon reflection, she concluded it 
was only two. Not quite confident, however, of her correct- 
ness, she appealed to her husband, and ascertained that it was 
only one : and even then she could not tell the month in 
which their marriage took place. They know persons who 
can waken at any time of night which they may choose to 
appoint, and also tell very nearly the hour of the day Avith- 
out the aid of the sun or a time-piece ; and others, again, who 
are almost entirely unconscious of the flight of time even 
when awake. For these effects there must be some cause ; 
and, since this power of observing and recollecting the chro- 
nological relations of events, the time occupied by sounds, 
&c, is found to be proportionate to a certain development of 
the brain, the induction that time constitutes an innate and 
primary mental power, seems to be perfectly logical. 

Large. — One having time large, will notice and remem- 
ber very accurately, the relations of time in which certain 
occurrences stand with each other, or how long one thing 
happened before or after another ; without the aid of a time- 
piece, be able to tell very nearly what time of the day or 
night it is : can waken from sleep at such an hour, or, per- 
haps, minute, as he may wish ; will generally be in season, 
recollect his appointments, and, if possible, fulfil them ; set 
apart certain days or periods for doing particular things, and 
be likely to perform them at the appointed time ; be regular 
at his meals, and in all his business operations, &c. ; and 
excellent in chronology. 

One having time large, with large event., will have a dis 
tinct recollection both of particular circumstances, and, also, 
of the chronological order in which they occurred, and, with 
large calcu. added, will have a correct knowledge of the 
chronology and dates of such events as have come to his 
knowledge, the ages of persons, &c. : with large or very 
large tang., ideal., and compar., will pay particular attention 


to the rhyme and measure of poetry, and be exceedingly an 
noyed if either is imperfect ; and, with, only full caus. added, 
will look more to the drapery of poetry than to the mofle 
enduring qualities of sense and substance; if he attempt 
to compose poetry, may make good rhymes, yet his produc- 
tions will be ephemeral and gaudy, rather than substantial 
ar £ l excellent; but, with large caus. added, will excel in sea 
timent, measure, style, rhyme, and power of thought : with 
tune large, will keep the beat in musick, and be very fond 
of dancing, and, with imitat. also large, will easily learn any 
particular figure, and keep the step perfectly, &c. 

Very large. — One having very largetime, will possess 
a wonderfully accurate and precise memory of the time 
when certain things occurred, of dates, ages, business trans- 
actions, &c. ; how long one thing happened before or after 
another; the state of the weather upon certain days ; the pre- 
cise period of historical events ; and, in short, will be a real 
ehronologist, to whom a reference will be had by all who 
jniow him for the purpose of ascertaining the chronology of 
svents, &c. ; and will manifest, only in a still highe r degree, 
*11 the qualities described under time large. 

The combinations and descriptions under time large, mod- 
ified by an increase of the power and manifestations of time, 
will apply to time very large. 

Full. — One having time full, will have a respectable 
memory of dates, and yet, with event, large, be much more 
correct and certain in regard to the minute particulars of the 
accurrence itself, than of the precise time of the occurrence; 
will ordinarily be punctual to his appointments, and seldom 
discover a deficiency of this faculty, and yet, seldom manifest 
irhis power in a very high degree. 

The descriptions and combinations of time large, modified 
ay a diminution of time, will apply to time full. 

Moderate. — One having time moderate, though he may 
remember short intervals of time very well, will forget those 
that are longer, or have rather an indistinct idea of the chron- 
ological order and relations of time in which certain events 
occurred; forget dates and ages, and be unable to tell with 
much accuracy the time of the day or month : with event, 
large, though he may remember certain circumstances with 
perfect accuracy, will not have a distinct or positive recoi" 
lection of the time when they occurred, or how long one event 



happened before or after another ; and will have only a gen- 
eral idea of the intervals between certain events. 

Small. — One having time small, will be very forgetful as 
to the time when; find it difficult to remember the ages in 
his own family, or even his own age, and be frequently 
obliged to consult family and other records in order to ascer- 
tain these and similar points ; have only a general, and a 
Tery incorrect, memory of dates ; can seldom tell the time 
of the day without the sun or a time-piece, or even the day 
of the month or week ; will be the reverse of one with time 
large: with aliment, large, may calculate the time of the 
day quite correctly by his appetite, and be punctual to his 
meals ; or punctual when some other faculty quickens the 
%ction of time, yet, in general, will discover a marked defi- 
ciency in this respect ; and will be poor in chronology. 

Very small. — One with time very small, will seldom, if 
ever, notice the chronological order of events as they pass ; 
have a most imperfect idea of every tning pertaining to suc- 
cession and dates : with aliment, only moderate, will even 
forget the time of his meals : with event, moderate, will have 
a most miserable memory both of circumstances and of dates ; 
forget his own age, and most of the circumstances connected 
even with his own history, and thus be a constant sufferer 
from this cause. 

Location. — -Time is located directly above colour, and a 
little externally from locality. 

34. TUNE. 

Sense of melody and harmony of sounds — ability to learn 
tunes and detect discords. 

In another part of this work it has been shown, that hear- 
'x,g cannot produce musick, any more than seeing can give 
a just conception and judgment of colours, but that a con- 
h*ptjjm of the melody arising from a succession of sounds, 
must depend upon another distinct faculty of the mind. That 
those, indeed, who possess an equally perfect auditory and 
vocal apparatus, differ widely in their musical talents, is prov- 
ed by every votary of harmonious sounds, as well as by every 
common observer, from the days of Orpheus down to those 
of Haydn, Handel, Mozart, and Catalini. 

That the faculty of musick is innate and primary, and man- 
ifests its power in different individuals in proportion to a par- 



ticular development of the brain, is a fact fully established 
by the observations of phrenologists. They have examined 
the heads, busts, or portraits, of Gliick, Zumsteg, Dussek, 
Mozart, Viotti, Rosini, Crescentini, and Catalini, Handel, 
and Haydn, and of many other celebrated musical per 
formers or singers, and have found an extreme development 
of the organ of tune in all of them. The authors have seen 
many children, even, in which the organ was largely devel- 
oped, that were able to catch and turn tunes soon after they 
began to talk ; and, on the other hand, adults in whom the 
organ was small, that, after the most laborious efforts under 
the most able instructers, were utterly unable to turn a tune, 
or even distinguish one tune from another. 

The natural language of musick is universal, or, in othei 
words, sounds that are melodious to one nation, are measurably 
so to another ; which shows not only, that the principles ol 
musick exist in nature, but, that the human mind, in order to 
adapt itself to these principles, must necessarily possess an 
innate faculty whose proper function it is to perceive and ap- 
ply them : and hence it is, that what constitutes melody and 
harmony of sound to the Englishman, is no less so to the 
Swede, to the wild rover of the desert, and to him who in- 
habits the islands of the sea. Some nations, however, as 
well as individuals, are more musical than others, and are 
distinguished by a larger development of the organ of tune. 
In this respect, the Italians and Germans excel the Span- 
iards, Frenchmen, Englishmen, and Otaheitans ; and the 
authors have noticed, that this organ is generally very large 
in negroes ; which exactly corresponds with their wonderful 
musical propensity and talent. 

These remarks will show the utter folly, not to say ab- 
surdity, of that modern, fashionable prejudice which demands 
that musick shall be taught to young ladies indiscriminately, 
and without the least regard to the natural talent, or defect, 
of the individual in this respect, and which condemns many 
a lovely female to waste years of precious time in what is to 
her an intolerable drudgery, and one that nature never plan- 
ned for her. 

Large. — One having large tune, will be able easily to catch 
tunes by hearing them sung a few times over, and to strike 
correctly their key note ; has a correct musical ear, and, 
with a good voice, can easily become a good singer or a good 
performer upon musical instruments ; delights to listen to 



good musick, and can easily detect a discord, &c. One hav 
ing large tune, with large ideal., will not only be extremely 
fond of good musick, but will impart a richness, and pathos^ 
and melody to his musical performances which are calculat- 
ed to move the heart ; with large time added, will be a me- 
lodious singer, and add new charms to his musick by keep- 
ing the beat correctly; but, with time small, will have an 
excellent musical ear, accompanied with much melody and 
good taste, yet will fail greatly in time, and, when singing in 
company, generally sing too slowly : with combat, and de- 
fitruct. large or very large, will delight greatly in martial 
musick, and be highly excited by the stirring notes of the 
fife, the drum, the bugle, &C. : with adhes. and ideal, large, 
will be very fond of songs, and be able to sing them to ad- 
miration ; and, with large or very large time and hope add- 
ed, will be highly delighted with dancing tunes, and, in 
dancing, precisely keep the step, and be gay and cheerful in 
the " assembly room," and enjoy the cotillion party, &c, be- 
yond measure : with hope small, and ven., conscien., and 
adhes. large or very large, will prefer plaintive airs, minor 
moods, solemn, devotional musick, &c. ; and, with hope large 
even, will still prefer solemn tunes, yet select those of a 
cheerful, lively air: with large or very large lang., can easi- 
ty associate tunes with the words set to them, and thus read- 
ily commit songs, hymns, &c, so as to sing them by rote. 
In learning tunes, and in singing them with words, the or- 
gan of lang. renders very important assistance. The same 
is also true of imitat., which gives the proper expression to 
a musical performance, enables the performer to imitate dif- 
ferent kinds of style, &c. 

Very large. — One having tune very large, will be able 
to learn tunes by hearing them once or twice repeated, and 
will never forget them ; is filled with ecstasy, or completely 
carried away, with good musick, but cannot endure a discord, 
or an awkward or artificial singer or player ; produces a 
powerful impression upon the feelings of those who listen to 
his performances, and literally charms them, &c. 

One having tune very large, with large or very large ad- 
nes., ideal., ven., hope, imitat., time, lang., individ., weight, 
tnd compar., will be a natural musician of the first order; 
be pre-eminent for his musical taste and talent ; pour forth 
nis whole soul in the most melting and voluptuous strains of 
melody and harmony, so as often to overcome the hearer 



learn, as it were, by intuition, to play upon any musical itt» 
strument ; perform to admiration all kinds of musick, par- 
ticularly sentimental pieces, Irish airs, Scotch melodies, and 
other pieces of kindred sympathy and pathos ; and will be 
able to compose musick characterized by sentiment, pathos, 
and the soul of melody. 

Full. — One having tune full, will be able, with consid 
erable practice, to learn tunes both by note, and also by tho 
ear ; may be called a good, and even a superiour, singer* yet, 
for any musical talent he may possess, will be indebted as 
much to art and science as to nature ; with the aid of notes, 
and a good knowledge of the principles, may be able to read 
musick correctly, and even sing, at first sight, almost any 
piece of musick presented to him, yet his musical perform- 
ances will be characterized more by accuracy than melody 
andpathos. One having tune full, with large or very laigc 
ideal., will be highly delighted with good musick, and have 
a correct musical ear, and impart a peculiar softness to his 
singing, and, with large imitat. added, be capable of becom 
ing a good singer, if not a superiour musician; can readily 
imitate different kinds of style, &c. : with the moral senti- 
ments large, may experience much fervour of devotion while 
singing, and impart this feeling to his musical displays : with 
lang. large, in calling to mind various tunes, will be greatly 
assisted by recollecting the words set to them, and will find 
it somewhat difficult to learn tunes disconnected with words ■ 
with lang. moderate or small, will receive, in learning tunes, 
very little aid from lang., andfail somewhat in applying words 
to m'vsical sounds : with compar. large or very large, will 
readily decide between what tunes and words a harmony of 
sentiment exists ; and, with large ven. added, when a hymn 
is given out, will be able to select the most appropriate tune, 
and, with imitat. also large, to sing it in such a manner as to 
convey the sentiments and feelings expressed in the words, 

The additional combinations and descriptions of tune full, 
may be inferred from those under tune large, the power and 
the manifestations of tune being diminished. 

Moderate. — One having tune moderate, may, perhaps, 
learn to read musick readily by note, but will be obliged to 
labour hard to effect even this ; be obliged to hear tunes 
many times repeated before he can learn them by rote, and 
will then forget them unless he sings them frequently ; may 

TUNS. 221 

pernaps, be a respectable singer, but will be indebted for this 
talent much more to science and application than to nature ; 
will sing more by the rules of musick than by his ear, and 
oe generally obliged to have his book before him ; will be 
rather a mechanical than a natural singer ; and will fail to 
impart melody and pathos to his musical performances, and 
to kindle or melt the soul. 

One having tune moderate, with Meal, large or very large, 
will listen with rapture to good muskk, yet none will please 
him except musick of the first order ; will be very unpleas- 
antly affected by discord, and perhaps be a good judge of 
musick, yet will not be a good or a great performer himself. 

Small. — One having tune small, with much effort, may 
learn to sing and play tunes, yet will be only an automatick, 
mechanical, indifferent, and unsuccessful musician, and will 
be unable to make melody, or to learn tunes by the ear : with 
large or very large ideal., will listen with delight, to good mu- 
sick, yet be slow to distinguish one tune from another, and gen- 
erally be insensible to the higher charms of excellent musick. 

The combinations and descriptions under tune moderate, 
modified by a reduction of the influence of tune, and those 
under tune large or very large, reversed, or read with the 
addition of a negative, will generally apply to this organ 

Very small. — One having tune very small, will be un- 
able to strike a note correctly, and even to distinguish one 
tune or one note from another : with mirth, large, will be 
likely to ridicule a musical taste or an amateur in musick, 
or be, at least, indifferent to musick, if not really disgusted 
with it. 

Location. — Tune is located, in adults, about three quar- 
ters of an inch above the organ of calcu., and within the 
arch of the superciliary ridge. The location of tune is so 
much affected by the size of the surrounding organs, and its 
external appearance, by the temporal muscle which passes 
over it, that, except in the case of children, the authors are 
not always able to decide correctly upon its size. It may 
also be added, that a good voice adds greatly to good musick, 
and is therefore frequently mistaken for a musical ear or tal- 
ent. Others, again, in whom the organ is only moderate, are 
tolerable singers, but are indebted for this talent chiefly to 
science and practice. Hence many correct decisions upon 
lune, are considered erroneous, 




"Power of communicating ideas by means of particul&t 
signs — memory of words — recollection of arbitrary signs 

as expressive of ideas. 

In the plenitude of his wisdom and goodness, the Great 
Author of our being has seen fit, in various ways, to distin- 
guish man from " the beasts that perish ;" and one of these 
distinguishing characteristicks, is most strikingly displayed 
in his power of speech. Without a faculty by means of 
which to communicate to his fellow-men, his thoughts, feel- 
ings, and desires, man would be incapable of any consider- 
able degree of cultivation and refinement, and of carrying 
on those vast schemes and projects by which the face of the 
earth is subdued and cultivated, and the beasts of the field 
brought under subjection to him — by which the forest bows 
to his mandate, and, in its stead, the cultivated farm blooms 
like a garden — by which science and the arts flourish, com- 
merce springs into life, and cities, kingdoms, and republicks 
burst forth in all their magnificence and glory. 

The signs of language are of two kinds, natural and arti- 
ficial. The natural signs are common both to man and the 
lower order of animals, and are understood by each species 
of animals by the operations of the instinctive principles of 
its nature. In brutes, these natural signs are employed, for 
example, in the bleating of a lamb, the neighing of a horse, 
and the chirping of a bird ; and in man, in that expression of 
voice and feature which he uses in sighing, groaning, laugh 
ing, crying, and in the use of all that class of semi-articulate 
sounds called interjections. But the grand distinction be- 
tween the faculty of language in man and the same faculty 
in the brute creation, consists in the ability of the former to 
make use of distinct, articulate sounds, which we call speech, 
as signs of his ideas, whereas, the ability of the latter is con- 
fined to the use of inarticulate sounds. 

For the more extensive and perfect transmission of thought, 
the superiour wisdom and ingenuity of man have also ena- 
bled him to invent, and employ by common consent, various 
sets of artificial sounds called words, or vocal or artificial 
language ; and, moreover, to institute certain arbitrary signs 
by means of which to represent these words to the eye, call- 
ed written language, 


That the power of speech in man, or his copia zerborum t 
la primitive, and depends upon a distinct faculty of the mind, 
is evident from the fact, that it greatly differs in different in- 
dividuals, and cannot, therefore, be the result of education 
alone, but must originally be possessed by them in various 
degrees of strength. Were it not so, each individual would 
display this power in proportion to his cultivation of the fac- 
ulty ; but such is by no means the case. We often see child- 
ren that have received little or no instruction, learn the use 
and application of words with a facility and accuracy alto- 
gether wonderful ; and others again upon which a supera- 
bundant amount of instruction has been bestowed, that re- 
main extremely deficient in this respect, and find great diffi- 
culty in commanding words enough to express their ideas 
with even common propriety. 

We see persons, also, who have studied many languages, 
received all the advantages of instruction from the greatest 
linguists, and wasted long nights over the midnight lamp, 
and yet, when they come to express themselves in their mo- 
ther tongue, often display a style marked with barrenness, 
stiffness, and impropriety ; whereas, others who have enjoy- 
ed no such advantages, are able to speak and write in a style 
both copious and eloquent. 

Some persons are able to repeat a page verbatim after 
having read it but two or three times over ; whilst others 
again, cannot repeat it after having read it as many hundred 

And now let us ask, whether these facts at all accord with 
the metaphysical.notion of some, that language is wholly ar- 
tificial, or conventional. If so, language should display it- 
self, in individuals of equal talents, in an exact proportion to 
its cultivation : but this has clearly been shown not to be the 
case. We must therefore conclude, that the power of lan- 
guage or speech, depends upon a primary faculty of the 
m.nd, and that it is as natural for man to employ language, 
as it is vision, or hearing, or any other faculty of the mind. 

Many remarkable instances of an extraordinary manifes- 
tation of this faculty, as well as of its extreme deficiency, 
have fallen under the observation of the authors. From a 
multitude of cases, they will select, and present, only the two 

They know a little girl in whom the organ of language 
k extremely large, and who has been brought up in a family 



in which there is no child but herself; consequently, she 
seldom has any one to talk with. But this deficiency she 
has managed to supply, ever since she was two or three years 
old, by almost incessantly talking to her doll or to herself ' t 
for talk she must, although it often consists in nothing more 
than the utterance of articulate sounds without meaning, 
She often even conducts a long dialogue in two or three dis- 
tinct voices, being assisted in this by large imitation ; and 
has, moreover, a wonderful propensity to invent, and apply, 
names to all objects she sees ; and, when these are few, 
she gives many names to the same object. Her organ of 
tune is also large ; and this she frequently gratifies by com- 
posing and singing tunes extempore, and sometimes, too, in 

In the family of professor Eaton, the distinguished botan- 
ist and naturalist, one of the authors saw a servant-man in 
whom the organ is extremely small; and it is with the ut- 
most difficulty that he can command words enough to hold 
a conversation upon the most familiar subject : — in proof of 
which, many striking anecdotes were related by tne professor. 
The following is one of them. Being very anxious to learn 
to read — a thing he found it next to impossible to accom- 
plish — he was sent to school ; and, in attempting to reiate to 
his master the pains taken by his tutor in instructing him, 
when he got to the word teaching, he stopped, and hesitated 
for a long time, not being able to think of it, or of any other 
word that would express the idea ; but, at last, he got it out 
by saying, that " my tutor keep — jawing me how to read." 

Large. — One having lang. large, will find it easy and 
natural to learn and remember words, and to call to mind 
such words as fully express his ideas ; possess, in a high 
degree, copiousness, freedom, fluency, and power of ex- 
pression ; have at command a multitude of words and phrases 
from which he is able to make such a selection as may be 
dictated by his other faculties ; will fill out his sentences 
well, and leave but few ellipses to be supplied by the reader ; 
will be able to write with ease and facility, and give a copi- 
ousness, and richness, and variety to his style, and have a 
great desire to talk and read, as well as to hear others do so; 
and can easily commit words to memory. 

One naving lang. large, with large or very large individ., 
form, local, and event., can learn verbatim with gr«at rapid- 
ity and very little effort; has a remarkable talent foi Temeiu j 



taring the precise expressions used by others in conversa- 
tion, and for relating accurately what was said by a speaker ; 
will be able, in school or in college, to learn his lessons, as 
it were, by intuition, or, at least, by reading them two or 
three times over : will make very rapid advances as a schol- 
ar, far outstrip those who have lang., event., and individ. only 
moderate, and appear to understand his lessons much better 
than he really does, and thus gain great credit for his reci- 
tations ; when he attempts to speak, will have a copious flow of 
words, and display a remarkable talent for making quotations ; 
with only moderate or full caus. added, will talk much, and 
fluently, upon subjects without instructing the hearer, or pre- 
senting many new ideas, or profound observations ; with 
large or very large ideal, and compar., and full concent, 
added to this combination, is capable of becoming quite in- 
teresting, and even eloquent, as a speaker ; will be chaste 
and finished, if not polished and graceful, in his language 
and expressions, and, with imitat. also large, decisively pop- 
ular as an extempore speaker ; will be perspicuous and ap- 
propriate, and easily and fully understood ; possess extraor- 
dinary facility and felicity of expression, and, whenever he 
becomes animated in speaking, will quote poetry with ease 
and correctness, yet will have a better command of words 
than of ideas ; may please the fancy, yet will not greatly 
instruct, or enlighten the understanding : with individ. large 
or very large, will use many adjectives and qualifying 
phrases ; and yet employ words with considerable definite- 
ness and precision : with large secret., cautious., approbat., 
conscien , and ven., may be taciturn and reserved before 
strangers or partial acquaintances, or, in consequence of his 
bashfulness or modesty, yet, when among his familiars and 
equals, will talk very freely : with large or very large se- 
cret., will generally say but little, and, with cautious, also 
large, frequently hesitate in speaking, but this will arise 
from the fear of committing himself, or of saying what he 
does not intend to say, rather than from a want of words ; 
but, with secret, moderate or small, will not only have a 
great command of words, but be free to express his thoughts 
and feelings, and, with benev. and adhes. also large or very 
large, this propensity to unbosom himself to others, will be 
still farther increased, and he will be a downright talker: 
with large individ., combat., and destruct, will have a great 
eommand of severe and bitter epithets, and, when excited, be 



extremely pointed and sarcastick in his expressions, and, witfl 
compar. also large, can pour out a torrent of abusive words, 
or scold with a vengeance : with adhes. and benev. large 
01 very large, will have a great command of words express- 
ive of sympathy, affection, endearment, tenderness of feeling, 
&c. ; and, with imitat. also large, will accompany his verbal 
communications with appropriate gesticulation, and speak 
through his action, the expression of his countenance, &c, 
as well as by his words : with compar. large or very large, 
will have a critical knowledge of the precise meaning of 
words, of philology, synonymes, &c, and be prone closely 
to criticise both his own expressions and those of others, and. 
with large or very large individ. and event, added, is capable 
of becoming a first-rate linguist : with large or very large 
caus. and compar., and only moderate or full ideal., will be 
bold, original, and powerful in his expressions, but not fin- 
ished, elegant, or polished, and, if large combat, and destruct. 
and moderate or small secret, be added, will speak out his 
ideas in a plain, strong, blunt, and frequently uncouth style ; 
will despise the flowers of rhetorick and finely turned peri- 
ods, and present the facts and the arguments of his subject 
without embellishment: with ideal, large instead of mod- 
erate, will be a nervous, strong, and also polished writer 
and speaker; have a full flow of ideas, and also of words in 
which to express them ; will combine power of thought with 
copiousness and fluency of diction, and, with a good educa- 
tion, be capable of becoming an accomplished and a power- 
ful publick speaker ; will express important ideas and strong 
arguments in a peculiarly felicitous and happy style, and 
have thoughts enough handsomely to fill the channel through 
which they flow. 

Very large. — One having lang. very large, will possess 
remarkable copiousness of speech and a great flow of words ; 
talk with perfect ease and the greatest delight ; and, with se- 
cret, only moderate and approbat. large or very large, among 
his acquaintances, will be, perhaps, too forward in conversa- 
tion, and an incessant, not to say intolerable, talker : with 
concent, full or large, will be able, and much inclined, to 
threw out the same idea in a great many different forms of 
expression, frequently amounting to tautology; will often 
weary the hearer with tedious repetitions and circumlocu- 
tion, and not unfrequently bury up his ideas in a multitude 
of words : with individ., form, and local, large or very large, 



will be able to commit to memory page after page, even at a 
second reading ; will he excessively fond of reading, and of 
hearing and relating anecdotes ; after listening to an inter- 
esting speech, oration, or sermon, will be able to repeat it 
nearly verbatim, giving not only the ideas and the general 
tenour of the discourse, but even many of the precise ex- 
pressions of the speaker ; with large or very large ideal, and 
imitat, and only full caus. added, will be bombastick in his 
style, and present more bathos than pathos or sublimity ; 
make a great display of eloquence and splendour in his lan- 
guage, and yet be destitute of real eloquence and power of 
thought; will be loquacious, flippant, and verbose, yet im- 
body but little sense or argument in what he says : with very 
large compar., caus., individ., event., ideal., and combat., 
will be able to engross the whole attention of the hearer, and, 
by the clearness and power of his reasoning, combined with 
the superiour elegance of his diction, and the frequent and 
well-sustained bursts of his overpowering eloquence, enchain 
him for hours to the subject; will be rich, copious, flow- 
ing, vehement, and energetick in his style and manner, 
but a much better extempore speaker than writer, because, 
in writing, he will be apt to employ too many words for his 

The descriptions and combinations of lang. large, modifi- 
ed by an increase of the power and desires imparted by lang., 
will apply to lang. very large. 

Full. — One having lang. full, will have a respectable 
command of words, yet, in order to become fluent, will re- 
quire considerable excitement ; will not be barren in style or 
expressions, nor yet employ many new-coined or redundant 
words; with some effort, may commit to memory, yet, unless 
individ., form, and local, are very large, will not be eminent 
for this talent. One having lang. full, with compar. and 
caus. large or very large, will have a rich fund of important 
ideas, but they will Jose some of their force whera expressed, 
in consequence of their calling more loudly for words than 
can be answered by the speaker, who, unless considerably 
excited, will hesitate for words ; will seldom be guilty of 
circumlocution, but will be rather brief and compact in his 
style : with large or very large ideal, added, will be clear, 
elegant, and forcible as a writer, but, though he may get on 
tolerably weJl as a speaker, will not be very fluent, and evea 



when excited, will by no means manifest -verbosity, and wii, 
employ no more words than the sense demands. 

The additional descriptions and combinations of lang. fall, 
due allowance being made by the reader fcr the diminished 
power and manifestations of lang., will be found under lang. 

Moderate.— One having lang. moderate, will be some- 
times at a loss for words in which to express his ideas, and 
particularly so for happy and appropriate words ; when an, 
idea is presented to his mind, often be obliged to wait for the 
organ of lang. to supply the proper sign by which to ex- 
press it ; generally employ too few, rather than too many, 
words ; and, instead of adding to the force and energy of 
his thoughts by the ease and power of his expressions, will 
fail to give them even their just due from the province of 

One having lang. moderate, with very large compar., will 
be very critical in the use of words, and seldom employ one 
which is not fully expressive of the meaning intended to be 
conveyed ; with large or very large ideal, and individ. add- 
ed, may be a first-rate linguist, and a clear and elegant wri- 
ter, but will not be a fluent speaker — may command words 
enough for the use of the ^e?j, but not for the use of the tongue 
will adopt a style more clear than copious ; will not be It 
quacious, but, in what he says, will employ but few words. 

Small. — One having small lang., in communicating his 
thoughts and feelings, will employ but few words, and those 
of every-day use; in speaking, will frequently hesitate for 
Avords, and possess very little variety or copiousness of ex- 
pression ; so far as style is concerned, will be barren, dry, 
and common-place ; find extreme difficulty in calling to mind 
the particular words required to express his meaning; con- 
sider talking as rather a burden than a pleasure, and, conse- 
quently, will generally say but little, and find it very difficult 
o commit to memory. 

One having lang. small, secret, large, and mirth, only full, 
will be likely to pass whole days, and sometimes even weeks, 
in which he will speak scarcely a word unless there is an 
absolute necessity for it ; will not be at all interesting in pro- 
miscuous conversation, and his thoughts will lose much of 
their force and point in consequence of the deficiency in his 
power of expression : with combat, large and excited, or with 
a nervous temperament, may speak in a rapid, though som*» 



#aat incoherent, manner, but will use only common-place 
phraseology, and generally express similar ideas in nearly 
the same set of words : with very large caus. ar d compar. } 
will have many more thoughts than words, and make every 
word express some important idea; can think much better 
than communicate ; say a great deal in a few words ; cannot 
command a sufficient stock of words with nearly similar 
meanings from which to make happy selections ; and will 
think and reason much more than read or talk. 

The combinations and descriptions of lang. moderate, mod- 
ified by a diminution of the power of lang., and, also, those 
under lang. large and very large, reversed, or read with a 
negative, will generally apply to lang. small. 

Very small. — One having lang. very small, will find the 
utmost difficulty in recollecting the arbitrary signs used to 
express the simplest and most common ideas ; from actual 
poverty of lang., will- be obliged to employ words in a sense 
widely different from their common and legitimate significa- 
tion, and will often express his ideas in very inappropriate 
terms ; cannot commit to memory at all, nor learn to read 
with any thing like tolerable facility and accuracy, and will 
be able scarcely to understand others, or express himself so 
that they can understand him. 

The combinations and descriptions under lang. small, 
modified by a lessening of the power of lang., and those un- 
der lang. full, reversed, will apply to this faculty very small. 

Location. — Lang, is located upon the superorbiter plate.* 
When large or very large, by pressing down the upper orbit 
of the eye, it pushes the eye outward and downward, giving 
a fulness to it, and a swollen appearance to the under eyelid. 
When the organ is small, the eyes will appear small and 
sunken, and the under eyelid small. The bust of the dis- 
tinguished Thos. Addis Emmett, affords a striking specimen 
of a large development of this organ. 

3ENUS II. — Reflective or Reasoning Faculties. 

These faculties impart to the human mind an intellectua. 
power of a higher order than that given by the perceptive 
and semi-perceptive faculties. They enable man to invent, to 
think, and reason — to ascertain those abstract relations and 
bearings of things which neither observation, nor any other 
mental power, can reacii. Most of the other intellectual fac 



alties, are possessed, in a greater or less degree, by soma 
species of the lower order of animals, and some of them, to 
a far greater extent than by man. Yet, none of these an- 
imals can invent, or, to any considerable extent, adapt means 
to ends. Neither can they improve upon their mere animai 
instincts for they are manifestly destitute of what, in man, is 
called contrivance. From generation to generation, they 
grovel in the same beaten track, and, as far as improvement 
is concerned, remain stationary; whilst soaring, reasoning 
man is always advancing, and improving upon the discov- 
eries and inventions of his predecessors. At the present day, 
the sparrow builds its nest, and the beaver its hut and dam, 
in precisely the same manner that their progenitors did four 
thousand years ago; but, when we compare the ten thousand 
improvements in manufactures, agriculture, commerce, sci- 
ence, and the arts, of the present English and American 
race, with the rude huts and implements of their Saxon fore- 
fathers, we behold the striking and wonderful effects of cul- 
tivated reason. 

This subject also enables us to advance understandingly 
to another important characteristick of man, by showing us 
how it is that he becomes, not only a rational, but, likewise, a 
moral and an accountable, being. Unaided by the reason- 
ing faculties, conscience would be lame and blind; but, with 
their assistance, it is enabled to lay hold of the first princi- 
ples of right and justice, and to point out to man the path of 
rectitude and moral duty. Unaided by the reasoning facul- 
ties, the other moral faculties would also wander in obscure 
twilight, and often stumble upon the dark mountains of ei- 
rour ; but, with their help, veneration is enabled to look at 
the attributes of the great Jehovah, and successfully to study 
his divine character, and the moral relations that exist be- 
tween man and his Maker, as well as between man and his 
fellow-man — relations equally important and sublime with 
any others which the reasoning powers are capable of tra- 
cing. With their assistance, hope wings its flight into the 
bright regions of futurity, and there expatiates rationally upon 
that state of being which awaits us when we shall have 
passed the bourne of mortality. 

Philosophers of all ages, have been agreed upon the fact, 
that man is the only animal endowed with the moral and 
reasoning faculties ; but it has been left to phrenologists to 
observe, and point ov\ tjie fact, that msg £§ also the only as* 


iinal that possesses a high and broad forehead, and an ele- 
vated, coronal portion to the head — in which the organs of 
these faculties are located. And yet, without fully compre 
hending, or duly appreciating the importance of, the fact, 
mankind have always been aware, as all history amplv 
proves, that a high, bold, and prominent forehead is neces 
sary to a great and profound reasoner. That there really 
exist? a reciprocal relation between the reasoning powers and 
the expansion of the upper portion of the forehead, will be 
made fully manifest by comparing the heads of any deep 
thinkers and strong and bold reasoners with those of individ- 
uals who possess these intellectual qualities in a lower de- 
gree — by comparing, for example, the foreheads of Franklin, 
Washington, Clinton, Gall, and Melancthon, with those of 
Aurelia Chase, the New Zealander, Indian, Carib, idiot, &c, 
and the heads of' animals, in the cuts upon the Chart. Now, 
such coincidences as these, are too striking to be the result 
of mere chance, and must, therefore, be produced by design; 
and if by design, they constitute a page in the book of na- 
ture, worthy the perusal of every student of nature. 

Power of perceiving and applying the principles of causa- 
tion — ability to discover, and trace out, the connexion and 
relations existing between causes and effects ; to plan, in- 
vent, and adapt means to ends ; to draw conclusions from 
given premises ; to reason — disposition to investigate, and 
ask, why ? — key-stone of common-sense. 
It is an axiom in philosophy, that " every effect must have 
a cause;" and, also, that "every cause must produce an ef- 
fect:" and, again, that, "under similar circumstances, like 
causes produce like effects :" and, farther, that " all the phe- 
nomena throughout universal nature, proceed upon the prin- 
ciple of cause and effect, or antecedent and consequent." 

But let us inquire from what source it is that philosophers 
gather these maxims. That they are not the product of the 
observing faculties, is evident from the fact, that these facul- 
ties are possessed, more or less, by the brute creation, and 
yet, we know that brutes do not reason — that they are not 
capable of comprehending the relations of cause and effect — 
at any rate, beyond the narrow limits of their experience ; 
and this can scarcely be considered as reaching the princi- 
ple of causation. Hence, we infer, that man js endowed 


with some faculty of the mind of which the lower order of 
animals is destitute, by which he is enabled to reach this 

That the faculty in man which regards every phenomenon 
or result in nature as the product of some antecedent cause, 
is innate, and its operation, intuitive, may, moreover, be justly 
inferred from the fact, that he is naturally prone to demand a 
peason for every thing — to ask ivhy it is so : and that this dis- 
position in man is more or less strong in proportion as a cer- 
tain part of the brain {causality, see cuts) is largely or other- 
wise developed, is equally proved by the observations of phre- 
nologists, as well as of mankind generally : — for here is one 
point in phrenology in which mankind, in all ages, have be- 

That this faculty in man is innate, is still farther evident 
from the fact, that this cause-seeking disposition is strikingly 
evinced in children. Almost as soon as they begin to make 
observations, they also begin to inquire, why things are so — 
to investigate the causes, reasons, and use: of things. 

As this faculty is designed for, and adapted to, the princi- 
ple of causation alluded to, it is evident, that, when strongly 
or fairly developed, and furnished with proper data upon 
which to operate, it will always decide correctly concerning 
causes and effects : for if, under such circumstances, it should 
not always teach us the truth, or give us correct information 
as to those first principles or truths which exist in nature, it 
would not act in harmony with nature's laws, nor fully per- 
form the function for which it is originally designed. 

What should we think, for example, of an eye that would 
present objects to the mind double, triple, or quadruple, or 
give the image of a horse when it looked at a man, or of an 
ass instead of a metaphysician 1 What should we think of 
a faculty of colour that would make green appear yellow, or 
black, white? Undoubtedly, we should consider them de- 
fective or perverted. If, then, we have a right to expect, that 
the perceptive faculties, in conjunction with the external 
senses, when uninjured and unperverted, will furnish us 
with correct information concerning physical objects and 
their qualities, it is equally reasonable to suppose, that, un- 
der similar circumstances, the reasoning faculties will make 
a true report of the abstract relations and causes of things. 
Consequently, all that we have to do in order to ascertain 
the truth in any given matter, is to lay before causality the 


saked facts in the case, and all the facts, and its decision will 
be the truth iequiied : and the only reasons why the opin- 
ions of men so frequently and so widely differ upon the same 
subject, and stray so far from the truth, are either that the 
data upon which the decisions of causality and comparison 
are predicated, are incorrect or insufficient, or because the 
reasoning organs are too feeble to bear up against the clam- 
ours of prejudice or passion. 

Large. — One having caus. large, will be able intuitively 
to perceive, and readily to apply, the principles of causation ; 
to lay good plans, and successfully reach desired ends by the 
application of appropriate means ; will have a strong desire to 
ascertain the why and the w herefore of things ; to investigate 
their nature and relations, and ascertain their origin, uses, 
and procuring causes ; will consider facts and phenomena 
only as connected with their principles and causes ; perceive 
self-evident truths, and draw inferences from them ; possess 
an inquiring, investigating turn of mind ; with proper cul- 
ture of this faculty, be able to originate good ideas, and rea- 
son correctly upon the data furnished by the other faculties ; 
by the intuitive application of the principle that like causes 
will always produce like effects, be able to predict what will 
be, from what has been ; to tell wherein one result will differ 
from another, and, also, what will be the effect of given meas- 
tires ; will intuitively perceive the various bearings and the 
abstract relations of things ; naturally possess a large en- 
dowment of sagacity, penetration, good sense, judgment, and 
originality ; and be disposed to give, and require, not only a 
reason for every thing, but, also, a satisfactory explanation 
of all its phenomena. 

One having caus. large, with the perceptive organs full, 
large, or very large, will be quick to perceive the first truths 
or axioms of natural philosophy, to draw inferences from 
them, and to apply them whenever occasion demands : with 
compar. and conscien. large or very large, to perceive the 
force of moral truths and inferences, and to admit moral ax- 
ioms, and be able to reason clearly and correctly from them: 
with the selfish faculties strong, will be able to provide for 
his selfish wants, and secure selfish ends : with acquis, full 
or large, or even only moderate or small, to lay excellent 
plans for accumulating wealth : with the perceptive organs 
only moderate or full, will be more delighted with the pnn- 
aisles and the philosophy of natural science, than with the 



mere /acta and seldom contemplate lacts apart from the laws 

concerned in their production : with individ. and event, only 
moderate or full, will be guided much more by the reason 
of things, and by general principles, than by experience ; but, 
with individ. and event, large or very large, will be influenced 
both by experiments and facts, and also by the principles in 
volved in them ; have a superiour talent, not only for col 
lecting facts, but, also, for drawing correct deductions from 
them ; devise and execute with surprising sagacity and tact, 
and possess an excellent talent for turning things to his own 
advantage — for seeing just what ought to be done in order 
most successfully to obtain the desired end, and will possess 
a very large share of practical sense and sound judgment : 
with large or very large compar. and only moderate percep- 
tive faculties, will deal much more in that which h abstract 
and metaphysical than in facts and details, and possess much 
more intellect than he appears to have ; be too abstract, and 
think too deeply, to be properly appreciated, especially by 
those who have large perceptive, and only full reasoning, 
faculties ; will have an excellent memory of thoughts and 
first-principles, but forget circumstances and particulars ; 
have a distinct recollection of inferences, yet be apt to forget 
the premises from which they were drawn ; be able to think 
and reason clearly and strongly, yet, in presenting his ideas, 
will fail to do them justice, or give them the force necessary 
to produce the conviction to which they are justly entitled : 
with the selfish faculties generally large or very large, and 
the moral only moderate or full, will make his reason sub- 
servient to the mandates of his selfish, not to say vicious and 
depraved, animal desires and gratifications ; and prostitute 
this noble gift to the injury both of himself and his fellow- 
men : with the moral organs large, and the selfish also large, 
will have a vigorous intellect propelled by energetick, selfish 
passions, and modified by a strong current &t moral feeling, 
yet his moral and religious opinions and practices will be 
strongly tinctured with his animal feelings — his religious gar- 
ments often defaced with spots and patches of selfishness and 
sin ; and his reason turned to a good or bad account according 
as his education, external circumstances, &c, excite more pow- 
erfully either the one or the other class of faculties : with 
the moral organs large or very large, the propensities full or 
large, but less than the moral and reasoning organs, and the 
perceptive at least, full, will possess great intellectual power 



and superiour talents, which will be called into energetick 
action, and urged forward by strong feelings, and directed 
Dy high-toned, moral principle, to the advancement of some 
noble and important object; and have enough of the propen- 
sities to impart efficiency to his intellectual and moral facut»- 
ties, which, however, will maintain the ascendency: witfe 
combat, large, will warmly defend and advocate his opinion*, 
and engage in debate wtih spirit and delight, &c. 

Caus. acts with a power and success reciprocally propoe 
donate to the size of the organ and the stimuli which excite 
it. These stimuli are supplied by the other faculties, and 
vary according to the intensity with which these faculties 
desire those objects procured by the aid of caus. For ex- 
ample; one having caus. large, with very large domestick 
organs, and only moderate selfish propensities, will seem to 
lack wisdom in conducting his own selfish interests, because 
ne will be comparatively indifferent to them, but, in reference 
to his children, his family, his friends, &c, he will plais 
with uncommon judgment, and manifest great foresight : 
with acquis, small, and approbat. or self-e., or both, very 
large, will be likely to manifest great mental vigour in his 
efforts to secure distinction, yet, in the mere accumulation of 
wealth, may discover a decisive want of tact and judgment, 
and ability to plan ; but still, if any of the other faculties de- 
sire money, caus. will do its utmost to supply them, and 
devise means admirably calculated to secure this object: 
with the selfish propensities only moderate or full, compar. 
and conscien. large or very large, ven. full or large, and the 
perceptive organs only moderate or full, will reason clearly 
and forcibly from correct moral premises, and successfully 
prosecute ethical and theological investigations, yet be less 
distinguished for his delight and success in pursuing nat- 
ural philosophy, and be likely to make but indifferent calcu- 
lations in regard to his pecuniary affairs, and manage them 
rather poorly ; but, with the perceptive organs large or very 
large, conscien. small, and ven. only full, while he will rea- 
son clearly and correctly upon natural philosophy and mat- 
ters which have no moral bearing, will commit the grossest 
errours in reasoning upon the character of the Supreme Be- 
ing and religious subjects generally, his duties to his fellow- 
men, and of their obligations to him, &c. The same prin- 
ciple applies to caus. in combination with any of the othei 
arjjans in their various states of development, 


Very large. — One having caus. very large, with a large 
head and an active temperament, in addition to the manifes- 
tations described under caus. large, will be pre-eminent for 
the correctness of his judgment, the clearness, originality, 
and importance of his ideas, the extent of his understanding, 
and the power of his intellect; be distinguished for taking 
new views, even of the most ordinary subjects, and for pre- 
senting them in a striking light; for discovering new me- 
thods of effecting certain objects; be able to calculate, with 
certainty, what effects will be produced by the application of 
particular means, and, also, the most judicious method of 
applying these means ; clearly perceive the full force of ar- 
guments; be able to explain, or "clear up," abstruse points 
and difficult subjects ; to carry conviction to the mind by his 
irresistible arguments, and always to present them in a man- 
ner perfectly intelligible; will grasp, as it were, with a giant 
intellect, those great and fundamental principles which enter 
into the nature and constitution of things ; and possess ex* 
traordinary greatness of mind and vastness of comprehen 

One having caus. very large, with compar. large or very 
large, will be extremely delighted with metaphysical and 
abstract studies ; attempt to pry into the nature and first-prin- 
ciples of every thing ; will speculate and theorize, and, with 
large conscien. added, will excel as a metaphysician, and es- 
pecially as a moral and intellectual philosopher; with large 
individ. added, will not only display extraordinary depth and 
power of thought, but, also, be able to express and illustrate 
his ideas in a manner so simple and intelligible as to make 
himself easily and fully understood even by feeble minds ; if 
he fail in any part of his projects, will readily supply the 
deficiency by a resort to the most happy expedients, and thus 
generally succeed in his undertakings ; never be at a loss for 
resources, and be wonderfully ingenious in calling them up 
and applying them ; and possess extraordinary intellectual 
power and acumen. 

The combinations and descriptions of caus. large, modifi- 
ed by an increase of the power of caus., will apply to this 
organ very large. 

Full. — One having caus. full, will have a strong desire 
to ascertain the reason of things, and to investigate their na- 
ture and procuring causes, yet his views of the relations of 
eause and effect, will be less clear, and his inductions from a 


f 4 


given amount of data, less correct, than they would be if 
caus. were large or very large ; with proper culture, will be 
respectable as a reasoner, yet the cast of his mind will not 
be strikingly original or logical, nor his judgment first-rate: 
with large or very large perceptive faculties, may be qualifi- 
ed to do a fair business, yet will not excel in planning or in 
conducting a great business, nor be distinguished for employ- 
ing the best means to effect desired ends ; with large imitat.. 
individ., and approbat., and moderate or small self-e. added, 
will lack independence and originality of thought and char- 
acter ; adopt the views and opinions of those with whom he 
most associates, and thus have no marked character or plans 
of his own, and, with ven. and conscien. large, will not de- 
sire, or hardly dare, especially in religious matters, to think 
or act for himself; may pass for a man of considerable talent 
and intellect, yet much of his knowledge will be borrowed, 
and his disposition and ability to apply his mind closely to 
an argument or process of thought, will be weak and limit- 
ed, and his judgment, not very profound: with com par., in- 
divid., and event, large, will not be distinguished for the 
superiority of his judgment, nor yet for the weakness of it; 
will possess considerable practical talent, and understand 
himself well, yet be somewhat superficial, and manifest more 
discrimination and tact than originality and depth, and fail 
to present arguments in a clear, cogent, and convincing man- 
ner, as well as to appreciate the full force of the reasonings 
of others. 

Moderate. — One having caus. moderate, will not be 
very clear or correct in apprehending the principles of 
causation, -nor reason clearly or closely; with individ., 
event., and lang. large, and compar. full or large, may pass 
through the ordinary routine of life with tolerable success, 
yet, when called upon to think, or plan, or call up resources 
— to devise means, or originate any thing, will manifest 
weakness and inability; may learn well, and, with imitat 
also large, do what he sees others do, and gain something 
from experience, yet will be unwilling to apply his mind to 
any subject which requires close investigation and research, 
and will not be able to reason strongly or deeply, or to ap- 
preciate the arguments of those who do ; and will not be at 
all distinguished for quickness of comprehension or depth of 
understanding : with the selfish faculties strong, will be sway- 
ed chiefly by his animal propensities, and yet be shrewd in 



many things, although his shrewdness will result more from 
instinct than reason : with secret, large, and conscien. only 
full, by art and intrigue may succeed well for awhile, yet it 
will not be difficult to penetrate his designs, and discover his 
intentions, and, consequently, to defeat his purposes. 

Small. — One having caus. small, will be decisively defi- 
cient in discernment and understanding ; fail to comprehend 
the reasons, principles, causes, and the general bearing of 
things, as well as the force of logical arguments ; be injudi- 
cious in planning, and unable to see the end from the begin- 
ning, or comprehend the result of certain measures ; be un- 
able to think, and dull in comprehending a subject, even 
when clearly and fully explained to him ; slow to draw in- 
ferences, and unskilful in adapting means to the accomplish- 
ment of desired ends ; possess feeble powers of ratiocination, 
and a judgment that cannot be relied upon ; and have no talent 
for metaphysicks, or moralizing, and very little " hard sense." 

One having caus. small, with secret, large or very large, 
may manifest considerable tact and ingenuity in laying plots, 
yet have too little depth or strength of intellect to carry 
through his manoeuvres: with very large individ., may have 
an extensive knowledge of matters and things in general, yet 
will not be able to invent, or improve upon the inventions of 
others, to devise " ways and means," and create resources. 

The combinations and descriptions under large or very 
large caus., reversed, will apply to caus. small. 

Very small. — One having caus. very small, will utterly 
fail to appreciate or apply the principles of causation, or to 
comprehend the relations of cause and effect; be unable to 
reason, or to understand the arguments or explanations of 
others, be they ever so clear and simple, and will be appa- 
rently destitute of the qualities ascribed to caus. large. 

Of all the human faculties, caus. is undoubtedly the most 
useful and important, (if, indeed, a preference may be given 
to one faculty over another,) as it gives that depth, and 
strength, and solidity to the mind so necessary to the proper 
guidance and direction of the other faculties, and without 
which, man could scarcely be accounted a rational being. It 
is, in fact, that faculty which, above all others, so pre-emi« 
nently distinguishes man from the brute, and enables him to 
stand forth in majestick dignity as the lord of this lower cre- 
ation. With this faculty largely developed, (and aided by 
compar,,) man is capable of thinking, reasoning, rising, soar 



mg of looking, with an intelligent eye, in'co the works of 

the Deity, and of penetrating the mighty mysteries of hi» 
divine government. Without it, what would be man ? — a 
helpless, unintelligent creature — a feeble, grovelling thaog, 
scarcely elevated above the meanest reptile. 

Location. — Caus. is located in the upper and lateral por- 
tions of the forehead, externally from compar., and giyes 
height and breadth to the forehead proportionate to tho size 
of the organ. 


Disposition and ability to compare various things for the 
purpose of ascertaining their points of resemblance and 
of difference — power of classification — perception and 
application of the principles of analogy — ability to dis- 
cover truths that are unknown, by discerning their resem- 
blance to those that are already ascertained, and also 
errour from its incongruity with truth — power of illus- 
tration — critical acumen. 

On account of the resemblance which one thing, or one 
set of things, bears to another, most of the phenomena of 
the natural world, are capable of being grouped together 
into classes. The causes of these phenomena, or their rela- 
tions of cause and effect, as has been observed, are sought 
out by causality ; their resemblances and. analogies, and their 
dissimilarities, are recognised by comparison. Form may 
compare different shapes ; tune, different notes ; and colour 
may contrast different shades ; but comparison can compare 
a colour and a shape, a teint and a note, an idea and a sub- 
stance ; which cannot be done by these other faculties alone : 
and thus it is, that comparison embraces within the legitimate 
sphere of its function, the whole range of nature. It some- 
times discerns resemblances between things apparently the 
most distant and unlike ; and often traces out analogies be- 
tween the qualities of mind and matter: and is the grand 
•gent in producing similes, metaphors, and allegories, par« 
abies, and fables. 

As was predicated of causality, that, when furnished with 
correct data, it would always draw just conclusions, and 
teach us what is true ; so may it be of comparison, that, in- 
asmuch as it is primarily adapted to take cognizance of cer- 
tain resemblances and arrangements in nature, it, also, whe» 



furnished with proper data, will give us the truth concerning 
these arrangements. In other words ; the legitimate conclu 
sions drawn by comparison in accordance with the principle* 
of analogy, may be relief apon with as much certainty as 
those drawn by causality, or experience. For example; 
there is a resemblance, more or less striking, in the anatomi- 
cal structure of all the various orders, genera, and species of 
animals, and, also, in the structure of different individuals 
of the same species. Hence, comparison has a right to in- 
fer, that, as far as this anatomical analogy extends, these dif- 
ferent animals are governed by similar physiological laws. 
Tn otker words ; as far as an analogy actually exists between 
any two things, we have a right to conclude, that what is 
true of the one, is equally so of the other. If, for instance, 
we discover an animal whose species is unknown to us, we 
immediately compare it with some animal of a known spe- 
cks which it most resembles ; and, as far as this resemblance 
hOids good, we at once, and justly, conclude the animals are 
alike in their nature and habits. If the strange animal is 
furnished with the organs which we know belong to herbiv- 
orous animals, we conclude that it is herbivorous ; if, with 
the organs of carnivorous or granivorous animals, we infer 
that it is carnivorous, or granivorous, as the case may be: if 
the animal is furnished with legs and feet, we conclude that 
its nature is to walk or run on land ; if, with wings, we say 
it flies in the air ; if, with fins, we judge it swims in the wa- 
ter, and so on : and we naturally rely upon the justness of 
these conclusions, though drawn entirely from analogy, as 
confidently as we do upon the truths taught by the most rigid 
induction. Indeed, the human mind is so constituted, that it 
cannot avoid making comparisons, and then relying upon 
tneir result. 

That the principles of analogy really exist in nature, is 
demonstrated by every day's observation and experience; 
and hence we infer the necessity of a primary power c? the 
mind whose proper function it is to perceive these principles, 
and, by their application, to discover truth and detect errour : 
and hence we may also infer, that arguments which are 
based upon correct analogies, are strictly true. This being 
the case, then, the only reason why arguments drawn from 
analogy, are so often unsound, is, that the comparisons upon 
which they are predicated, «are not, in all respects, just: for, 
if the resemblance upon which the argument is founded. 



holds good in ninety-nine points in a hundred, and differs in 
one, this difference, provided the analogy from which the 
conclusion is drawn, reaches this point, will destroy the 
whole force of the analogy, or as far, at least, as the argu- 
ment is concerned, and, of course, render the conclusion 
false ; but, conclusions drawn from any points in which the 
analogy holds good, are correct, and may be relied upon. 
Here, then, we have arrived at the source of that great flood 
of sophistry and false reasoning which sweeps through the 
popular discourses and discussions of the day. 

Large. — One having compar. large, will readily discover 
analogies, resemblances, differences, &c, and be able, and 
disposed, to classify those thoughts, phenomena, and things 
of which the other faculties have taken cognizance ; possess 
ft happy talent for generalizing, illustrating, and reasoning 
from similar cases; frequently employ figurative expressions ; 
readily discover the point and ihe application of argumentsj 
make nice discriminations ; possess a criticising, comparing 
turn of mind, and readily detect fallacies in arguments, and 
inaccuracies, and improprieties in the use of words, &c. 

The objects compared by this faculty, are determined, in 
part, by its combinations. For example ; one having com- 
par. large, with full, large, or very large event, and individ., 
will have a happy talent, and a passionate fondness, for com- 
paring different 'phenomena, and classes of phenomena, in 
the natural world, as well as various historical accounts, 
scientifick facts and experiments, &c, and be quick to dis- 
cern those resemblances and differences which obtain between 
them, and, also, between the various sciences themselves; 
with a view to make himself easily understood, will be 
strongly prone to illustrate his ideas by a reference to some 
fact or phenomenon with which the auditor is supposed to be 
familiar; with form, size, and local, added, will be very 
skilful in comparing those things which come under the 
cognizance of these faculties respectively, as well as in draw- 
ing illustrations from them : with ven. and conscien. largo 
or very large, will draw religious instruction from natural 
objects, and apply the principles and phenomena of natural 
science, and of the physical world generally, to the investi- 
gation of moral and religious subjects ; compare spiritual 
things with temporal, and temporal with spiritual, and bo 
predisposed to receive, and convey, religious, instruction by 
means of parables, allegories, &c, and, in reasoning upon 



moral subjects, make a great many nice distinctions, Su* : 
with ideal, and individ. large or very large, will make many 
elegant and elevated comparisons ; employ many metaphors, 
similes, and other figures which will glow with the fervour, 
and be enlivened by the brilliancy, of a lively imagination, 
and serve the purpose of argument and ornament united; 
yet, with only full caus. added, there will be very little rea- 
son or sound logick in his metaphors and illustrations : with 
caus. large, in investigating causes, will be greatly assisted 
and often led to his conclusions, by the light of comparison ; 
in thinking and reasoning upon subjects, and especially in 
deciding upon the force of arguments, will employ his caus. 
as much as his compar., and probably more, yet, in commu- 
nicating his ideas, will manifest more compar. than caus., 
and illustrate them copiously and forcibly: with concent, 
moderate or small, will frequently employ mixed metaphors, 
and seldom sustain, or carry out, his comparisons : with 
ideal, only moderate or full, will still employ metaphors, 
similes, and copious illustrations, but they will be argu- 
mentative, rather than ornamental ; and, though they may 
be clear and in point, they will not be glowing or elevated 
in character, nor always in good taste: with secret, moderate 
or small, and lang. and combat, full or large, will be so much 
inclined to criticise the expressions of others, as often to get 
their ill will, yet, to exercise his critical acumen, will be so nat- 
ural to him, that he will find it difficult to avoid it : with ideal., 
imitat., individ., form, size, order, local., event, and lang. 
large or very large, and caus. only full, will have a populai 
and decisively practical talent, which will appear to be much 
greater than it really is, but his judgment will be much more 
the result of experience and observation, than of reflection ; 
have a superiour, natural tact and talent for doing business, 
and getting along well in the world ; acquire knowledge very 
easily, retain it for a long time, and also apply it to very good 
advantage ; speak and, perhaps, write well upon subjects 
which require no great depth of thought ; be likely to pass 
for a person of superiour mental powers, yet, he will not 
often bear sounding, nor reason closely nor profoundly, nor 
take original or comprehensive views of subjects ; but, with 
caus. large or very large, will be able to combine uncommon 
theoretical, with extraordinary practical, talents ; according 
to his advantages, will have at command a great amount of 
fects upon a great variety of subjects, and also, be able to 



apply his knowledge to the best advantage, both in reasoning 
and in accomplishing his purposes ; will be naturally both 
learned and profound, and capable of excelling in the natu- 
ral, metaphysical, and demonstrative sciences ; be pre-eminently 
talented, and calculated both to devise and execute, and thus 
to conduct a great business ; and, with combat., firm., hope, 
and self-e. large or very large, be abundantly able to rise far 
above the common level of mankind, and to turn his hand 
successfully to almost any undertaking; and will add to su- 
periour natural talents, great energy and perseverance. 

Very large. — One having compar. very large, will be 
able, readily to compare, and perfectly analyze, almost any sub- 
ject which may be presented to his mind; will instantly and 
intuitively detect the fallacy of analogical arguments, and 
the misapplication of words or facts ; present his ideas in a 
manner so perfectly clear and simple, and accompanied with 
illustrations so copious and appropriate, that they can be 
fully and easily un'^rstood: with lang. and individ. large, 
will pour out a superabundant flood of figurative expressions; 
be strongly inclined to criticise every thing he sees, hears, or 
reads ; and, with moderate conscien., will be likely, by his 
wonderful power and copiousness, and seeming appropriate- 
ness, of comparison and illustration, to make the better side 
appear the worse, and the worse, the better — to employ sophis- 
try, put false constructions upon things, and make wrong ap- 
plications of them, and thus knowingly mislead the common 
mind, &c. 

The influence of compar. very large, acting in combina- 
tion with the other organs, has been described under the 
other orgars respectively. It may also be added, that the 
combinations and descriptions given as applicable to compar. 
large, modified by an increase of the influence of compar., 
will apply to this organ very large. 

Full. — One having full compar., will be respectable fof 
his discrimination and ability to compare, analyze, and illus 
trate things, yet will not be particularly distinguished for 
this power ; frequently resort to illustrations, yet they will 
not manifest the quality of versatility, nor be always in 
point; not at once discover whether a comparison is just and 
appropriate, and, though he may be able to trace out plain 
and striking analogies, will not so readily discover the more 
obscure and subtle resemblances, analogies, differences, &c. : 
<vith caus. large or very large, will have good ideas, bu$ 



they will often be less applicable to the subject, and more 
imperfectly illustrated, than is desirable : with the perceptive 
faculties generally strong, will not discover any marked de- 
fect in this particular, nor any peculiar talent for compari- 
son, &c. 

The add'.tional manifestations of compar. full, may be in- 
ferred from those of compar. large, modified by a decrease 
of the power of this faculty. 

Moderate. — One having compar. moderate, may be able 
to discern the plainer and more obvious resemblances and 
differences which exist in the phenomena of nature, but will 
fail to discover the more obscure points, and nicer shades, of 
resemblance and difference ; may perceive the force of com- 
parisons and illustrations presented by others, yet will not 
be happy in discovering them himself, nor readily perceive the 
application of arguments, nor give point to his own : with full 
or large caus., will make many sensible remarks, yet they 
will frequently lack point, and be inapplicable to the subject 
in hand: with lang. full or large, will talk much, but not be 
able to write with perspicuity, nor to use words with propri- 
ety and accuracy : with individ. and event, large or very 
iarge, will have an excellent memory of facts, but, instead 
of arranging and classifying them, he will be likely to pre- 
sent them in a confused state, and, as it were, en masse : will 
not make nice distinctions between the various passions and 
other mental operations, and fail to make critical discrimina- 
tions in matters and things generally, or to adduce many 
appropriate illustrations. 

The descriptions and combinations of compar. full, dimin- 
ished, will apply to compar. moderate. 

Small. — One having compar. small, will be dull and slow 
in perceiving the force of comparisons and analogies, and 
possess but little discernment or discrimination, and be un- 
able successfully to compare, classify, arrange, illustrate, or 
generalize; be almost destitute of critical acumen; and fail 
to perceive analogies and differences, even when they are 
pointed out to him. 

Very small. — One having compar. very small, wiU b© 
apparently destitute of all those qualities ascribed to com- 
par. large and very large, and nearly so of those attributed 
to compar. full. 

Location. — Compar. is located in the middle and uppei 
portion of the forehead, between the two lobes of caus,, with 



event, below, and benev. above it. Its shape resembles an 
inverted cone. 

It has already been remarked, that the class of functions 
performed by the reflective faculties, is of a far higher order 
than any other, and, also, that, when fairly developed, and 
furnished with correct data, if allowed to operate in an un- 
perverted and unbiased manner, they will always form cor- 
rect conclusions, and furnish us with the truth. But the 
great misfortune to mankind is, that these faculties are sel- 
dom allowed to assert their own proper prerogative, and sway 
that influence over human actions and human conduct for 
which they are originally designed. Hence it is, that we 
so much more frequently see men guided by feeling, by pas 
sion, or by prejudice, than by reason. 

This great and deplorable evil generally arises, either from 
a neglect to cultivate the reasoning faculties, or from a per- 
version of them. It cannot be denied, that the animal and 
selfish passions in man, frequently occupy the greater portion 
of the brain ; but yet, on a close examination, it will generally 
be found, that the moral and intellectual faculties, if properly 
cultivated, are sufficiently powerful to keep in check, and to 
control, the feelings and the passions. At present, however, 
we have to consider the neglect and perversion of the reflec- 
tive faculties only. 

As society is now constituted, even in what is called civil- 
ized and Christian communities, men are often taught to 
fight, to covet, to cheat, lie, and scandalize, to gormandize 
and be lascivious; but how rarely are they taught to think ! 
In proof of this, we have only to look abroad upon the face 
of society. How often do we see our beautiful system of re- 
ligion debased and degraded, and made subservient to the 
vilest and most selfish purposes — her sacred vestments tatter- 
ed and torn by sectarian strife and party discord — her holy 
altars polluted by base hypocrisy and sordid iniquity- — her 
sublime doctrines perverted, and her righteous laws trampled 
under foot ! How often do we see the unprincipled pretend- 
er, gaining his selfish objects by practising upon the ignorance 
and the credulity of his fellow-men — the ambitious, rising 
to high places of power and profit by making use of the 
basest duplicity and the most heartless intrigue — by fostering 
the pride, flattering the vanity, pampering the luxury, and 
gratifying the selfish passions of those around him ! Now, 
it is evident, that, if men were taught to think — if thoir rear 


toning faculties were properly cultivated, and trainee to per- 
form their legitimate functions with energy, these things 
would not — these things could not, take place ; because, in 
the first place, aided by the moral organs, they would restrain 
the sinful passions and desires and the unhallowed ambition 
of the designing ; and, secondly, so enlighten the minds of 
the common people as to prevent their being thus deceived 
and imposed upon. 

But the vices and follies of mankind grow out of the per- 
version of the reasoning faculties more frequently, perhaps, 
than out of their neglect : and when this is the case, their 
tendency is to make man even worse than the brute, for they 
are then under the dominion of the selfish passions, and are 
rendered almost wholly subservient to the gratification of 
their wants — they are then actively employed in searching 
for new objects upon which the indulgence of the passions may 
be expended, and new excuses for such indulgence — they are 
energetick in seeking out, and presenting, artificial, improp- 
er, and unnecessary stimuli to the selfish propensities of 
which the brute can never form any conception, and, of 
course, upon which it can never exert or debase its mental 

Again, mankind are not only, not taught to think, bu* 
they are frequently wis-taught to think ; that is, they arc 
often taught to think in a particular way — taught to believ 
certain doctrines, and to disbelieve others — taught to believe 
whether reason approves or disapproves; and all this it 
brought about by a kind of ratiocinative legerdemain, or by 
causing the eye of reason to look at all objects through the 
dim spectacles of prejudice. This point may be illustrated 
by a reference to children. Before their reasoning faculties 
have become perverted, they frequently reason more clearly 
and accurately upon some subjects than their tutors or their 
parents ; for, in the simplicity of their honest hearts, they 
deduce from the premises presented to their minds, the con- 
clusions which naturally flow from them. Hence, many 
would do well to take the hint, lay aside their bigotry and 
their prejudice, bow their stubborn pride, and, in reasoning 
adopt the simplicity of the child. 




It is admitted by phrenologists generally, that certain por- 
tions of the brain remain, as yet, terra incognita ; and, be- 
lieving, that every portion of the human frame, and every 
part of the universe, is made for, and adapted to, some usefui 
purpose, and, more especially, since they have ascertained, 
that every other portion of the brain is occupied by some 
organ whose office it is to perform the functions of some one 
of the mental faculties, they cannot resist the conclusion, that 
each of these unascertained portions, is occupied by a phren- 
ological organ adapted to the performance of the functions 
of some important, though unknown, faculty of the mind. 

One of these portions occurs between the reflective organs 
upon the one side, and benevolence and imitation upon the 
other: and one of the authors (L. N. Fowler) having made 
numerous observations and experiments upon it, is disposed 
to believe, that it is occupied by an organ whose function 
it is to furnish its possessor with an intuitive knowledge of 
human nature ; or, to enable him readily to perceive the 
state of mind or feeling possessed by others, and thus suc- 
cessfully to adapt himself to, and operate upon, the minds 
and feelings of his fellow-men. 

The authors are not unaware, that the functions here as 
cribed to this supposed organ, are commonly distributed 
among the other organs ; or, rather, that they are generally 
supposed to be the product of the combined action of many 
organs whose functions are already ascertained. But this 
view of the subject, however plausible it may be, certainly 
carries no great weight of argument with it ; for it is based 
upon the same ground of reasoning which was formerly oc- 
cupied by the metaphysicians, who attempted to account for 
all the phenomena of the human mind without admitting it 
to be constituted of distinct, separate faculties. 

The existence of the faculty here supposed, is rendered 
iomewhat probable, however, by the a priori inference, that 
the class of functions attributed to it, does not belong exclur 
sively to any one of the other organs. That our ability to 
judge of human nature, and adapt our actions to the feelings 
and views of others, receives important aid from caus., com- 
par., cautious., secret., ideal., imitat., individ., event., &c, and 
from experience, is readily admitted ; but that this ability whol 



iy depends upon these faculties and experience, remains to be 
proved. The authors have received much evidence calculat- 
ed to convince them that it is not wholly dependent upon 
them, but that it depends more upon intuition. They do not 
profess, however, to have settled this point, but have thought 
proper to suggest it to the consideration of phrenologist?, 
leaving it to be confirmed or rejected as shall be decided by 
future observations and experiments. 

The observations of the authors have also led them to 
the conclusion, that the central portion of the unascertain- 
ed space alluded to, or that directly above compar. and 
below benev., is occupied by a "faculty the function of which 
is to give a peculiar agreeableness and suavity to the man- 
ners cf its possessor, and an ease and gentleness to the de- 
portment. It enables its possessor at once to gain the con- 
fidence of those into whose society he may chance to fall, 
to obtain personal favours and credit, even from strangers; 
to get along smoothly and pleasantly with all; and easily 
ingratiate himself into their favour and good will. Even 
though combat., destruct., self-e., approbat., and firm., may 
manifest themselves in a very objectionable form, and thus 
expose an individual to many serious difficulties, this faculty 
enables him to smooth the whole matter over ; to heal the 
wounds inflicted by these organs; and makes even his ene- 
mies fond of him in spite of their prejudices. 

By a reference to the note, it w"\l be seen that the term 
Agreeablexess has been suggested as the name of this 
faculty, but we prefer Seavetivexess. 

The supposed difference between the faculty described 
upon page 247, and the one now under consideration, is, 
that the former gives an intuitive perception of the motives of 
others, of their feelings, and of the means best calculated to 
operate upon them, &c, thus enabling its possessor success- 
fully to persuade his fellow-men, and even to influence their 
judgment, whilst the latter imparts those qualities which 
make their possessor beloved and always acceptable. By 
enabling one to understand the designs and state of mind 
possessed by others, the former guards him against imposi 
tion and deception, whilst the latter, by throwing those into 
whose society he may happen to fall, off their guard, enables 
him, if he wishes, successfully to impose upon others. 

The responsibility of making these suggestions in refer- 
ence to these unascertained organs, devolves upon L, N 



Fowler, who has been making observations upon them for 
the last two years. In his opinion, he has the concurrence, 
not only of Dr. Buchanan, who has been lecturing in con- 
nexion with him on phrenology in the West, but, also, of 
Dr. Judson, who has been an advocate and student of Phre- 
nology for the last fourteen years. The opinion of Dr. J 
we take the liberty to subjoin.* 

In reference to the space left unmarked in the cuts and 
busts of G. Combe, and, also, of the authors, located between 
cautiousness and ideality, and represented by Mr. Combe as 
unascertained, but as probably occupied by an organ whose 
function it is to impart the feeling of vastness, sublimity, 
grandeur, &c, they would merely remark, that, although 
they have made numerous observations upon it, and are daily 
adding to the number, they are still unprepared to offer any 
suggestions different from those of the excellent writer just 
alluded to. They are unable, however, to coincide in opin- 
ion with Dr. Powell, who is very positive in asserting, that, 
in this place, he has discovered an organ of watchfulness. 
To this organ he attributes, not only the function ascribed by 
the authors to the unascertained portion of the brain first 
alluded to, but, also, that of alertness, which they con- 
ceive to be one of the manifestations of cautiousness aided by 
secretiveness. But, however this may be, the authors gladly 

* Mr. Fowler — Sir, 

Alter some reflection upon the organs supposed to be newly discovered, I 
take the freedom of offering the following remarks. I am disposed to regard as 
correct the orsran which renders those possessing it large, agreeable to others. I 
am acquainted with several persons in whom the organ is largely developed and 
the corresponding faculty clearly manifested. As it seems to be "a nameless 
wight," although a pleasant companion, I pYopose to call it Agreeobleness. It 
renders those who have it large, acceptable to their friends ; commends them to 
all with whom they have intercourse ; gives ease to the behaviour, and bestows a 
grace upon the manners. Its connexion with benevolence is worthy of notice: 
and it is observable that the Apostle Peter has grouped these faculties together in 
his exhortation to Christians, saying — "be pitiful; be courteous." 

Marvellousness seems to be conversant with supernatural occurrences; and, 
therefore, it seems not improbable, a priori, that an organ exists whose primary 
function is the observation of natural events as distinguished from those which aro 
miraculous. If this is the case, I should imagine that the organ supposed by your 
brother to give a knowledge of human nature, takes a wider range than that 
which he has ascribed to it, and, instead of being confined exclusively to a knowl- 
edge of human nature, that it expatiates freely through all the scenes of nature 
spread before us. 

Marvellousness inclines us to believe an uncommon appearance to be supernat- 
ural : this organ presents a plain, common-sense view of the matter, and compari- 
son decides between them. I would call it naluratite, and venture the name of 
tvpernaturalite to marvellousness once bestowed upon it by Dr. Spurzheirn. I 
have no facts to offer in support of this organ ; and merely add, that, with vitatitre> 
nass, il increases the number of the human faculties to forty. 

I am, sir, your ob't servant, 

H. T JUDSON, M. » 

New York, Dec. 9, 1836. 




embrace the privilege of submitting this, and all similaf 
points, to the decisions of the unerring tribunal of facts. 

Remarks upon the wonderful Wisdom and Beauty 
displayed in the location and grouping of the 

Throughout the works of nature, we find perfect simplici- 
ty and perfect arrangement combined with perfect harmony 
and perfect adaptation : therefore, if phrenology is true, the 
impress of the Deity must be stamped, not only upon the na- 
ture and functions of the various faculties themselves, but, 
also, upon the location and grouping together, or classifica- 
tion and arrangement, of their respective organs in the head. 
If, then, we find, that this perfection of arrangement and 
adaptation which is everywhere displayed in nature's works, 
holds good in the location and classification of the phreno- 
logical organs, we infer that this is the handiwork of the 
great Creator, and a part of his great system of things, or, 
that phrenology is true ; and, vice versa, if we find imper- 
fection and a want of adaptation in the location and arrange- 
ment of the various organs, the fair inference is, that the 
whole is a man-made theory, stamped with inconsistency and 
incongruity, or, a mere chimera of an infatuated brain. 

Let us look, then, at the real facts in the case. The an- 
imal passions and propensities unquestionably constitute the 
most inferiour class of the mental functions ; and, according- 
ly, we find the organs of these faculties all grouped together, 
and occupying the lower and back portion of the head, or, 
if we may be allowed the expression, the least honourable 
portion of the brain : whilst, on the other hand, the organs 
of the moral and religious sentiments and of the reasoning 
faculties, the functions of which are of a far higher order 
than any other classes of the intellectual operations, and 
even constitute the -crowning excellence of man, are grouped 
together, and occupy the highest portion of the brain. 

Again, the organs of the intellectual faculties are located 
together in the anterior portion of the head, or in the fore- 
head — a portion better fitted for the abode of the intellec- 
tual organs than any other. And not only so, but the ar 
rangement of the several classes of the intellectual organs, 
is most wonderful and systematick. The eye forms one 
great medium of communication with the external world, 



and is almost the only instrument which the perceptive fac- 
ulties employ in the performance of their appropriate func- 
tions. Accordingly, all the organs which take cognizance 
of physical objects and their qualities, are grouped together, 
and located about the eye — their principal and most obedient 

The reasoning organs, again, are located between the per- 
ceptive organs upon the one hand, and the moral upon the 
other, being thus prepared to reason, either upon the natural 
facts and phenomena which may be observed and collected 
by the perceptive faculties, or upon moral and theological 
subjects presented by the moral organs. 

The beauty and perfection of this arrangement, are dis- 
played in a manner no less striking when considered with 
respect to the individual organs. The organs of all the 
faculties, for example, which are directly concerned in per- 
forming any of the domestick functions, are clustered into 
one neighbourhood in the lower portion of the hind head. 
Amat, which takes the lead in the animal economy, is lo- 
cated in the lowest portion of the brain, and philopro., which 
comes next, and greatly assists in carrying out the designs 
of amat., is located by its side. Adhes., which, in its nature 
and object, is closely allied to the two preceding organs, we 
find located in the same group ; and inhab. completes both 
this group of organs and this class of functions. Thus we 
have presented to us the interesting picture of all the social 
and domestick organs grouped together in, as it were, a 
family circle. 

The organs of thi selfish propensities are likewise found 
linked together, with secret, in their midst, as if for concealing 
and scheming, and occupying the central portion of the side 
head. Combat, anddestruct., twin-brothers in character and co- 
equals as heroes, are seen marching up side by side. Moreover, 
one important object of destruct. is to supply aliment, with 
food. Hunger greatly increases the action of destruct., but, 
when aliment, is fully satiated, even beasts of prey, except 
when provoked, will seldom exercise this organ. Accord- 
ingly, infinite wisdom has placed these organs side by side, 
and thus greatly facilitated their reciprocal intercourse. If 
secret, had been located among the moral or intellectual or- 
gans, which seldom, if ever, require its aid, it would have 
been out of place ; but, instead of this, it is found among the 
propensities, which frequently and mainly require its actio*. 



And is there nothing superhuman in all this ? Cautious., 
like a faithful sentinel, takes its appropriate stand between 
.he domestick, animal, and moral organs — a most advan- 
tageous post, from which to overlook them all, and warn 
them of approaching danger. Between the functions of ap- 
probat. and self-e., and, also, between those of self-e. and firm., 
there exists, at least, a family resemblance ; and, accordingly, 
we find approbat. and self-e. located side by side, and self-e. 
and firm, adjoining each other : and, moreover, the location 
of firm, near the moral organs, which so frequently demand 
its action, is certainly an admirable arrangement. 

See the moral organs, also, all grouped together like a 
band of brothers, illustrating the principle, that "union is 
strength," constituting a great moral phalanx, and occupying 
a position between tiie selfish organs upon the one hand, and 
the intellectual upon the other, in order that they may purify 
and sanctify the action of both. 

Construct., which often demands the assistance of the per 
ceptive and of the reasoning faculties, and is itself, in part, 
intellectual, is accordingly located near its kindred, the intel- 
lectual organs. The same is true of ideal. Mirth., also, 
which assists reason in detecting errour, is located next to 
the reasoning organs. Event., again, the reservoir or great 
intellectual warehouse of the facts collected by the percep- 
tive faculties, and upon which the reflective organs are 
obliged to make frequent and copious draughts, is located be- 
tween the reflective and the perceptive faculties ; and, last of 
all, compar. and caus., torch-bearers to all the other mental 
faculties, occupy a position most advantageous for the per- 
formance of their appropriate functions. 

Now, it must be recollected, that one organ was discover- 
ed in one portion of the head, and another, in another por- 
tion, and at periods widely different, but, on examination, 
each propensity is found to be in the group of the propensi- 
ties, each sentiment, among its kindred sentiments, and all the 
intellectual faculties together in the forehead, and, in fact, 
not a single organ straggling abroad at random. If acquis., 
for example, had been found among the moral organs, con 
scien. among the propensities, any of the intellectual organs 
among the animal or selfish organs, or amat. in the fore 
head, this irregularity would have shown a radical defect ir. 
the svstem, and proved its origin to be human; but, as it is 
'•we find all its parts perfectly arranged, and uniting in a per 



feet whole, affording a new proof of the trutn, ai;d illustra- 
tion of the principles, of this sublime science, and evincing 
ehat it is the handiwork of infinite wisdom. 


In ascertaining the character of individuals from their 
phrenological developments, the general size of the whole 
head should first be observed, and then, the relative size of its 
several parts according to the classification adopted in this 
work. The temperament, health, habits, education, &c, of 
the individual, should be next attended to. After these, the 
relative size of each organ may be observed ; and then the 
effect of the combinations as described in this volume. This 
last point is of paramount importance. 

In applying the fingers to the head, the balls should be 
used instead of the ends. 

The first joint of the second finger, should be placed upon the 
middle of the organ examined, and the first and third finger, 
upon the sides of the organ, while the portion of the fingers be- 
tween the first joint and the end, should measure the farther 
side of the organ, and the portion within the first joint, 
ascertain the dimensions of the side of the organ next to the 

It should also be remembered, that, when an organ is very 
large, and an adjoining one is small, the large one frequent- 
ly so extends itself as to occupy much of the ground which 
the other would have occupied in case the relative size of the 
organs had been reversed, or, it apparently crowds the othei 
from its natural position. For example ; when ideal, is 
large, and construct, small, the latter retires before the en- 
croachments of the former, and ideal, falls lower than it is 
usually found; but, if construct, is large, and ideal, small, 
construct, extends itself upwards, and ideal, is crowded into 
narrower limits. Yet the shape imparted to the head by 
large construct, and smail ideal., differs greatly from that im- 
parted by large ideal, and small construct. 

Again, when, for example, both construct, and ideal, are 
large or very large, that part of the head in which these 
organs are located, will be greatly widened and deepened, 
yet there may be but one protuberance for both organs. 
Where several adjoining organs are large or very large, 



frotuberances seldom exist, but the whole head in that re- 
gion will be enlarged ; whereas, when only one organ if 
large, and an adjoining one is small, a depression will be 
plainly perceptible. 

Again, when several adjoining organs are small or very 
small, there will be no apparent depressions; but the region 
of the head in which they are located, will bt low and re- 
tiring. Protuberances, then, are by no means the only indi- 
cations of a large development of the organs, nor depres- 
sions, of the want of their development. 

The most successful method of gaining a speedy know- 
ledge of the location of the organs, is, first to learn, with as 
much precision as possible, the location of some of the larger 
organs, such as firm., benev., destruct, cautious., individ., 
r.ompar., &c, and then, by taking these as landmarks, calcu- 
late the relative location of the organs that are between and 
around them. To learn the location of many of these more 
important organs, and, also, their usual appearance in their 
extremes of development, the amateur Avil] find to be com- 
paratively an easy task; and yet, to learn the location and 
appearance of all the organs in all their various degrees of 
development, the operation of all the organs in all their 
combinations, the influence of temperament, health, educa- 
tion, habits, controlling circumstances, &c, and that, too, in 
all their almost infinite varieties, affords ample scope for the 
most vigorous exercise of the greatest genius and the highest 
order of intellect through, at least, as long a period of life 
as that allowed to the most favoured of mortals : and if one 
might wish to prolong his stay on earth for any object, sure- 
ly, the study of phrenology, with the utmost propriety, might 
constitute that object. See pp. 55. 317, 318. 


Although the private instruction of an experienced phre- 
nologist, is almost indispensable to the acquisition of a practi- 
cal knowledge of this science, yet, when this cannot be had, 
a bust is the next-best assistant, and is an article which every 
learner should have by him. Those in general use in this 
country, are defective in two important respects: 1. The 
general shape of the head represented by them, difFers ma- 
terially from that of the American head, and, consequently, 
cannot convey a very distinct or correct knowledge of the 



appearance assumed by the organs in American subjects. 
2. They are marked in a very indistinct manner, and that 
with figures, so that reference must be constantly made to 
the book. These two defects, the authors, with much 
study, have attempted to supply by publishing a bust 
modelled upon the most usual form of the American head, 
and presenting the organs as found in this country, and with 
the name of each organ written upon the bust, as well as the 
grouping, or classification of the organs as adopted in this 
work — which it is designed to accompany. 

Instead of representing the several organs as separated 
bv lines, this bust presents them in the form of protube- 
rances, in shape and appearance resembling the organs as 
they are found in the head when large. They are also pre- 
paring a set of busts, in which each organ will be represented 
when both large and small, and also average. They can be 
flad at their offices. 

♦ The above was written in 1836, four years ago, but instead of getting up this 
let of busts, the authors have greatly enlarged their plan, by collecting two large 
phrenological cabinets or museums, embracing above a thousand specimens, illus- 
trative of all the organs and temperaments in their various stages of development, 
as well as their combinations. They embrace the casts of the whole head, or the 
masks of most of our distinguished men, both in church and state, of above 
thirty Indian chiefs, all taken from life, (see catalogue,) the whole of G. Combe's 
collection, with many from the Boston and Edinburgh collections, casts of the 
BCJlls of a great number and variety of murderers, thieves, and other criminals, 
H no of many other noted characters, and also of national heads, together with the 
cnovest collection of the casts and sculls of rare animals; such as lions, tigers, 
hyenas, panthers, ourang-outangs, tigercats, wildcats, &c, Sec, &c, to be found 
in the country. In their zeal to augment these collections, and in renting places 
in Broadway. New York, and Chestnut street, Philadelphia, to facilitate their ex- 
hibition, so that the public could have free access to the means of testing and stu- 
dying the science, they expended all their earnings for several years, and nothing 
could give them greater pleasure than to continue these efforts, provided their 
labours in this department should be properly appreciated. They have now at 
command the means of ready access to nearly every tribe of Indians on our west- 
ern frontier, and through one of the missionaries at Green Bay, to whom they are 
related, to many of the interior tribes. By means of exchanges with other phreno- 
logists of our own and other countries, and especially with Deville of ^London, 
and the Phrenological Society in Paris, and with private individuals there, they 
have at command the means of> collecting into one splendid American cabinet all 
the valuable phrenological specimens to be found in the civilized world. Their 
Indian specimens are fully appreciated on the other continent, and would alone 
secure this object. They have still the zeal to prosecute this great work, and 
although their labours, and the value of their cabinets, have not thus far been 
duly appreciated or patronised, by the public, probably owing to ignorance of the 
real merits and bearing of these specimens, still they are certain that they will 
eventually be known and duly estimated. To the friends of the science they ap- 
peal for encouragement and patronage to enable them to prosecute this laudable 
enterprise. Both believers and disbelievers, as well as inquirers, in short all are 
cordially invited to call and examine for themselves these striking coincidences 
between characters and developments — these tangible and stubborn facts. 

They have moulds of all their most valuable specimens, and of Combe's collec- 
tion, so that they can supply societies and individuals with sets of twenty, fifty, 
one hundred or more specimens illustrating the various developments of organs, 
at about cost, and nearly fifty per cent, less than casts can be purchased of taa 
regular artists in this line, namely at 25 cts. each, for casts of animal heads and 
human sculls, and from S7j to 50 cts. each for busts or casts of heads. 

They can also supply till the principal works on phrenology. 



Having given the analysis of the different faculties, and 
presented the phenomena produced by their combined activi- 
ty, the way is thus prepared for the reader to understand the 
character of individuals from a description or statement of 
their phrenological developments, and for the authors to give 
a far more concise and intelligible description of the facts 
which have fallen under their observation than could have 
been previously presented. In detailing these facts, they deem 
it not inappropriate to commence with a brief account of 
their own conversion to the phrenological faith, and then to 
present a few of their own observations and experiments. 

When entering upon his senior year in Amherst College, 
one of the authors, (O. S. Fowler.) aware that the study of men- 
tal philosophy was to engage a large share of his attention, 
during that year, took up the subject of phrenology with the 
view cf comparing it with other systems upon the philoso- 
phy of the mind, and, in order to test its truth, began to com- 
pare the phrenological developments of his fellow-students, 
with what he knew of their characters, and, to his admira- 
tion and delight, discovered, at every successive step 'r. 
his observations and experiments, a perfect coincidence be- 
tween the two. He noticed, for example, that one of his 
classmates possessed very large local., combined with large 
individ., form, size, construct., and imitat. ; and this young 
gentleman was distinguished for his geographical knowl- 
edge, having drawn and published several maps. Two of 
his fellow-students who were notorious throughout the col- 
lege for their egotism and self-conceit, on examination, were 
found to possess the organ of self-e. in such a degree as to 
elongate the head in the direction of this organ. He 
had always found the room of one of his most intimate 
friends in the college, (H. W. Beecher,) in the greatest dis- 
order, his clothes, books, &c, strewed about in all directions 
and in utter confusion — some upon the floor, others in chairs, 
ot the windows, and others under or upon the bed, &c. ; 
and, in accordance with this, his organ of order was almost 
wholly wanting; but, for power of thought, cogency of ar- 
gument, clearness of illustration, and eloquence and splen- 
dour of diction, as well as for benevolence, humour, -afl^ 



tense of character, he had few equals in the institution: 
to support this character phrenologically, his head was very 
large; and in it, the organs of caus., compar., ideal., and 
lang., mirth., benev., and approbat., were also very large. 

A Mr. Brooks, confessedly one of the best mathematicians 
in his class, was found, however, to possess but a moderate 
development of calcu., which, at first, greatly perplexed the 
narrator, as phrenology was here considered, by all parties, 
at fault: but, upon inquiry it was ascertained, that Mr. B. 
excelled only in mathematical demonstrations, while his 
arithmetical calculations were performed by the slow pro- 
cess of rules. This phenomenon is explained on page 204, 
under calcu. moderate, combined with large or very large 
compar. and caus. Dr. Humphrey, the venerable President 
of the institution here alluded to, is considered, wherever he 
is known, pre-eminent both as a divine and a metaphysician, 
and is equally admired for his piety and his talents — for the 
strength and originality of his intellect, and the energy, 
decision, and goodness of his character : in accordance with 
which, his head is unusually large ; in it, compar., caus., 
conscien., benev., and firm., are very large, self-e., ideal., 
ven., and lang., large, and his temperament, active. The 
combination under self-e. large at the bottom of page 115, 
occurs in his head, and the accompanying description applies 
to his character. He possesses, also, very large philopro. 
and adhes., and, in accordance with this, may be emphatical- 
ly said to be a. father and a firm, friend to the students under 
his care. 

After leaving college, the narrator was urged to deliver 
publick lectures upon phrenology, and also to test the truth 
of the science by applying its principles to the development 
of individual character. The first person he examined in 
publick, was a young gentleman brought forward by the op- 
ponents of phrenology on account of his obstinacy ; and 
this was the first trait of his character pointed out by the 
examiner. On a visit to a family shortly after this, the wri- 
ter pointed out a large development of secret, in a servant 
girl ; upon which the lady of the house remarked, that the 
gitl's only fault was, that she would sometimes falsify, 
equivocate, and conceal. He next examined the heads of a 
family distinguished for their mechanical ingenuity, and 
fcund large construct, and imitat. in all of them. 

While in Lansingburgh, N. Y., at a publick lecture, h© 


was requested to express his opinion of the character of a 
lady present, and, without hesitation, he pronounced her 
marvel., ven., and conscien. very large. He was afterwards 
informed, both by herself and others who knew her, that she 
had experienced wonderful religious exercises, believed in 
dreams, and the revelation of the divine will and purposes 
by means of signs, omens, and forewarnings of various 
sorts. She even fancied herself the special subject of divine 
communication and influence. Her religious conversion 
was, to her, most wonderful, attended with dreams, visions, 
revelations, and so forth ; and religious feeling of the most 
enthusiastick and extravagant kind, occupied her mind almost 
to the exclusion of every other subject. 

A case directly opposite to this, was found in a Mr. Law, 
in whom marvel, was extremely deficient. He was not 
only extremely incredulous, but incapable of being affected 
by any thing bordering upon the supernatural. As an 
example : he was awakened one night by a noise in his 
room ; heard something fall heavily upon the floor ; saw 
a human scull, and heard a rustling, rattling sound proceed- 
ing from it; and at length saw it move, and open and shut 
its mouth ; and yet, without the least alarm or fear, he arose 
from his bed, walked to the scull, and took it up, when, instead 
of a spirit, behold, a large — rat escaped from it !- 

In Waterford, Dr. Upham introduced to the writer a young 
gentleman who, without instruction, had copied, with remark- 
able accuracy, the likenesses of Rubens, Chaucer, Sterne, 
and several others ; and, from a mere boy, he had displayed 
extraordinary ingenuity in constructing, inventing, drawing, 
copying, and so forth. His organs of construct, and imitat. 
were developed in a high degree ; and these were aided by 
large perceptive and reflective faculties. 

While lecturing in Troy, he examined the head of a 
young lady in Mrs. Willard's seminary, and remarked that 
her ideal., compar., and lang., were very large; and that, con- 
sequently, she would be, not only very fond of poetry, but 
also able to compose it. Those present, pronounced the deci- 
sion a failure. Some months after, however, the narrator 
was informed by an intimate friend of the young lady, that 
she had composed poetry enough to fill a volume, but that, 
at the time of the examination, her most intimate acquaint- 
ances knew nothing of the matter. Another young lady 
is the same institution, was pointed out as beiftg deficiee* 


in hope, and ha^g an excess of cautious. She was subject 
to extreme dep rjSS * on °f spirits, and was easily discouraged. 

But the .congest illustration and proof of the truth of 
phrenology furnished in Troy, was found in the phrenolo 
gical developments of Professor Eaton, the distinguished 
botanist and naturalist. He possesses about the largest organ 
of form that the writer has ever seen, and an extreme de 
velopment of individ., size, order, calcu., local., event., corn- 
par., and lang., and only full caus. ; and his works upon bot- 
any and natural science, as well as his general knowledge of 
almost all the sciences, furnish ample evidence, that he must 
possess, in an extraordinary degree, the powers of mind im- 
parted by the perceptive and semi-perceptive faculties. In the 
professor's head, the organ of calcu. is also unusually large ; 
and, in accordance with this development, at a very early age, 
he commenced his publick career by publishing a treatise 
upon mathematicks, and by entering the government service 
as a surveyor. His extensive erudition, and especially the 
immense amount of facts he has at command, illustrate 
the use he has made of his individ. and event. ; while his 
extraordinary colloquial powers, together with the fertility 
of his prolifick pen, furnish abundant proof of his possessing 
a very large faculty of lang. But, while his very large 
perceptive faculties, aided by very large event., give him 
a wonderful talent in collecting facts and statistical informa- 
tion, and his very large compar., in classifying these facts, 
his retiring caus, is the cause of that failure of originality 
and profundity of thought and array of first principles so 
clearly manifested in his works: see p. 53, 185. In the 
professor's head, love of approbation, adhes., benev., and 
hope, are prominent organs ; in his character, the qualities 
which flow from their respective faculties, are pre-eminent ; 
but his secret, is small; and frankness and candour are 
emphatically characteristick in this gentleman. In short, 
his head is very uneven: (p. 54 :) the portion about the eye 
projects in an extraordinary manner, and this forms a most 
striking phrenological coincidence with his known charac- 
ter and talents. 

One other case in Troy may be worthy of notice. In the 
head of a young lady remarkable for her talents in drawing, 
painting, and embroidery, the organs of ideal., imitat., and 
construct., were found to be very large. 

In Hudson the writer examined the head of Dr. White, 


which he observed to be very large ; ix^ ^ jt, ver j large 
firm., large combat., self-e., and an extrao?& mar y derelop- 
naent of size. This gentleman is the foundei f the Luna- 
tick Asylum in Hudson, and, by the influence <J \\\ s firm, 
and self-e., has succeeded in keeping his wayward patients 
under subjection. He obligingly related "to the wHtei 
many instances in which his extraordinary faculty of size had 
strikingly displayed its power. When riding at full speed 
past a new building, his eye caught a window frrme in the 
second story, which was not exactly plumb, upor which he 
stopped, and pointed out the inaccuracy to the workman 
who had made it, and who, by applying his plumb-line, 
was convinced of the inaccuracy, and accordingly corrected 
it. He once employed a man to build a fence, whose top 
should present a water-level, around the yard in the rear of 
his Asylum. On an inspection of the fence, after the work- 
man had laboured with his instruments for more than half 
a day, and. as he believed, effected a complete level, the 
exact eye of the doctor instantly detected an unevenness in 
it, but of which he failed to convince his builder until, by 
another and more accurate measurement, he was enabled to 
discover and correct the errour. In the doctor's head, order 
is largely developed: and the perfect regularity and neat- 
ness of his establishment, amply illustrate the marked in- 
fluence of this faculty. 

In the Asylum here alluded to, the writer saw a young 
gentleman who possessed very large ideal., construct., 
imitat, compar., and perceptive faculties, together with very 
large cautious, and small hope: and such was his passion 
for the fine arts, to indulge which, he wished to visit Italy 
and the various galleries of the fine arts, that when restrain- 
ed by his mother, it had produced the partial insanity under 
which he then laboured. The narrator saw a beautiful and 
accurate specimen of miniature painting which the young 
gentleman had executed while suffering under this partial 

In the same institution, he also saw one of the patients 
who possessed very large combat, and destruct., and who 
was sullen and fierce, and subject to violent out-breakings 
of passion which swept every thing before them. An elderly 
female, also, in the Asylum, similarly organized, with the 
addition of large lang., frequently displayed her ferocity and 
violence of temper, by pouring cut upon those around her, 



a turbid torrent of abusive eloquence that might have 
passed for prize-speeches in the halls of Pandemonium. 

At one of his publick lectures, the writer described a 
gentleman as possessing a very large organ of philopro.: 
and it was afterwards stated, that, on account of his child- 
loving and child-cherishing propensity, he was not^d 
throughout the neighbourhood, as a real Rip Van Winkle, 
as he seldom appeared abroad without a troop of children 
at his heels : see p. 63, philopro. very large. 

In Hudson, the writer was also called to examine the family 
of a butcher. One of the little lads was described as hav- 
ing very large destruct. : and it appeared that his delight in 
seeing cattle slaughtered, was so great, that, to enjoy this, 
he would forego almost any other, pleasure. Even whilst 
undergoing examination, he expressed great impatience and 
dissatisfaction, because he could not be present at the butch- 
ering of an ox ; and was pacified only by being told that 
another would soon be killed. At the same time, another 
child of the family not three years old, had caught a small pig 
in the street, and, with a dull case-knife, was endeavouring 
to cut its throat — whether in imitation of his betters, or in 
pure gratification of his destruct., (which was very large,) is 
left to be determined by the judgment of the reader. These 
last two facts, however, have a direct bearing upon education. 

In Lansingburgh, in the office of Dr. Smith, (who took 
lessons of the writer, and immediately after, commenced the 
practice of phrenology,) there was a lad about nine years 
of age, of Irish parentage, who had a large head and a 
very active temperament, very large compar., caus., individ,, 
event, lang., firm., self-e., approbat., and destruct., and large 
combat: (see p. 114, near the bottom.) From the time 
he was old enough to read at all, he had devoted him- 
self almost exclusively to the perusal of books; and, for 
one of his age, was a perfect literary gourmand. But, of 
all kinds of reading, historical, which generally presents 
little else than a detail of sanguinary conflicts and bloody 
strifes, possessed the greatest charms for him: and in this 
department of knowledge, he was a prodigy. " The pomp 
and circumstance of war," the thronging legions rushing on 
to the fight, and the bloody carnage of the battle-field, were 
circumstances that fired his imagination, and seemed to feast 
his soul. But against the British nation in particular, he 
burned with hot indignation, and frequently expressed a de- 


•ire, were it lawful for him, to kill every Englishman h« 
should meet. He often inquired whether he had the facul 
ties that would constitute him a general, and talked with 
enthusiasm about leading on the armies of his country to 
fight against England. A single incident will serve to show 
how completely engrossed his mind was with wars, battles, 
and conquests. Between meaxS, he had purchased a fla» 
cake; and, before eating it, he cut various figures upon it: 
and when asked their meaning, said they represented a 
camp, and proceeded to describe its several parts. In man 
ners, he was a perfect gentleman ; and his intellectual pow 
ers were altogether extraordinary. 

While examining the pupils of a school in L., a young 
JMiss of about thirteen, was described as remarkably benevo- 
lent, as the organ of benev. was so largely developed as to 
produce, a deformity of the head. In accordance with this, 
it appeared that, young as she was, she was more distin- 
guished for her attentions to the poor and afflicted than all 
other charitable persons in the place. When out of school, 
and especially in cold weather, her principal occupation 
was seeking out, and administering to the wants of, proper 
objects of charity, and exciting others to supply those wants 
which her own limited means did not enable her to reach. 

Another pupil in the same school, was described as com- 
paratively destitute of the organs of caus. and compar., and, 
consequently, unable to think, or understand her lessons. 
The whole school heartily responded to the correctness of 
these remarks; and the instructress observed, that, after be- 
stowing upon her all the pains and instruction in her pow- 
er, even until her patience was exhausted, the poor girl's 
progress was scarcely perceptible. Her talents were con- 
trasted by the writer, with those of another pupil, whom the 
teacher afterwards pronounced to be the best scholar in her 

At a publick lecture in Catskill, one of the clergymen of 
the place, who was a total stranger to the narrator, was 
proposed for examination ; and so accurately were the 
various traits of his private character described, as well as 
the peculiarities of his style and manner of preaching, that 
the audience could scarcely be persuaded but that the phre- 
nologist had long been familiarly acquainted with him. 

A young lady was sent by her friends to the office of the 
writer for examination, and was pronounced to be stubborn. 



haughty, and incapable of reasoning or being reasoned with 
—having but little benev., mirth., caus., compar., ideal., 
imitat., and construct., large combat, and destruct, and very- 
large self-e. and approbat. But, although a believer in 
phrenology, it is not at all singular that she should have been 
lissatisfied with this description of her character. Accord- 
ingly, she attributed its unfavourable features to the mistake 
»f the examiner, and was easily persuaded to return again to 
the office, accompanied by her mother. The second exami- 
nation, however, fully confirmed the unenviable points of the 
firsi description, and tended only to make her case worse : 
upon which her mother took occasion to administer to her a 
salutary reproof, by reminding her of the innumerable in- 
stances in which she had displayed the unhappy traits of 
character which had been pointed out by the phrenologist. 
The daughter appeared humbled, and promised to reform. 
This incident suggests one of the important results to be 
gained by a judicious application of the principles of phre- 

At a publick lecture in Amsterdam, N. Y., a distinguish- 
ed physician of the village was examined, and described as a 
benevolent man. This astonished most of the auditors, who 
considered him quite the reverse ; and this opinion, it ap- 
peared, they had formed of him from the fact, that, to the 
popular, benevolent objects of the day, and especially to such 
as were connected with religious purposes, he had seldom 
been known to give any money. Farther inquiry, however 
soon showed, that the reason for his not giving to such pur- 
poses, was, he did not believe them to be benevolent objects ; 
but it was notorious, that he gave more medical advice and 
services to the poor, than all the other physicians in the place, 
and was, moreover, a kind and obliging neighbour. This 
examination produced a change in the mind of the commu- 
nity with respect to the gentleman, inasmuch as it showed 
them, that we are not to measure a man's benevolence by the 
amount of money he is ready to give to any popular objecl 
of charity, for this amount may be, and often is, exactly 
graduated by his pride, his desire of applause, or soma 
other selfish motive, whereas, true, phrenological benevo- 
lence operates in proportion to the strength of the primitive 
faculty, as modified by the other faculties, and its direction 
also depends upon the other faculties. The lady of the same 
gentleman, possesses very large construct., imitat., ideal., 


and form, and large caus. and compar. ; and, in accordance 
with the talents imparted by this organization, she displayj 
remarkable ingenuity with the needle, &c, and has often re- 
ceived premiums for her specimens of embroidery, &c. 

Ac the close of the same lecture, a lad was brought for- 
ward by his instructress. The only remark made on hie 
phrenological developments, was, that he possessed construct 
and imitat. very large, and, consequently, was remarkably 
ingenious. His teacher then remarked, that the lad was 
uneasy and restless in school, inattentive to his books, and 
strongly prone to cut the benches; but, that the moment he 
was released from school, he would repair to his workshop, 
and there indulge his mechanical propensity. 

At a publick examination, the writer, among other quali- 
ties, attributed to a clergyman examined, small lang. The 
audience readily assented to the remarkable accuracy of the 
description except on this point ; but here they dissented, and 
declared him to be one of the most rapid speakers in that 
section of the country. Determined to ascertain the fact in 
the case, the writer heard him deliver his next sermon ; 
which fully satisfied him of the correctness of his phreno- 
logical induction. Although his manner of speaking was 
very rapid, to be sure, yet his style was by no means copious 
or flowing; but, on the contrary, evinced a dryness and 

In the same place, one of the authors (L. N. Fowler) 
finding the organs of secret, and acquis., in the head of a 
young female, not sufficiently balanced by the moral and 
intellectual organs, described her as deceitful and light-fin- 
gered. In the sequel, it turned out that she had frequently 
been guilty of lying and theft: handkerchiefs, table-cloths, 
pillow-cases, gloves, hose, and sundry other small articles 
which she could conveniently lay her hands upon, had been 
found in her possession. 

At a publick lecture in the same place, a gentleman nom 
inated by the audience, came forward with his face covered 
and was described as very zealous in whatever he undertook, 
and rather ultra and radical in his views and feelings. Hia 
combat., destruct , firm., self-e., caus., adhes., and lang., were 
large ; his benev., conscien., hope, and compar., very large, 
and his secret., small. He was described as a leader in the 
church, and as extremely liable to give offence in consequence 
of his dealing so plainly with all; as a great temperanc* 



man, &c. : and all this was asserted without tho examiner's 
having previously had the least hint or knowledge of his 
character. In regard to the description given, there was 
but one voice from the audience, and that was, that it was 
perfectly correct throughout. He was a new-measure pres- 
byterian, and an elder in the church, and a very zealous 
Christian ; and, moreover, was one of the greatest temperance 
men in all that section of the country. 

In Schenectady, L. N. Fowler examined the head of a 
gentleman, the extraordinary and singular shape of which 
arrested his attention. It was extremely high, very long, and 
very narrow. Philopro., self-e., benev., individ., and event, 
were developed in a very high degree, whilst acquis, and 
secret, were very smalL His philopro., in fact, was the 
largest the phrenologist had ever seen ; and, in illustration 
of the extraordinary manner in which this faculty displayed 
itself, it was stated that he frequently went about the city 
with two little dogs in his overcoat pockets, and two more in 
his hands. Of children he was so excessively fond, that he 
always made the greatest parade over them, and generally 
had a whole bevy of them in his train. His very large 
self-e., combined with his small secret, and moderate reason- 
ing faculties, made him prodigiously egotistical, and utterly 
blind to his faults, as well as to the application of the jokes 
to which his peculiarities and faults exposed him. In con- 
sequence of his very large benev. and very small acquis., he 
was incapable of keeping money, or of laying it out with any 
tolerable judgment. He even squandered all he could com- 
mand: and, when any thing took his fancy, he could easily 
be imposed upon to almost any extent by the unjust demands 
of any sharper into whose clutches he might have the mis- 
: fortune to fall. He had but little adhes. ; and, accordingly, 
formed but few attachments, and those few so slightly, that 
mey were broken off whenever freak or fancy dictated., His 
cautious, was small ; and, in his business, he was perfectly 

At a publick examination in the same city, a gentleman 
was described as having extraordinary size and local., (see p. 
191, 206.) The next morning, when passing by a carpenter's 
shop, he was hailed by one of the workmen, and, mainly in 
ierision ot phrenology, requested to pronounce upon the 
length of a rod, which was about seven teet long, by a mere 
east of the oye. He diu so, and came withm one- fourth of 



an inch of its actual length. Considering this strikmg h$ 
merely accidental., the workmen desired him to designate 
the central point of a board of considerable length : and he 
came within half an inch of the middle one way, and ant- 
eighth of an inch the other way. Still deeming it mere 
•'guess work," they demanded the middle of a long work- 
bench; and, in this attempt, he came within three-quarter: 
of an inch in respect to the length, and one-quarter of an inch 
of the breadth. As an illustration of his local., it was as 
sertedthat he knew where every person in that city and section 
of the country, lived, and that he was referred to by all hi* 
fellow-citizens as a sort of location-dictionary. 

The next day, the occurrence in the workshop, was rela- 
ted to the narrator in the presence of a gentleman who con- 
sidered phrenology a mere humbug, and who tauntingly 
asked, if the phrenologist could tell him his character. It 
was remarked in reply, that his constructive talent, or me- 
chanical ingenuity, was the leading talent he possessed: 
upon which a friend of his present, astonished at the accu- 
racy of the remark, stated that he was the inventor of about 
a dozen patent rights. 

While in Albany, in 1835, L. N. Fowler examined a man 
in the Museum, to whom he gave very large secret., acquis., 
combat, destruct, firm., and amat, with small conscien. and 
only moderate benev., and described him as selfish, artful, 
intriguing, and deceitful; as able and inclined to employ 
cunning and hypocrisy in every thing, but more especially 
in getting money: stated that he always effected his purposes 
in an indirect way, and under false pretences, and was al- 
ways ready to adopt any unfair means by which to possess 
himself of money. No more was heard of this personage 
by the phreno.ogist till, in the summer of 1836, while trav- 
elling in one of the packet-boats from Columbia to Harris- 
burg, Pa., at which time a boat-captain, who was present at 
the examination alluded to, gave the narrator the following 
account of one of the high-handed tricks of this sly-dodging 
money-catcher. He stated that, during the preceding win- 
ter, this artful scoundrel started on a travelling expedition to 
Boston, with two teams, one of which he drove himself, and 
the other was managed by an accomplice. When near B., 
He caused one team to haVt for a day, whilst, with the other, 
he proceeded to the city. When arrived in the literary 
emporium, he represented himself to several wholesale gro» 



cers, as a heavy dealer in their line from the interiour; 
stated that he had honoured them with a visit :or the purpose 
of making a large purchase ; that he had several teams 
upon the road, one or two of which would be in the next 
day ; that, as despatch was important to a man of his en- 
terprise, he should like to proceed forthwith to business. 
The nsxt day arrived, and in came the other team, and tho 
driver, being previously instructed, represented to the Bos 
tonian merchants, that the other teams were behind, one of 
which had been detained by an accident, and parted company 
with him only the day before. Thus far, every thing ap- 
peared fair and smooth. Both teams were accordingly load- 
ed and started for the country, before settlement was made: 
and so rapidly were they pushed forward, and so admirably 
were things managed, that the scoundrels evaded the alert- 
ness of their creditors. 

But the Boston merchants were not all that had cause 
long to remember the redoubtable heroes of this expedition 
to the East. As they were wending their way back with 
their ill-gotten lading of teas, liquors, and spices, they chanc- 
ed to light upon a country village just at nightfall, when 
they announced themselves as Methodist 'preachers, and pro- 
posed to tarry there that night and the next day, and the 
next night to edify the good people by holding a meeting 
with ■them. On account of the high and sacred character of 
our way farers, they were most hospitably entertained by one 
of the most respectable members of the connexion in that 
place. And it came to pass, that the next morning, " rising 
up a long while before day," they went forth to meditate ; but 
prayer seemed to be the most distant thing from their hearts. 
Instead of kneeling down, and offering up their holy orisons, 
they seemed to be more devoutly engaged in laying schemes 
to complete their assortment of merchandise. "Armed with 
this strong intent," they proceeded to the smoke-house of their- 
pious host, and took thence a large quantity of ham, and, 
also, divers lots of poultry from his barnyard, and straight- 
way proceeded "on their way rejoicing." Thus they 
peregrinated from place to place, committing petty larcenies, 
and practising all manner of deceptions and impostures, 
until they arrived at Albany. — For the correctness of the 
statement concerning the examination, the reader is referred 
to the manager of the Albany Museum. 

At North Adams, where there are many factories, the 


narrator pointed out, in the head of a physician, extracrdina 
ry mathematical and astronomical powers; and a large au 
dience of his fellow citizens testified that his talents and 
fondness for pursuits of this nature, were uncommonly great. 
In him the organ of weight was very large ; and he stated 
publickly, that he had left a lucrative profession, and enga- 
ged in manufacturing, chiefly to indulge his fondness for 

The young ladies who had been employed in the factories 
for many years, were found to possess large concent., whilst 
new-comers generally had it small. — This fact affords an 
important hint to those who wish to cultivate this organ. 
Confined for a long time to a single operation, concent, was 
called into constant requisition, and thus became enlarged. 

At a publick lecture in Adams, a gentleman was descri- 
bed as having concent, very large (see p. 70.) The next day 
while riding in the stage with him, the writer had an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing a perfect illustration of the organ in 
question. The gentleman was disposed to dwell long upon 
every topick of conversation that was introduced ; and when 
a new subject was brought forward, he would somehow con- 
trive to make it bear upon the previous topick : and after 
halting, upon returning to the stage, he would generally take 
up the subject again at the point where it had been dropped. 

At an examination in Pittsfield, a child was described 
as having extraordinary form, and, consequently, as capable 
of learning its letters easily. Its mother remarked, that 
when she commenced teaching it the alphabet, to her aston- 
ishment, she found it had already learned all its letters with- 
out any instruction. 

Among others examined in the city of New York in the 
spring of 1835,, was a gentleman, in whom time, individ. 
rang., event., local., compar., and concent., were all very 
large. He is accustomed not only to narrate a great deal 
but, also, almost always to tell the year, month, and day of 
the month in which the transaction narrated, occurred. His 
very large concent, and reasoning faculties make him fre- 
quently absent-minded ; but his greatest peculiarity is, that he 
can attend to but one thing at a time. For example: he is 
utterly unable to take the sense of what he reads, until he 
has locked his door, muzzled his bell, and given strict orders 
not to be disturbed. His amat. and adhes. are very large, 
which, joined with his very large concent., cause him still 



brood over the untimely death of the object of his early at- 
tachment, even though the event occurred some twenty years 

He s?ut to his sister the written description of his char- 
acter, requeuing her opinion of its accuracy, to which she 
replied, " You ask my opinion of your character as given 
by the phrenologist: I think it correct in every particular; 
indeed, strikingly so." 

While waiting upon a party of ladies, in N. Y., in one of 
them the organ of order was pointed out as very large, in- 
deed, so remarkable that the attention of the party was 
several times called to it. She was accordingly described 
as excessively neat and particular — as fastidious, and even, 
in this particular, old-maidish : (see order very large, p. 199, 
especially the closing description, p. 200.) 

The following day, a gentleman who had known her for 
many years, (she being then upwards of 60,) stated, that 
when of an ag°. suitable for forming matrimonial connexions, 
she was addressed by a respectable, and even wealthy, young 
gentleman, who owned a farm, and had around him all the 
comforts of life. She accepted an invitation to take a ride 
with him; but her organ of order was so excessively annoy- 
ed by some burrs which had lodged in the mane of his horse, 
that she was as glad to be relieved from the painful specta- 
cle, as she could have been at a release from prison ; and she 
immediately gave him letters of dismission. 

She was next .addressed by a student who was about to 
graduate; but in him her organ of order was unable to tole 
rate some things which she discovered about his clothes 
Thus she rejected in succession, five excellent offers of mat- 
rimony, which, in every respect except that of order, (and 
even in this they fell not below mediocrity,) were not only 
verv agreeable, but even desirable. 

The city of Philadelphia furnished the writer, O. S. Fow- 
ler, with several striking examples of the truth of practical 
phrenology. In the spring of 1835, he opened a course of 
lectures there, and, at the close of his first lecture, a Mr. 
Pierce, who resides in Chestnut-St. near Broad, and who has 
been known to the good people of that city by a residence 
among them of forty years, came forward. Though a per- 
fect stranger to the lecturer, and a disbeliever in phrenology, 
yet, so perfectly correct throughout, was the description given, 
that the next day, the gentleman was accused scores t>f time* 


by his fellow citizens, with collusion — with having 1 given a 
history of his life to the lecturer, and then presented himselt 
as a candidate for examination. His well-known character 
for honesty and piety, however, at length gave to phrenolo- 
gy the credit of having discovered his character. 

He was described as possessing a very large organ of 
benev., and as noted for the interest he takes in the welfare 
of others, and for the extraordinary tenderness and humani- 
ty of his feelings ; as having large ven., conscien., and hope, 
and, therefore, as eminent for his piety; as having large or 
very large ideal., imitat., compar., lang., and event, and, conse- 
quently, as possessing unusual descriptive powers, and great 
tact in relating anecdotes, to the no small amusement of his 
friends ; as having very \irge mirth., and though an emi- 
nently pious man. devoted. y fond both of hearing and telling 
comical stories; and that one of his greatest trials — one of 
his "most easily besetting sins," was (which he confessed) 
the intrusion of humorous thoughts and feelings upon sol- 
emn occasions. 

Among other subiects examined in that city, was an elder- 
ly gentleman from the country, all of whose perceptive facul- 
ties were very large, but among them, weight was develop- 
ed in an extraordinary degree. This was distinctly pointed 
out, and illustrated by the writer's saying, that he wr>s one 
in ten thousand for his natural talent in horsemanship, 
for those feats of agility, balancing, &c, which are practised 
in the circus. Upon this, the old gentleman started from his 
seat, and, facing the examiner, said, 

"Do you know me, sir?" 

" I do not," was the reply. 

" On your honour do you say, that you know nothing of 
my character except from feeling my head ?" 

" Upon my honour and my conscience too, not a thing, sir." 

His surprise and astonishment were very great; and, in 
illustration of the truth of what had been stated, he removed 
the papers and books from a portion of the table, and although 
upwards of sixty years of age, placed his head upon the 
table, and elevated his feet into the air, assuming varioua 
positions, and yet keeping his balance with perfect ease. 
He stated that, when in the prime of life, he had often jumped 
upon a pla'.form the height of his chin, and turning upon his 
head without touching his feet to the platform, walked upon 
bis hands and his head, with very little trouble, or difficulty 



to keeping his exict equilibrium. He then took a silver dol- 
lar, and balanced it on an unusually convex watch-dial, and 
gave many other equally striking examples of his extraor 
dinary faculty of weight. 

Among others, the head of Mr. Waldie, editor of the 
Circulating Library, and of several other important and 
ibly conducted periodicals, was examined. His head is of 
ihe largest size, and his brain, active ; which give him the 
ibility to project and execute undertakings for which a com- 
mon sized or sluggish brain is utterly inadequate. All his 
•oerceptive organs are large, and his reasoning organs, very 
rarge; which impart to him that general literary talent 
and correctness of judgment and taste by which his exten- 
sive, literary publications are so strikingly characterized. 
His very large benev. and adhes. give him that hospitality 
and kindness for which he is distinguished among all who 
know him, and that enlarged spirit of philanthropy which 
shines so conspicuously in his character. 

Mr. P., a merchant, called on the lecturer, one side of 
whose head was much larger than the other. When this 
phenomenon was pointed out, he stated that the larger side 
of the head, perspired freely, while the other did not, thus 
clearly showing, either that the side which did not perspire, 
had grown small by inaction, or that the other had grown 
large by exercise. 

One gentleman was examined in whom time was very 
small and tune very large. He had the nicest ear for mu- 
sick, indeed, a passionate fondness for it, and could catch 
a tune by hearing it sung but once, and yet was unable 
to sing with others, merely because he could not keep the beat. 

During the summer of 1836, the authors witnessed many 
unequivocal proofs and illustrations of the truth of phrenol- 
ogy in several distinguished citizens of Pennsylvania. One 
of the most striking occurred at a private party of gentle- 
men and ladies in Carlisle. After nearly all of the company 
had been examined, an elderly gentleman, who was a per- 
fect stranger to the writer, submitted his head to the mani- 
pulator. The first remark of the examiner was, that the 
phrenological developments of his head were so extraordi- 
nary, that the common rules of interpretation would not 
fully apply to his case. His head was of the largest size, 
being seven inches and three-quarters in diameter, and near- 
ly equally developed in all its parts. The propelling and 



the intellectual organs were all found to be very large. Ac« 
eordingly, it was remarked that he possessed an extraordina- 
ry degree of weight of character and greatness of mind, so 
that a single town would not bound his influence, but that he 
must be among the distinguished men of the nation. 

His perceptive faculties being all large, and his reflective 
very large, it was remarked that he had an extraordinary talent 
for collecting the facts in any given case; and that his very 
large reasoning organs would give him great power and depth 
of intellect and correctness of judgement. His extremely large 
CDmpar., in particular, would give him powers of discrimi- 
nation and analysis surpassed by none. It is necessary only 
to add, that, at the close of his examination, the writer was 
intioduced to Chief Justice Gibson of Pennsylvania. Those 
acquainted with the talents of this distinguished gentleman, 
will at once recognise the Chief Justice in the description 

This gentleman was mainly induced to submit to this ex- 
amination from having seen the description given to his broth- 
er at Washington, D. C. While one of the authors Was 
practising phrenology at Washington, in the fall of 1836, 
in order to give to phrenology a fair test in the case of a 
remarkable character, several individuals prevailed upon 
Mr. G. (who is on intimate terms with the President,) to call 
upon the narrator, and obtain a written description of his 
character and talents. Among other peculiarities, he was 
known be to excessively fond of children, and this was descri- 
bed as one of his strongest passions, and marked at or near 
the top of the scale; to be exceedingly incredulous, and even 
skeptical, which, accordingly, was dwelt upon with peculiar 
emphasis ; to be one of the kindest of men, and indifferent 
about money, which also was implicitly stated, &c. One 
of the party afterwards waited upon the examiner, and stated 
these and several other particulars of his character, adding, 
that the description was singularly correct throughout, and 
that President Jackson, on hearing it read, made a similai 

At one of the publick examinations in Carlisle, an elderly 
Irisk gentleman was nominated, and came forward without a 
coa. on, and with every appearance of a day-labourer. He 
was described as possessing very large calcu., compar., 
caus., firm., and combat. It was hence inferred, that, con- 
trary to his appearance, he was naturally one of the greal- 

e?t matliematicians of the age ; that he had a powerful in 
te lect joined with obstinacy and fierce animal passions, 
His extraordinary mathematical powers, (very large calcu., 
compar., and caus., combined,) were proved by the fact, that 
he had solved several exceedingly difficult and intricate 
problems, which had been propounded through the publick 
prints for a loi.g time (six years) without finding any equal 
to the task. This he did without the advantages even of a 
common education, and while pursuing his daily labour. 
His combat, was equally illustrated by his being, when an- 
gry, violent in the highest degree, nay, even desperate. As 
a boxer he was notorious. 

A Mr. William Roberts entered the office, indicating by 
his dress and appearance that he was any thing but an en- 
gineer, but, almost the first remark of the examiner, was, 
that his very large construct., form, size, local., individ., 
weight, and calcu., with his other developments, would quali- 
fy him in a pre-eminent degree, for a surveyor and an engineer. 
The remark excited the greatest astonishment, and ft was 
then stated that he was an engineer and surveyor of the first 
order, having an annual salary of $4,000. 

In the head of Mr. James Cornelius, the organ of weight 
was pointed out as being very large, and in confirmation of the 
fact, it was stated, that he had never found hisequal for throw- 
ing stones at a mark. His usual ivay of killing birds, squir- 
rels, &c, was with a stone, so that a gun was useless to 

Before the audience the very large organs of construct., 
imitat., caus., and form, were pointed out in a son of Dr. 
Foulke, and his talent for using tools, for drawing, &c. was 
stated to be seldom equalled. So remarkable were these 
faculties in the lad, that they were known to the whole vil- 
lage, and it was on this account that he had been proposed 
as a subject by which to test the science. 

Another lad was examined, whose forehead was low and 
narrow, and whose moral organs were only moderate, while 
many of the selfish propensities were very strong. His in- 
tellect was accordingly manifestly very obtuse, and his pro- 
pensities, uncontrolled by moral feeling or intellect, manifest- 
ed themselves in theft, lying, &c. 

The following is the testimony of one of the citizens of 
Carlisle concerning the examination of a boy in his en* 




M A lad who is fifteen years of age, and has been in my 
employ eighteen months, and who is very remarkable, for 
several peculiarities of character, was brought to Mr. Fow- 
ler, the phrenologist, who, solely by the aid of his favourite 
science, gave a description of his character in an unequivo- 
cal manner, and with an accuracy, which, with all my 
Knowledge of the lad's character from long and close obser 
vation, I could not myself have surpassed, if equalled. Mr 
F. has also examined my own head, once in publick and 
blindfolded, and again in his office, and without the possibil- 
ity of knowing me at his second examination ; and his sec- 
ond description agreed, in every particular, with his first. 


Carlisle, Pa., Sept. 28, 1836." 

While in Carlisle, the Rev. George G. Cookman, Meth- 
odist Episcopal clergyman of high standing, brought in a 
Jon of his whom one of the authors (O. S. Fowler) had ex- 
amined in Baltimore the summer previous, and stated that, 
it the time alluded to, the lad had been described as possess- 
ing unusual arithmetical powers, of which fact he was not 
then conscious. Upon trying the arithmetical talents his 
son, however, he found that phrenology had revealed to him 
an important truth concerning his son, of which his own ob- 
servation had failed to inform him. 

While in Baltimore, by the solicitation of one of his breth- 
ren, Mr. C.'s own head was examined. He was described 
as possessed of extravagant ideal., very large compar., event., 
• individ., lang., benev., imitat., and hope, and large caus., com- 
bat, conscien., ven., adhes., self-e., and philopro. ; and, conse- 
quently) as possessing descriptive powers, and a talent for 
eloquence and popular speaking, of a high order. His abi- 
lity to distinguish himself as a moral leader, his large moral 
organs, and very large benev. or desire to benefit his fellow- 
men, were all dwelt upon with such emphasis, that those who 
came with him, thoughtthe examiner must have been previous- 
ly acquainted with their distinguished preacher; but the fact 
was, his phrenological developments corresponded «o exactly 
with those talents by which he had so eminently distinguish- 
ed himself in his publick capacity as a preacher, that all the 
phrenologist had to do, was to read off his character as from 
a book, to the astonished listeners. It hardly need be added, 
that, at a meeting of the Bible Society, this gentleman was 
she author of that famous and beautiful allegory, in which 




• le different denominations of Christians, uniting hand arid 
hand in this common cause, are compared to a great army, 
the Methodist Episcopal Church constituting the scourers 
and the vanguard, the Presbyterian, the grand centre, the 
heavy artillery, &c. His very large comparison appears 
conspicuous in almost every sentence, and often bursts forth 
in the conception of beautiful similes and illustrations. His 
imitat. is fully represented in his numerous and appropriate 
gestures, thus imparting to his delivery an unusual, if not 
superabundant, amount of action. His very large ideal, and 
large marvel, appear throughout his discourses in bold relief, 
giving his descriptions a high degree of beauty, sublimity, 
glow, and wonder : and his appeals to the passions display a 
great amount of enthusiasm, and are almost irresistible. 
His small secret, gives a directness and plainness to his ex- 
pressions and appeals, which some call bluntness. His com- 
mand of words and incidents is certainly remarkable. His 
firm., self-e., and combat, give him a commanding and dig- 
nified appearance, and begec great energy of mind and char- 
acter, whilst, at the same time, his henev. and ven. give 
him affabilitv and benignity. His mirth, is large, and, with 
his very Lirge compar. and imitat., enables and disposes him 
to say many very witty and ludicrous things ; and he stated 
to the examiner, that, against this " easily-besetting sin, ' : he 
was obliged to struggle more than against any other, and 
that it sometimes broke forth even in the pulpit. On the 
whole, he may be emphatically styled eloquent, and his or- 
ganization pronounced to be a most happy one for a popular 
preacher, an appellation peculiarly appropriate to him. 

Another striking proof of the truth of phrenology, occurs 
in the person of the Hon. Judge Lewis of Pa. In him the 
perceptive faculties and compar. are very large, and, in ac- 
cordance with this development, it is well attested of his 
intellectual character, that he possesses an astonishing facili- 
ty in seizing uppn the prominent facts in any given case, 
(individ. and event..) and in rejecting every thing that does 
not bear directly upon the point in question, (compar.) His 
brain is active, and his whole phrenological organization is 
very happily balanced: and the effects of these favourable 
qualities, are conspicuous in his character. In giving nis 
decisions, his style is characterized by perspicuity and pre- 
cision, and is always to the point. 

Judge L. was examined by the writer (0. S. Fowler) at 


Danville, Pa., in 1836, without being introduced, and before 
the writer had heard that there was such a man living; ana 
yet, the description erf his character and talents was pronoun' 
ced to be strikingly correct tnrcughout. In order, however, 
to put phrenology to a still severer test. Judge L. requested 
a blindfold examination of a gentleman whom he should se- 
lect. Accordingly, he brought forward an intimate friend 
of his (Mr. C. Hall) whom he had heard examined some 
days previous : and, in the opinion of the Judge, and of all 
others who heard them, the two descriptions were exactly 
alike, and perfectly corresponded with the character of the 
gentleman examined. 

A still more striking proof of phrenology was presented 
in the case of the Hon. Gen. Anthony, member of Congress 
from Pa., who was prevailed upon to submit to an examina- 
tion, by Mr. Packer. After describing him as possessing an 
uncommon share of energy and decision of character, as 
manifested by his unusual development of firm., combat., 
self-e., hope, &c, the first remark made by the phrenologist 
concerning his intellectual powers, was, that the size of 
calcu., as developed in his head, was enormous— so great, 
indeed, that it could hardly be spanned with the thumb and 
middle finger. All his other perceptive organs were also 
extremely large ; and the inference drawn, was, that he must 
possess, not only an astonishing ability to reckon in his head, 
but also a great fondness and talent for the higher branches 
of mathematicks and astronomy. This examination occur- 
red at Washington in 1835; and nothing was heard from 
'the examination until in the summer of t836, when Mr. 
Packer stated to the narrator, that Gen. A. possessed the 
most astonishing faculty for casting up accounts in his head, 
of any man he had ever seen or heard of; that he could 
solve almost any arithmetical prablem in his head, and with- 
out apparent effort; that he couid add up at once a column 
of three, four, or five figures, multiply large sums into each 
other, and also divide and substract them by a sing.e opera 
tion ; that he had not patience to witness the slow, plodding 
calculations of ordinary minds, but would generally do them 
himself, and at a glance. Mr. P. also stated, that in his 
natural talents for arithmetick and the mathematicks, it was 
generally conceded, that Gen. \. had no superiour, if an 
equal, in Pa. 


Mr. P. remarked, that he was particularly struck with the 
etrength and force of the expressions used in the description 
of this gentleman's mathematical talent, inasmuch as it ac- 
corded so perfectly with the wonderful powers of the man ; 
and he became at once a believer in phrenology. We there- 
fore appeal to Gen. A.'s head and mathematical character, 
i'.nd ask our opponents to solve this prenological problem. 

Mr. P. also gave phrenology another trial in the case of 
the Hon. Mr. McKean, U. S. Senator from Pa. His exami- 
nation was made without the least intimation's being given 
io the narrator, of the character or station of Mr. McK. ; and, 
if the testimony of Mr. P., or of his friends who witnessed the 
delineation of this gentleman's character, (and who will inval- 
idate it?) is entitled to credit, a more correct description of 
his character and talents could not have been drawn up by 
his most intimate friends. In confirmation of this, we ap- 
peal to the living testimony of Mr. P., whose astonishment 
at the result was very great. 

But the astonishment of Mr. P. was not greater at the descrip- 
tion of these gentlemen's character, than was theirs at that giv- 
en of his, especially when almost the first remark made of 
him, was, that " he always went in for the whole amount ; was 
exceedingly zealous in all that he undertook, and always did 
whatever he attempted to accomplish, with his whole might ; 
possessed a towering ambition for distinction, as well as a 
talent for rising to eminence ; was persevering in an extra- 
ordinary degree ; was a whole-hearted friend, but a bitter 
enemy; was unusually sarcastick, but excellent company; 
excessively fond of debate and opposition, and took hold of 
every thing without mittens ; though he appeared very rash 
and injudicious, and drove forward with prodigious fury, yet 
he managed to steer clear of the breakers ; had always too 
many irons in the fire, &c." Although yet young, these 
traits of character have already brought this gentleman into 
very general notice, and bid fair to augment his fame. 

At the foot of the mountain, about ten miles north of Car- 
.isle, Pa., O. S. Fowler examined the head of a farmer, who 
was quite rustick in his appearance, and observed that his 
perceptive faculties generally, and particularly his individ., 
form, size, calcu., local., event., and compar., were developed in 
an extraordinary manner ; and after travelling some few miles 
farther, the writer was informed, that this man was the won- 
der and astonishment of the neighbourhood on account a* 


his astonishing recollection of historical anc^ statistical 
facts, &c. 

At an iron foundry in the same neighbourhood, (owned 
by Mr. Pleis of Phila.,) by a mere cast of the eye, the writer 
was enabled to point out the best workmen, on account ot 
their superiour development of construct, and imitat. He 
contrasted, for example, one man in whom these organs' 
were so large as to amount almost to a deformity, with ano 
ther by his side, in whom they were only full ; in reply t» 
which, the superintendent remarked, that the firstnamed be- 
:ame a firstrate moulder (which operation requires the high- 
est degree of mechanical skill and ingenuitv) with very little 
practice, and seemingly without effort, whereas, the other 
had to practise several years before he became even passable, 
and there was not the least probability that he would ever 
excel in that business. The gentleman farther remarked, 
that the difference of natural tact and talent manifested by 
different individuals who engaged in his business, was aston- 
ishingly great: that, while some seemed naturally to pos- 
sess, as it were, a slight of hand for moulding, others could 
not possibly learn the art by the most persevering applica- 
tion, under the most judicious course of instruction — thus 
showing most conclusively, that the faculty of construct, is 

In Bloomfield, Pa., phrenology gathered some laurels. 
At a publick lecture, just after the arrival of the writer in 
that place, a gentleman was examined, and described, among 
other things, as always upon the tiptoe of expectation, prone 
to build castles in the air, and for ever on a w r ild-goose chase 
of some bubble or butterfly of fortune, which, however, was 
always sure to elude his grasp ; that he had too many " irons 
in the fire," &c. (excessive hope and ideal., and small con- 
cent. :) and so graphically correct was the description, that 
the audience could not be made to believe but that the lectur- 
er was intimately acquainted with the gentleman examined, 
until the latter assured them, that he and the lecturer had 
never seen each other until he entered the room that evening, 
some time after the lecture had commenced. In regard to 
the correctness of the description, a distinguished citizen of 
the place (Lawyer Mackintyre) went so far as to declare 
that "if Mr. Fowler had made the man, and dwelt in him 
ever since he was created, and thought and felt for him, In 
could not hav3 more ^rfectly portrays? kia character,'* 


After examining, with complete success, many individ- 
uals in the same place, in order to test phrenology the more 
thoroughly, at the request of several gentlemen, the wri- 
ter was blindfolded, and in this condition, examined the 
heads of three respectable gentlemen (two of whom were 
editors) the second time, he, of course, not knowing at the 
time upon whom he was manipulating ; and, according to the 
testimony of the three gentlemen re-examined, and of a large 
number of spectators, one of whom was S. Kirkham, there was 
not only no discrepance between the first and second descrip- 
tions given, but their agreement throughout, was so perfect 
and striking, as to prove most satisfactorily, that the appli- 
cation of the same scientifick principles had produced a sim- 
ilar result in both cases. 

In the same place, a young gentleman was described as 
having a large development of the moral and intellectual 
organs, and was therefore recommended to study divinity ; 
and it was afterwards ascertained by the writer, that such 
was the predilection of the young man for this study, that 
all his leisure hours for two years previous, had been most 
sedulously devoted to it. 

Another individual was described as having very strong 
animal and selfish faculties, with a good endowment of in 
tellect, high veneration, and none too much conscience ; and, 
consequently, not unlikely to make great pretensions to 
piety, but very much inclined to traffick, banter, and make 
excellent bargains, not hesitating frequently to gratify his 
acquis, by misrepresentation, dissimulation, and overreach- 
ing. In confirmation of the description, it was afterwards 
stated by a very respectable physician of the place, that this 
individual was a church-member, but so notorious for taking 
the advantage of his neighbours in trade, that he had been 
dealt with for it, and received the censure of his professing 

A little boy was described as prone to stealing ; and those 
who brought him forward, stated, that he was presented 
mainly on that account, as they wished to see whether phre- 
nology couid detect that trait in his character. 

At a publick lecture in Milton, Pa., the writer examined 
he head of Gen. Frick, editor of the " Miltonian," and de- 
scribed him as an original, eccentrick, and very open-heart 
ad, plain-spoken, and independent character; stated that he 
possessed a high degree of discrimination and mental aco* 



men, was strictly honest and benevolent, but, at the same 
time, often pointed and sare^stick in his replies, made many 
odd comparisons, disregarded publick opinion and the fashions 
of the day, controlled circumstances, swayed an influence 
in whatever sphere he moved, and was undoubtedly a real 
business man, a publick man, and a leader. These points 
of character were phrenological deductions from his very 
large firm, and compar., large combat., destruct., selfe,, 
adhes., hope, conscien., benev., mirth., individ., form, size, 
order, calcu., and local., and small secret, approbat., marvel., 
and time; but here again the phrenologist was met with the 
inquiry, whether he was not well acquainted with the gen- 
tleman examined, although he had never seen him before, 
nor heard of such a man. 

While visiting a school in Milton, the teacher put several 
questions to the writer concerning his pupils. In his replies, 
one lad, in particular, was described as very cunning and 
mischievous; upon which the teacher described him to be 
the greatest rogue in his school. The teacher also remarked 
afterwards to one of his patrons, that all the remarks made 
about his scholars by the phrenologist, were characterise 

During this tour through Pa., the head of a singular 
young lady fell under the writer's examination. It was of 
full size, but developed mainly in the selfish and intellectual 
regions. It was short, thick, low, and flattened at the top : 
and in it were developed very large secret., approbat., ideal., 
hope, aliment., and destruct., large combat., amat., adhes., ac- 
quis., mirth., lang., compar., and imitat., only full caus. and 
cautious., moderate firm., and small concent., benev.. conscien., 
ven., and self-e. (the lastmentioned organs in this combination, 
produce lowmindedness and meanness: see bottom of p.p. 
97, 98, and top of p. 99.) On discovering so unfavourable a 
phrenological development in a young lady who had been 
brought up in a very respectable family, and who still asso 
ciated with good company, the narrator hesitated to give a 
description of her character, until, by the repeated solicita- 
tions of some respectable persons who wished to hear what 
phrenology could say for her, he screwed up his moral cour- 
age to the sticking point, and proceeded to read off her rea. 
character, accompanied by useful hints concerning her conduct 
— the result of which was, of course, to offend Miss, and cause 
her to turn up her nose against phrenology. She was described 



a« coquettish to the last degree, (small conscien. and concent., 
and very large secret., approbat., and ideal., and large amat. ;) 
as very ardent, and also inconstant, in her attachments, 
(small concent., conscien., and firm.: see middle of p. 57;) 
as excessively vain and fond of dress, show, and ornament, 
(approbat. very large: see p. 110;) as fickle, (small 
firm : p. 122;) as possessed of fine conversational powers, 
(large lang., mirth., imitat., and compar., and very large 
ideal. ;) as excessively fond of sweetmeats, and liable to steal 
them, (large aliment, and secret., and small conscien. : p. 
99 ;) and as exceedingly cruel, selfish, and ungrateful, (small 
conscien. and benev., and very large destruct. ;) and yet, pos- 
sessed of a fair share of talents. At the request of the. writer, 
he obtained from some of the family in which she had been 
very genteelly brought up, the following account of her char- 
acter, viz., that she had little regard for her word ; had 
formed several matrimonial engagements, and had as often 
broken them ; was notorious for her coquetry and inconstan- 
cy, having never loved any one long at a time ; was as vain, 
and dressy, and dashing as a peacock, and literally worship- 
ped embellishment and ornament; was exceedingly cruel 
and ungrateful, and manifested few compunctions of con- 
science ; could be kept from pastry and sweetmeats only by 
their being locked up; was fascinating in conversation, and 
displayed a fair share of intellect, but a malicious disposition, 
and a terrible temper. No amount of kindness or admoni- 
tion could soften her feelings, or produce a reformation in 
her conduct. She took delight in hectoring and tormenting 
even the infirm, sick, and helpless. 

But in no place, perhaps, was a stronger impression made 
m favour of phrenology, or more striking proofs of its truth 
exhibited, than in the city of Washington, D. C. At the 
close of the first publick lecture delivered in that city by O, 
S. Fowler, in Nov., 1835, (which took place at the Unita- 
rian Church,) Dr. Hunt came forward for examination. He 
was a perfect stranger to the lecturer, and was described as 
possessed of extraordinary independence,, (firm, and self-e.,) 
joined with great energy and force of character, (firm, and 
self-e., combined with combat, and destruct.) His very large 
perceptive powers were also dwelt upon, and the fact that he 
is often called upon at races to give the word " go," confirms 
the correctness of this statement. His independence is illus- 
trated in his refusing to act as a physician in the family a* 


President Jackson, unless he could have his own way, which 
was in opposition to that of the President's. 

Jones. — But a still more striking case was that of T. P. 
Tones, who has been employed in the patent-office in Wash- 
ington, and also as a professor of chymistry and natural phi- 
losophy in one of the institutions in the District. He waa 
described as possessed of a high degree of intellect and moral 
feeling, and as a natural scholar of the first order; as having 
at command an astonishing amount of information upon al- 
most all subjects, and as possessing an intuitive talent and fond- 
ness for pursuing the natural sciences. Event, is seldom found 
as large as in his head ; and his enviable distinction as a schol- 
ar, fully confirms the indications of phrenology. Neany 
the whole of page 211, after the tenth line, presents the com- 
binations and characteristicks of Mr. J., with this exception, 
that his event., instead of being large, is very large. 

The moral organs of Mr. J. are very large, and his moral 
character and conduct not only unexceptionable, but seldom 
equalled. The selfish propensities are below mediocrity, 
which also corresponds with his character. His imitat. is 
very large, and his construct, large, which, combined with 
his very large perceptive faculties, give him the uncommon 
mechanical ingenuity that he possesses. 

Sew all. — In confirmation of what is here stated, the writer 
will merely cite the testimony of Dr. Sewall, who, for 
more than twelve years past, has distinguished himself by 
lecturing against phrenology in the Medical College of 
Washington. During the examination of both Dr. Hunt 
and Professor Jones, Dr. S. Avas frequently heard to express 
his assent to the correctness of the descriptions of character 
given, as well as his surprise at it; and after the examina- 
tions had closed, he several times remarked, that his phreno- 
logical skepticism was giving way; that the descriptions ol 
character were strikingly correct, and, to a moral certainty, 
the result of phrenological science. 

These two publick examinations, together with several 
others which followed, produced no little sensation through- 
out the city; and as to their correctness, not a dissenting 
voice was to be heard. But, on the part of Dr. Sewall and 
some others, there was a resolution formed to put phrenology 
to a still more rigorous test. The lecturer had announced 
that he would examine with his eyes covered ; and, accord- 
ingly, at the next lecture, several distinguished characters 



ariong vvhom was Dr. S. himself, were examined while the 
lecturer was blindfolded. In regard to the Doctor's own 
case, after the examination, he frankly admitted, that it was 
completely successful ; and that, although the description of 
his character which was given, differed in several particulars 
from the opinions entertained of him by his acquaintances, 
yet, on these very points it was correct, and had thus correct- 
ed publick opinion in regard to him. 

A very intelligent lady. also, who had lived in the family 
of Dr. S., and, of course, who was intimately acquainted with 
his character, remarked, that, in the description of it, many 
traits of which the publick could know nothing, were stated 
with remarkable accuracy ; and as to the publick opinion 
concerning his examination, there was but one voice, viz., 
that, as a whole, it could not have been surpassed in point 
of accuracy even by his most intimate acquaintances. The 
obstinately skeptical could account for the striking coinci- 
dence between the Doctor's real character and the phrenolo- 
gical description of it, only by pretending that the lecturer 
must have known whom he was examining, notwithstanding 
Dr. S. was one among some six or eight who were examin- 
ed whilst the phrenologist was blindfolded. 

Several members of Dr. Sewall's family were examined at 
his house, and according to his own testimony at the time, 
and likewise that of the lady just alluded to, except in one 
particular, not only was there no mistake made, but almost 
every point stated by the narrator, was characterislick. 

To test practical phrenology still farther, by request, the 
lecturer was again blindfolded, and Dr. S. reproduced Pro- 
fessor Jones ; and so far from there being any discrepance 
between the two examinations, both descriptions agreed per- 
fectly throughout, ?iem. con. — even Dr. S. himself judging. 

Afterwards at a meeting of the physicians of W. at the 
house of Dr. Sewall, many of them were examined by the 
writer, and many striking coincidences between their real 
traits of character and their phrenological developments, were 
pointed out. During these examinations, Dr. S. several times 
remarked to the phrenologist, (and was said to have stated 
the same to others,) that these and other proofs which he had 
witnessed, were certainly strong in favour of the truth of the 
science, and that, by the aid of phrenological principles alone, 
the writer had frequently described character in his presence 
with singular accuracy. So notorious, in fact, was the 


change effected in Dr. S.'s mind on the subject of phrenol« 
ogy, that the Washington Mirror made the following allu- 
sion to it : 

" On the occasion of Mr. Fowler's first lecture, several 
well-known heads were publickly examined, and phrenology 
gained many adherents from the ranks of its adversaries : 
among others, one whose name, were we at liberty to use it, 
would be seized on by the friends of the science, as affording 
a practical instance of the power of experimental phrenology. 
Indeed, in the case alluded to, as well as in the fifty others 
which have fallen under our notice this week, the portraiture 
of character has been so strikingly correct, that there is no 
alternative remaining, but to believe in the fundamental 
principles of phrenology, or to discard a mass of coincidence 
far more surprising than any metaphysical conclusion." 

The U. S. Telegraph likewise alluded to the same fact in 
the following language : " A distinguished professional gen- 
tleman of this city, who has been a professed disbeliever in, 
and, we might add, opponent to, phrenology, after having 
heard the lectures of Mr. Fowler, and seen many practical 
examples of the truth of the science, candidly acknowledged 
the almost total change of his opinions in regard to it — a 
beautiful specimen of the power of truth, and of the love of 

The writer has been thus prolix and particular in stating 
these facts, in order to exhibit, in bold relief, the inconsisten- 
cy of the course which Dr. Sewall has since been pleased to 
pursue in relation to phrenology ; for, notwithstanding all of 
his acknowledged convictions in favour of the truth of the 
science — notwithstanding the enormous amount of demon- 
strative evidence in its favour which was fairly presented 
to his mind — evidence, one would think, amply sufficient to 
convince the most skeptical, and evidence, the force of which 
he found it impossible at the time to resist — yet, extraordinary 
as it may appear, in a short time we again find this selF-saral 
Dr. S. a zealous leader in the ranks of the opposers to phre- 

But how can we account for this strange and paradoxical 
conduct in Dr. S. 1 The writer (O. S. Fowler) happens to 
be in possession of the very secret which, in this case, reveais 
the whole mystery : and nothing but his regard to truth, and his 
zeal for the ca use of science, wou Id induce him to make this dis 



i closure. Were he to follow the inclinations of his private feel- 
ings, he would forbear — he would spare, not only Dr. S., but 
also all others who, frcn motives of private pique, or personal 
popularity, ungenerously stand forth to combat, and, if they 
only had the power, to crush a noble science which is suc- 
cessfully struggling into existence against the mammoth 
strength of publick prejudice. The secret then is, as the 
Doctor himself averred to the writer, (and to which avowal 
he will at all times be ready to be qualified,) that the Doctor's 
hostility to phrenology originated solely in his own personal 
feeling* towards a prominent member of the phrenologic- 
al society,* by which member he said he had been ill-treat- 
ed , and, therefore, he had resolved to retaliate upon him 
by ridiculing his science. Dr. S.'s approbat. is very large. 
It will not, therefore, be singular, if he be found in the ranks 
of the opposition to phrenology just as long as their side is 

Considered popular. *Dr. Caldwell. Seep.lOof his Phrenology Vindicated. 

Woodsides. Among others examined in publick in W., 

was a Mr. Woodsides, who stands unrivalled for his mechan- 
ical talents. He was described as having uncommon com par., 
caus., and construct. The closing remark made upon his 
head, after he had gone to his seat, was, that sufficient emphasis 
had not been given to his extraordinary constructive powers. 

At a subsequent lecture, the same gentleman was re-exam- 
ined while the lecturer was blindfolded. His construct, was 
dwelt upon as the one predominant characteristick of his 
mind, which, joined with his very large caus. and compar., 
was described as giving him an intuitive knowledge of me- 
chanical principles and great contrivance. One fact illus- 
trative of his possessing this talent in a pre-eminent degree, 
is, that when the colossal statue, which weighs several tons, 
was to be placed upon the Washington monument in Balti- 
more, after a great many of the first-rate mechanicks had ex- 
hausted their skill, and still failed to raise it, he was sent for, 
and, with the greatest ease, he immediately devised an origi- 
nal method by which this enormous weight was speedily 
elevated to its present fearful height. 

A boy, three years of age, was examined, in whom amat 
was very large, and, according to the testimony of his pa- 
rents, he manifested the corresponding passion in as striking 
a degree as most adults. 

Elliott. — Among others examined at W., was a Mr El- 
liott, who resides with his father on Capitol Hill, and in 


whose written character the narrator dwelt much upon his re- 
markable talent and passion for drawing, designing, draught- 
ing, using tools, &c. About a month after this description was 
given, his plan and drawing for a new patent-office, (fee, was 
approved and adopted by Congress. His father, who is noted 
as an opponent to phrenology, and who wrote several articles 
against it, one of which appeared in the National Intelligen- 
cer in Dec, 1835, admitted that the description given of his 
son's character, was as strikingly correct, not only in this, but 
also in the other particulars, as any which he himself could 
give ; and added, that, from a mere boy, he had displayed an 
uncommon propensity for tinkering and drawing. 

The father alluded to, possessed not only a very large de- 
velopment of event., but with it, one of the best memories of 
facts known. From a personal knowledge of La Fayette 
he remarked, that he also possessed a most astonishing re- 
collection of facts, and even of minute details; and judging 
from his busts and profiles, his individ. and event, must have 
been developed in an extraordinary degree. 

Wise. — But a still more striking illustration of the truth 
of phrenology, occurred in the head of Henry A. Wise, 
whose pubiick character is too well known to need even a 
passing remark. Before the writer had ever seen that dis- 
tinguished gentleman, he came into his office and requested 
an examination. The first remark made of him, was, that 
he possessed a towering ambition, (hope, approbat., and 
self-e.,) accompanied with all the intellectual and propelling 
powers requisite to sustain himself in his aspirations after 
greatness. His combat, and destruct. are large, if not very 
large, and his com par. projects enormously, which collective- 
ly give him that unrivalled talent for withering sarcasms and 
cutting comparisons which always tell so severely upon those 
at whom they are aimed. His temperament is of the most 
favourable kind, his head, large, all his perceptive faculties, 
developed in a very unusual degree, his ideal, and lang. are 
arge, and the whole correspond perfectly with his real char- 
acter. Many a time have his speeches and conversation 
recalled to the mind of the writer the impressions which his 
examination made upon him, while wholly unacquainted with 
his name and standing. 

Jackson. — But for proofs of its correctness, phrenology 
has but to look to the first heads in the nation ; and it will inva- 
riably be found, that the more conspicuous the character, the 



more striking will be the proof. President Jackson, for exam- 
pie, possesses an extraordinary development of firm., self-e., 
benev., combat., and adhes., with large ven. and "hope, and 
smaller ideal. Benev. and adhes. are among his strongest 
organs; and if there is any one fault in his publick character, 
more prominent than others, the writer ventures the opinion, 
tnat it is mainly the product of these two faculties, viz., his 
too great readiness to assist his friends. The President's 
head is of the largest size. Its diameter just above the ears, 
is seven inches and three-eighths: and its height very great, 
so that it is, in reality, considerably larger than the given 
diameter would indicate. On phrenological principles, a 
brain of this size, with an active temperament, is absolutely 
necessary to give that intellectual energy and force of char- 
acter which have been so conspicuously displayed by the in- 
dividual here referred to. 

Van Buren. — Among other phrenological observations, 
those made by the writer upon Martin Van Buren, are 
worthy of notice ; but, on account of his political station, and 
the diversity of opinions entertained of him by the different 
political parties, in regard to some points of his character, the 
writer forbears to draw inferences from the data here present- 
ed, excepting on such points as he believes will be corrobo- 
rated by all parties. His head is large, and those portions 
which impart energy and force of character and feeling, are 
developed in a high degree. Cautious, is his largest organ, 
and his secret, is almost equally large. Acquis, and destruct. 
are also large, while firm., self-e., approbat., combat., amat., 
and hope, are very large ; but the combined action of secret, 
and cautious, prevents their imprudent expression, and produ- 
ces that noncommittal manifestation of the faculties for which 
this gentleman is so celebrated. His compar. and caus. are 
large, and his benev., conscien., and perceptive faculties gen- 
erally, only full. His caus. and cautious, give him that sa- 
gacity for which he is so remarkable. 

Mr. Brower, painter, No. 12, Roosevelt-st., N. Y., has a 
cast taken from his head, which, among some others, was 
submitted to L. N. Fowler for examination. Unconsc ous 
of whose head it represented, he gave it an impartial exam- 
ination, the result of which any one may know by calling 
on Mr. P. 

Adams. — The head of ex-president Adams presents a strik- 
ing instance of the truth of phrenology. Love of approbation 


is one of his ruling- organs. His compar. is alro very large J 
and its discriminating and analytical influence is manifest in 
almost every publick effort he makes. But his perceptive 
faculties predominate over his reasoning ; hence, he is more 
capable of collecting facts and statistical information general- 
ly, than of deep and profound reasoning*. His critical acu- 
men is very great. His conscien. is large ; and, consequent- 
ly, whatever may be thought of his measures, no phrenologist 
will impeach his motives. 

Henry Clay furnishes an illustrious example of the agree- 
ment between his phrenological developments and his known 
traits of character — an agreement, in fact, which can be ac- 
counted for on no other rational principle than that which 
admits the truth of phrenology. The following is the result 
ol a careful phrenological observation of his head. 

The first point of interest, is his uncommonly fine and fa 
vourable temperament, which is a compound of the nervous, 
sanguine, and bilious, and which secures a most happy and 
delicate blending of strength and activity, with high suscep- 
tibility to stimuli : and this temperament is aided by the or- 
ganization of his whole corporeal system, which is unri- 

The second thing to be noticed, is the sharpness of his 
organs, which greatly incre se their activity and excitability. 
Add to this, the size of his head, which is unusually great, 
it being seven inches and three-eighths in diameter, and very 
high in proportion to its breadth ; and we have three favour- 
able extremes acting in concert, which, under any circum- 
stances, could hardlv fail to bring him into notice, but which, 
under favourable circumstances, would of themselves produce 
a great genius. But when to these extraordinary manifesta- 
tions, we add the important one of a most favourable devel- 
opment of the several classes of organs, as well as of the indi- 
viduals in each class, presenting great mental power so ad- 
mirably balanced that none of it runs to waste, we have— 
Henry Clay — to the life. 

His benev. is very large, and his adhes. and philopro. are 
developed in an extraordinary degree for a man. From this 
combination flows that deep current of sympathy and pathos 
which so strongly characterize his speeches, and by which 
he seizes upon the feelings, affections, and passions of his 
hearers, and sweeps the chords of the human heart with 
the master hand of a Timotheus. From the same combina- 



feoa, also, proceeded that overwhelming burst of anguish 
which so strongly marked the father on the late occasion of 
the death of his daughter. His combat, is large, while his 
destruct. is only full. Hence, his disposition to debate and 
resist without showing great severity of character, and those 
retorts courteous which display more manly courage than 
rarshness or cruelty. His self-e. and approbat. are both 
Jatge, but being nearly equal, and combined with very large 
benev. and large ven., they produce that affability mingled 
with dignity, which displays itself in all his intercourse with 
his fellow-men, and enters largely into his manner of speak- 
ing, constituting him naturally, what he is in fact, a per- 
fect gentleman. The same combination makes him ambi- 

The organs which are located near the mesial line of his 
head, are nearly all very large, so that its height is con- 
siderably greater than its breadth, and its length from indi- 
vid. to philopro. is very great. Hence, the moral and hu- 
man faculties, which shine so conspicuously in his character, 
are much more amply developed than the animal and selfish 
propensities. His perceptive faculties are developed in an 
extraordinary degree. These give him that ready command 
of facts and statisticks — that wonderful ability to attend to 
details and accomplish business, in which he excels most of 
his contemporaries. It was by the aid of these faculties, 
joined with his large concent., very large cornpar., and other 
faculties, that he was enabled to become the author and cham- 
pion defender of the <l American System." The same combina- 
tion gives him those extraordinary powers of analysis, illus- 
tration, critical acumen, and ability to discriminate, and, aid- 
ed by imitat. and ideal., his nice sense of propriety and ele- 
gance of expression, together with his great ability to seize 
upon the strong points of the argument — in short, those un- 
rivalled powers of forensick eloquence which so strongly 
characterize his mental efforts. His ideal, and lang. being 
both large, but not very large, enable him to command a 
style, at once chaste, graceful, and flowing, and alike free 
from redundancy of ornament and verbosity of expression. 

Webster. — But of all the great heads of the nation, 
none is capable of imparting a deeper interest to the naturalist 
or the philosopher, or a more forcible conviction to the mind 
of the phrenologist, than that of Daniel Webster. A larger 
mass of brain perhaps never was, and never will be, found 



in the upper and lateral portions of any man's forehead itxafi 
that contained in his. Both the height and the breadth 01 
his forehead are prodigiously great. And here, in all can- 
dour and sober earnestness, let us ask the disbeliever in phren- 
ological science, if he can behold such a noble, such a splen- 
did forehead, and, in connexion with it, contemplate the giant 
intellect of its possessor with indifference, or without being 
internally convinced of the truth of, at least, the fundamental 
principles of phrenology? Does the Almighty Architect 
produce such magnificent specimens of workmanship for no 
purpose 1 Can it be, that the front heads of a Webster, a 
Franklin, a Sully, a Jeannin, a Bacon, a Socrates, mean noth- 
ing more than those of the most ordinary individuals ? — 
Could the observing of all ages be permitted to stand forth 
and reply to these interrogatories, in the language of fact 
and demonstration, one and all of them would thunder out a 
negative : and be it borne in mind, that this negative is a 
full admission of the fundamental principles of phrenologi- 
cal science; or, in other words, the intelligent of all ages 
and of all countries, as far as observation has enlightened 
them upon the subject, have believed in, and taught, the doc- 
trines of phrenology. 

But, to return. It has been stated, that the one grand and 
striking phrenological feature of Daniel W ebster's head — that 
which towers above every thing else, is his enormous devel- 
opment of the reasoning organs, or, more especially, his 
cans. And here phrenology puts the question right home, 
most direct and pointedly, to its opponent — For what is 
Daniel Webster most distinguished? No one will deny, 
that it is for his gigantick reasoning faculties — for his deep, 
logical, and original powers of thought, and comprehension 
of first-principles, by which he is enabled to grasp tne most 
formidable subject, and pour forth such a torrent of mighty 
arguments as to confound and overwhelm his most daring 
adversaries. Go, then, and measure the caus. and compcr. 
of Webster, and account for the astonishing coincidence be- 
tween their enormous size and the giant strength of his rati- 
ocinative powers, on any other than phrenological principles 
— if you can : if you cannot, you must admit that phrenolo- 
gy is TRUE. 

Many other developments of his head are striking, partic 
Ularly his lang. and ideal. : and hence tba grandeur and 



the beauty with which he often clothes his burning; 
brilliant thoughts. 

In Henry Clay, the reasoning organs are large, but the 
perceptive and seim-perceptive are still larger : and, accord- 
ingly, in all his great efforts, we see a greater display of 
matter-of-fact, statistical, and business talent, than in Daniel 
Webster : and all this is most strikingly coincident with the 
difference of development in their respective heads; for, in 
Webster, the reflective faculties are larger than the percep- 
tive and semi-perceptive. Let phrenological skepticks ac- 
count for this perfect agreement between the developments, 
and the respective talents, of these two greatest orators and 
statesmen living, or give up their opposition. 

Calhoun. — In John C. Calhoun are united a very large 
head, an active temperament, and sharp organs. His fore- 
head (though partly covered and obscured by his hair) is 
unusually high, and in breadth, surpasses mediocrity. But 
the greatest peculiarity of his phrenology is, that all the in- 
tellectual faculties are very large ; and the most striking 
point of difference between his reasoning organs and those 
of Webster is. that, in the latter, caus. is greater than corn- 
par. ; but, in the former, the reverse is true. Hence, it is a 
fair inference to attribute to Calhoun the greater powers of 
analysis and illustration; to Webster, the greater depth and 

Poind exter. — The Honerable George Poindexter 
has, not only a large head, but, except marvel, and conscien., 
a general fulness of the organs. The region in which corn- 
par., caus., mirth., ideal., lang., individ., and event., are loca- 
ted, in strict accordance with the manifestation of his mental 
power, is developed in an extraordinary degree : and not 
much less so, the region appropriated to the feelings and the 
passi ?is. 

Preston. — In the head of the Hon. W.C.Preston of S. C, 
the organ of lang. is uncommonly developed, and so are in- 
divid., form, size, event., local., and compar. ; and these are 
accompanied with large ideal, and concent. Hence, his 
great command of words, facts, and events, his powers of 
analysis, his brilliant and well-sustained comparisons, his 
continuity and compactness of style and argument, and, in 
ihort, his finished, flowing eloquence 

Whitney. — The head of Reuben M. Whitney is also very 



large, and his temperament quite active, which give him great 
mental power. The development of the whole basilar re- 
gion, is enormous. His firm, and self-e. arc seldom equal- 
ed, which, taken in connexion with his prodigiously strong 
propelling powers, give him very great energy and force of 
character. He can and will lead. His combat., destruct., 
aliment., and secret., acquis., amat., and hope, are all very 
large ; his benev. is only full, conscien. small, and all the per- 
ceptive faculties, as well as compar., are very large. Such a 
development of the intellectual organs, is rare; yet, combi- 
ned as it is with a still stronger development of the selfish 
faculties, cannot fail to produce a very selfish, as well as a very 
talented, character. 

Senator Benton's head is very large, and in it the or- 
gans that give force of character are immense. 

Cass. — Gov. Cass' head manifests a very large develop- 
ment of both the intellectual and the moral faculties, and, 
moreover, the intellectual faculties are uniformly developed, 
giving him a well-balanced mind and a general talent. 

Secretary Woodbury has also a large and well-balan- 
ced head. The written description of his character and talents 
which was given without the narrator's having the least sus- 
picion of his name or station, was considered by his acquaint- 
ances as very accurate. In a daughter of his, the organ cf 
lang. was pointed out as developed in an extraordinary de 
gree, and the inference drawn, that she must bean "everlast- 
ing talker." The father afterwards remarked, that the hit 
was so striking as to have passed into a standing joke. 

Senator Clayton of Del., has a very large organ of 
(ang. As the hon. gentleman was one day making some unfa- 
vourable remarks upon the science of phrenology, the writer 
requested of him permission to make one observation. 

" With all my heart," was the courteous reply. 

" From a mere boy, sir, you have been one in ten thou 
land for your talent to commit to memory," said the writer. 

" Upon my word, yon are perfectly correct, for I could 
always repeat page after page merely by reading it two oi 
three times over. But how did you discover it? 

" By the bumps, sir," was the reply. 

This so excited the curiosity of the gentleman, that he de 
sired the examiner to proceed with the description of hi* 
character, every subsequent point of which he acknowledge 
ed to be very striking and accurate. 



Tyler — Governour Tyler of Va., furnishes another 
striking proof of the truth of phrenology. His head ia 
large; his temperament extremely active ; his intellectual 
organs throughout, are developed in an unusual degree, 
while his bene v. is a predominant trait of character. Mirth, 
is also very large. His friends considered the description 
of his character given, as very correct. 

White. — The Hon. Judge White's head is very high, and 
well developed in the intellectual, as well as in tue moral, re 
gion. The writer believes that his conscien. is large. 

Pettigru. — The Hon. Mr. Pettigru of S. C, was as- 
tonished beyond measure at the extraordinary accuracy of his 
description, and wondered how it was possible that all the 
nicer shades of character, and al' the secret windings of his 
heart, could be thus distinctly and critically portrayed — that 
points of character which he had always considered as di- 
rectly at war with each other, could be pointed out and also 
lecnnciled. For example ; he was pronounced to be very 
timid when obliged to remain passive, and very courageous 
and fearless when his courage was roused. He remarked 
that when his servant was driving his carriage across a bad 
bridge, or over a rough place in the road, he had the fear of 
a woman; and yet, when on his way to Washington, but for 
the interference of his friends, he should have fought several 
duels on account of nullification. This was the result of very 
large cautious, with very large combat. 

Johnson. — The Hon. R. M. Johnson, Vice President, has 
a large head, and large benev., adhes., and approbat., fium 
which flow his unbounded hospitality his friendship and 
affability, as well as his disposition to show what he has done 
by relating his wonderful adventures. His caus., compar., 
and lang., are large or very large; and hence his abilities 
as displayed in his various reports. His marvel, is extreme- 
ly low. 

His self-esteem is only moderate, which, combined with 
his mrge approbat., and very large domestick faculties, makes 
him pre-eminently social and affable. His acknowledged 
mental power is the result of a large brain. 

King. — The Hon. Mr. King, ex-governour of Me., who, 
if the writer has been correctly informed, was a member of 
the legislature of Mass. for forty years, and who, during tha^ 
period, prepared more publick documents and furnished more 


statistical information, than any other man, frequently ex 
pressed his surprise, nay, his astonishment, at the revelations 
of phrenology, while undergoing- an examination by the wri- 
ter: but when his unrivalled talents for collecting facts and 
statisticks, and going into minute details, and for analyzing, 
classifying, and arranging, (very large perceptive ami semi- 
perceptive faculties and compar.,) were emphatically dwelt 
upon as the great and leading feature of his intellect, he 
arose from his seat, and reiterated the oft-repeated interroga- 
tory, " Do you not know who I am, sir, and the whole his- 
tory of my life ?" And it was not until after the most posi- 
tive assurances to the contrary were made by the examiner, 
that he could be induced to believe that the phrenological 
disclosures of his character and talents, were the result of the 
application of scientifick principles, and not of previous 
knowledge. He then confessed that, although he had pre- 
viously disbelieved in phrenology, and scouted its pretensions 
to reveal character in its details and minutice, yet the nice dis- 
criminations and shades of character which it had so accu- 
rately pointed out in his case, had produced a conviction in 
its favour, and excited his admiration and astonishment. 

Jones. — The examination of Walter Jones, Esq., one of 
the most distinguished pleaders in the Middle States, produ- 
ced an effect similar to that last stated. The written descrip- 
tion of his character was so graphick and accurate, that both 
he and his friends believed it must have been compiled from 
an intimate and critical knowledge of his life. Lang., corn- 
par., mirth., and destruct., are the leading developments in 
this gentleman's head ; and, in the written description allu- 
ded to, his extraordinary powers of ridicule, his discrimina- 
tion, point, and sarcasm, and his ability to make ludicrous 
comparisons, and to apply odious and severe epithets to the 
objects of his irony or displeasure, were dwelt upon with 
uncommon emphasis. 

Davis. — The Hon. Francis Granger prevailed upon Mr 
M L. Davis, "the Spy in Washington," to submit to an exam- 
ination, during which, both parties, astonished at the remark- 
able hits, and the wonderfully accurate delineations of char 
acter and talents sriven, several times arrested the progress 
of the phrenologist to inquire whether he did not know the 
character of the srentleman examined ; and they could scarce- 
ly be induced to believe his repeated and positive, assevera- 
tions of entire ignorance of the man, except by his phrenc-lo* 



gical developments. The written description of Mr. D.'s 
character, produced a similar effect upon the minds of several 
gentlemen who afterwards read it. — For the correctness of 
the statement here made, the writer takes pleasure in refer- 
ring - his readers to Dr. Gibson of Washington, a gentle- 
man who was for some time one of the editors of the Tele- 

Gibson. — Dr. Gibson's own head furnishes, at least, owe de- 
monstrative proof of the truth of phrenology. His head is 
large, and his temperament, one of the most favourable. 
Among his phrenological organs, caus., compar., benev, con- 
scien., mirth., combat., and destruct, are the most promi- 
nently developed. As a reasoner, he has but few equals ; 
and his very large conscien., which takes the lead, not only 
makes him a perfectly honest man, but, combined with his 
other organs, enables him to reason most clearly and power- 
fully upon all subjects which involve the abstract principles 
of right and wrong. He likewise exhibits an almost Her- 
culean power in hurling rebuke and censure at those who 
violate moral principle, whilst his ridicule and sarcasm are 
withering: and yet his very small marvel, and small ven 
make him indifferent to religious forms and creeds. 

But the children of Dr. G. furnish phrenological science 
with proofs of its accuracy more numerous than those drawn 
from the character of the parent. Of his two sons, one pos- 
sesses extraordinary imitat., construct., form., and all the fac- 
ulties necessary for a first-rate portrait painter: and the 
genius he displays in the pursuit of the fine arts, is almost 
unequalled. But his imitat. overtops all his other organs: 
and, in mimickry, and a talent for theatrical representations, 
he is considered almost a prodigy. Previous to the examin- 
ation of the lad, some of his friends who knew him well, 
drew up a list of about twenty questions, with answers, em- 
bracing nearly all of his peculiarities of character and talents, 
which questions they propounded to the examiner, and, ir. 
every instance except two, his answers agreed with theirs ; 
and, in one of these discrepant points, they afterwards admit- 
ted that the phrenologist was correct, whilst, in regard to the 
other, there was some doubt. 

Thp developments, as well as the character, of the other 
eon, though widely different, are scarcely less extraordinary. 
His very large reflective faculties, taken in connexion with 
hie very active and nervous temperament, perfectly harmon- 


ize with his uncommon ability to comprehend first principle^ 
to reason, and criticise. 

The little daughter of Dr. G. possesses a most astonishing 
development of order, so great, indeed, as to exhibit almost a 
deformity. In accordance with the development, her fathei 
stated to the writer, that before she was one year old, her love 
of arrangement and neatness, and her discomfiture at disar- 
rangement, were so conspicuously and unequivocally mani- 
fested as to astonish all who witnessed them. The develop 
ment of order, and, with it ; the corresponding faculty, are 
almost equally prominent in the grandmother of the child, 
but, extraordinary as it may seem, not in the mother, it having 
passed by one generation. 

Greene. — Gen. Duff Greene furnishes another illustra 
tion of the truth of phrenology. Hope, benev., adhes., and 
compar., are his leading organs : the first would impart to 
him that enterprising and bold speculating spirit which has 
characterized his whole life ; the next two are the cause oi 
his strong attachments and liberality, not to say, prodigality, 
which have manifested themselves in his giving away thou- 
sands to his friends ; and the last, aided by combat, and de- 
struct., furnishes him with those severe and biting compari- 
sons with which his style abounds. His mirth., caus., indi- 
vid., and event., are also very large, his self-e. large, and 
secret, small. The examination of his head was made by 
the writer without any previous knowledge of the man. 

In Washington the writer examined the head of a Mr. R., 
m which he found no organ of conscien. He accordingly 
said to him, " You have no conscientious scruples or com 
punctions:" to which he replied, "that is a fact: my con- 
science never troubles me :" (see conscien. small and very 
small, p. 133.) Another individual, examined in Phila., and 
in whose head there was little or no development of consci- 
en., remarked in writing, that " he had often done things for 
which he felt sorry, because they had injured the feelings oi 
others, (benev.,) or because he considered them beneath him, 
(self-e.,) or because his reason told him better; yet, his con- 
science never condemned him for such acts." Another gen- 
tleman in whom conscien. was described as very small, re- 
plied, that "though he had done many wicked deeds, yet he 
always went to sleep with a quiet conscience, and did not 
know what the feeling of guilt was." Another (in New 
York) in whom conscien, was described as deficient, remark* 

BV FAC'f'3. 


®cL that " he had never done wrong in his life :" — the very 
phenomena attributed to conscien. small and very small, on 
p. 133. The authors have witnessed thousands of simi ar 

The following characteristical scene occurred at the office 
of O. S. Fowler in Washington. A man was examined 
(whose name we suppress) and described as having very low 
conscien., marvel., and ven., but exceedingly strong passions, 
especially that of combat. ; as highly talented, but nearly 
destitute of all moral feeling except that of benev. ; as skep- 
tical, haughty, and self-conceited, (self-e. very large without 
the moral faculties,) and prone to infidelity, gambling, &c. 
When the examination was closed, he arose, and, with a most 
important air, replied, " Sir, your phrenology must now 
come down. You have described me as an infidel, a gam- 
bler, and every thing that is base; but, sir, I wish you to 
know, that I am a preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ /" 
" Be that as it may," was the reply, " I have gone according 
to the 'bumps;' and if phrenology cannot support itself in 
that way, let it fall." 

He took his seat to hear the examination of others ; and 
presently there entered the office a professed gambler, who 
recognised in our boasted clergyman, an old crony and for- 
mer associate black-leg. They soon began to chat about 
" old times," and recount, with much enthusiasm, their former 
exploits at cock-fighting, horse-racing, gambling, dissipation, 
debauchery, and the like. Our clerical hero at length ask- 
ed the phrenologist, " what for a latoyer he would make?" 
" Excellent, if you only had a little more conscience," was the 
reply. " I have for some time been studying law," said he, 
" and think I shall prefer pleading to preaching." He was 
afterwards admitted to the bar. 

On relating the foregoing circumstance to a lady of the 
Methodist persuasion, she said that "this man was a preacher 
in their connexion, but very unpopular, because he never 
seemed to/eeZwhat he said, (intellect without the moral sen- 
timents,) and because he was an arrogant, overbearing sort 
of a man, who wanted a great deal of attention," &c. By an- 
other citizen of Washington, he was recognised as a former 
resident there, who was distinguished as a wild, rakish, dis- 
sipated, gambling youth. 

A gentleman was examined by the writer at his office in 
Washington, and described as possessing two classes of fac- 



ulties in an extraordinary degree, viz., those which create a 
talent and a fondness for the study of divinity, and also those 
which give a passion and an ability successfully to prosecute 
the natural sciences, particularly geology. All his moral 
organs were large or very large, and his perceptive facul- 
ties, especially form and local., were very large. Surprised 
and astonished at the disclosure and description given, he 
arose from his seat, and asked if the writer knew him. When 
fully assured that he did not, he admitted, that, since phrenol- 
ogy had not only distinctly pointed out the great outlines 
and leading features of his character and talents, but had, 
likewise, delineated the nicer shades, and even minute fea- 
tures, of his character, and that, too, with an accuracy which 
his most intimate acquaintances could not have done, the sci- 
ence must be true. — The gentleman was a clergyman, and, 
as the writer afterwards learned, was then employed by go- 
vernment as a geologist, in which capacity he had made 
several tours and surveys, particularly in the West. 

Brown. -But no evidence of the truth of phrenology, is more 
conclusive than that furnished by the phrenological develop- 
ments, taken in connexion with the character, of Mr. Wm. 
H. Brown, known in many parts of the union as a full-length 
profile cutter. This gentleman entered the office of the wri- 
ter in Washington, and inquired for a room to let, and when 
asked for what purpose, replied, " as you are a phrenologist, 
sir, perhaps you can tell." He was found to possess the 
largest perceptive faculties, considered as a whole, that the 
writer had ever seen. His form, size, ^nd local., are abso- 
lutely astonishing; and, accordingly, he never forgot the 
looks of a face or of a place. As an instance; when it was 
remarked that he always retained in his mind a distinct im- 
pression of the appearance of any place, and the location of 
any object, he had ever seen, he immediately gave a minute 
description of the houses, corners, pumps, &c. in Market and 
Pearl streets, in the city of Albany, although he had passed 
up Market street to Pearl only once, and back to tne wharf 
by another street. 

By afterwards occupying the same office with Mr. B., the 
writer had an opportunity frequently to observe the manifest- 
ation of his extraordinary powers. His head is very large; 
and in it, besides the organs already mentioned, are devel- 
oped very large construct., imitat., and compar. This or- 
ganization would give him unrivalled dexterity and skill ia 




the use of tools, in drawing, &c. At the funeral of a senator, 
he saw Martin Van Buren; and several days after, from 
memory alone, he cut a full-length miniature likeness of him 
from black paper, which, when pasted upon a white card, 
represented the original to the very life ; so much so, indeed, 
that every person who entered the office, and who had pre- 
viously seen Mr. V. B., recognised it immediately: and hun- 
dreds of copies of it were soon sold. When gentlemen call- 
ed upon Mr. B. for the profiles of their friends, or servants 
for those of their masters, they were invariably directed to 
select them from a large pack, and they were never at a loss 
in deciding upon the right pictures. With such facility and 
despatch was the artist enabled to produce these likenesses, 
that he could cut and finish from seventy-five to one hundred 
in a day. 

While in Boston, Mr. B. was taken to the Exchange, 
where six individuals were nointed out to him in succession. 
Several hours afterwards, he was requested to cut their pro- 
files promiscuously, they not being present ; and to the as- 
tonishment and admiration of all present, so successfully and 
accurately did he perform the task, that all who knew the 
originals, were enabled immediately to recognise the like- 
ness of each as it was produced. During an absence of two 
years from B., a gentleman whose profile he had cut, had 
deceased, and no copy of his picture could be found. Anxious 
to retain, if possible, so striking a token of remembrance of 
him, the friends of the deceased applied to Mr. B. to cut a 
new one from memory : and so perfectly did he reproduce 
the likeness, that they were no less gratified than astonished 
at the masterly power of the artist. 

Astonishing, however, as these talents in Mr. B. may ap- 
pear, they were, nevertheless, all distinctly pointed out by 
the writer at his first interview with him: to which fact Mr. 
B. himself, who was then a disbeliever in phrenology, as well 
as several others who were present, will at any time testify. 
He then described Mr. B., for example, as able, for almost 
any length of time, to retain in his mind a distinct and per- 
fectly accurate impression of the looks of persons, machines, 
&c. which he had once seen, and, at pleasure, to transfer 
.heir appearance to paper; and declared that, in drawing, 
profile cutting, &c, he had iro equal. Dr. Spurzheim saw 
Mr. B. in. Boston, and, at one of his publick lectures, gave a 
•pecifick and correct description of these same powers of hit 


mind. Mr. B. states, that all phrenologists who understand 
the science, concur in attributing to him the same qualities 
and talents. 

The editor of the U. S. Telegraph, made the following 
remarks upon the talents and genius of this prodigy in arf 
1 Such is the correctness of his ideas of form and size, and 
such the accuracy of his touch, (weight,) that by casting hia 
eyes upon an individual for a few minutes, he can transfer to 
paper, and cut out with scissors, the profile, and the whole 
contour of the person, with such exactness, that no acquaint- 
ance of the person can fail to distinguish it. The accuracy 
of his likenesses, and the facility with which they are produ- 
ced, are truly astonishing. We have seen profiles thus ta 
ken of General Jackson, Judge Marshall, and others, which 
are so striking, that any one who has ever seen them, can 
be at no loss to name the person designed to be repre- 

" But the connexion of Mr. Brown's extraordinary taleni 
with the science of phrenology, is its most interesting feature. 
The phrenological developments of Mr. B. are such as indi- 
cate the very faculties which he. possesses, and that in an ex- 
traordinary degree. We doubt whether there is a head in 
the United States, or even in the civilized world, in which 
there is such a development of the so-called phrenological 
organs of form, size, imitation, and constructiveness." " To 
such an extent does Mr. Brown possess this most extraordi- 
nary power of recollecting forms and faces, and of delinea- 
ting them, that, by looking two or three minutes at an indi- 
vidual, or at several in succession, he can, hours afterwards, 
transfer them to paper with his scissors, nearly as accurately 
as though the persons were before him." — Scores of equally 
flattering newspaper notices might easily be added. 

Booth. — The coincidence between the phrenological de- 
velopments and the character and talents of J. B. Booth, the 
celebrated tragick actor, is singularly striking. His head 
is large, and his temperament very active. His combat., 
destruct, self-e., compar., caus., and ideal., are all very large, 
and his imitat. larger than is often found. His Jang, is large, 
which enables him to commit to memory, and command 
words, with great ease. It is by the combined influence of 
these faculties that he is enabled so admirably to personate 
the ambition, the haughtiness, the insolence, and the brutali- 
ty and malice of Richard the Third j but his s&cret. is ma 


ietate; and this is the cause of his failure (according to the 
testimony of some of the criticks) to do full justice to the 
craft, cunning, and deep duplicity of his favourite hero. 
The combination given likewise explains to us the reason 
why Mr. B. is greater in raising the tempest of passion and 
violence than in directing the storm. His very large ideal., 
joined with very large reflective faculties, gives him that 
sublimity of conception and grandeur of personation that 
mark his acting; while his very large mirth., combined with 
his combat, and destruct., enable him to represent the se- 
vere and sarcastick. All his domestick faculties are strong- 
ly marked. 

He produced his eldest son, and, though not only a skep' 
tick in phrenology, but greatly prejudiced against it, acknowl- 
edged the entire change wrought in his opinions by the ex- 
amination, and added, that he doubted whether his own de- 
scription of his son could have been more characteristick and 

Mr. Weymes, the owner of the American theatre at W., and 
of the Walnut-st. theatre in Phila., who was examined while 
the writer was wholly unacquainted with his occupation and 
character, was described as possessing an extraordinary ta- 
lent for committing to memory; (very large lang. ;) in con 
flrmation of which, he stated that he had learned, verbatim. 
fifteen hundred lines of blank verse (if the writer's memory 
serves him) in six hours. 

To detail all the marked and striking observations in proof 
and illustration of phrenology, made by the writer even 
while in Washington, would doubtless be more tedious than 
interesting. He will therefore close this list of cases with 
the single remark, that he found the heads of individuals 
generally in that city, and especic^y of all who are distin 
guished in the national councils, to be considerably above 
the common standard in size and in striking developments. 

Among the many scores of striking examples vhich ha 
found in Alexandria, D. C, the writer will mention but one 
which he selects merely on account of its occurring at a pub» 
lick examination, and in reference to a notorious character. 
The name is forgotten, but there are hundreds in the city of 
A. who can attest to the fact here stated. The first thing 
mentioned, was a trait produced by very large combat., de- 
Btruct., firm., and self-e., unrestrained by conscien. or secret., 
namely, his violent and ungovernable temper. In this par- 


ticular, the man was represented as dangerous ; especially 
as an enemy, yet, as disposed to take vengeance above board. 
In accordance with this, it \vas stated, that, in open day, he 
had shot two individuals ; and that when his anger was rais* 
ed, he was emphatically a chafed tiger. Not possessing 
any acquis., and having very large amat., ideal., self-e., ali- 
ment., and other organs indicative of prodigality, he was 
described as a spendthrift ; and accordingly he had squan- 
dered two large fortunes mainly in selfish gratifications. 
As in hundreds of other cases, the charges of "collusion," 
and "a previous knowledge of his character," were resort- 
ed to in order to explain away the astonishing coincidence 
between his real character and this publick phrenological 
description of it. 

Orr. — At a public examination in Georgetown, D. C, 
and when the writer was blindfolded, a Mr. Orr, who is im- 
porter in the U. S. Senate, and, withal, known to the literary 
world as a gentleman of great learning and extraordinary 
intellectual powers, was brought forward as a fit subject to 
test phrenology. He was described as possessing extraordi- 
nary perceptive and reflective powers, united with very large 
concent., large combat., and unusual energy and decision of 
character. But his wonderful calculating and astronomical 
powers were dwelt upon as forming one of the strongest 
traits of his character. In accordance with this description, 
he is considered one of the best astronomers and mathe- 
maticians of the age, and, moreover, as possessing a clear and 
powerful intellect, and a mind well stored with a rich fund 
of thought and learning, and all backed up with strong and 
energetick feelings. The manner in which he literally uses 
up his opponents, is ample demonstration of the presence of 
very powerful combat., compar., caus., concent., &c. He 
was also described as a very sarcastick and severe writer; 
which was said to be characteristick of him. 

The description of character agreed perfectly with ono 
previously given of the same gentleman by the writer, for 
me correctness of which he refers to the good people of 
Georgetown who heard it, and, also, for several other equally 
striking proofs of the truth of practical phrenology. At the 
«lose of a course of lectures delivered in that place, during 
which a large number of well-known characters was publick- 
iy examined, a resolution was introduced by Mr. Orr, and 
carried, nem. con., the purport of which was, that the eviden- 



ces of the truth of practical phrenology presented in the lec- 
tures, were highly satisfactory and conclusive. 

Green — During the, summer of 1835, in addition to the 
foregoing, many striking facts occurred, illustrative of the 
proof of phrenology, whilst the writer, O. S. Fowler, was 
located in Baltimore. One of the most singular, was the 
examination, at his office, of Dr. John C. Green, of Union, 
Loudon Co., Va., a gentleman of very unique and very strong 
traits of character, who has, of late, become very celebrated 
in his profession, particularly on account of his most extra- 
ordinary and unequalled skill in curing chronicle liver com- 
plaints* The Doctor's head is large, and very uneven, (p. 
54,) indicative of uncommon mental power, and great singu- 
larity of character : his temperament is active. His com- 
bat., destruct., self-e., conscien., firm., cautious., and compar., 
are large, his benev., caus., and hope, very large, his ven. 
and perceptive faculties only full, and marvel., secret., and 
acquis., very small. Accordingly, he was described as a 
bold, original thinker, who was capable of making new and 
important discoveries ; as highminded, independent, and hon- 
ourable to the fullest extent, but, at the same time, incredu- 
lous, and imprudent and indiscreet in what he says ; as pos- 
sessed of kind feelings and liberality in excess, and utterly 
incapable of taking care of property ; and, in addition to this, 
many minute points and shades of character were stated ; 
and so graphick and strikingly correct was the description, 
that the examiner was interrupted by the Doctor, who, aston- 
ished beyond measure at the portraiture of character drawn, 
demanded whether the phrenologist did not know him. Be- 
ing assured to the contrary, with increased earnestness, he 
reiterated the inquiry, " Do you not know me, sir?" And 
after being reassured that he did not, he asked if the exam- 
iner would be qualified to that effect. Being most solemnly 
assured that he would, and the statement of the phrenologist 

* It was asserted by the Doctor, and attested by several of his Va. acquaintan- 
ces of unquestionable veracity, that, since he had made the discovery of a suitab'<" 
remedy, he had cured all the patients thus afflicted who had followed his udxiee 
and prescription ; and that the number then (in 1835) amounted to several hun- 
dreds ; and, moreover, that many of them were cases of the most desperate and 
hopeless kind. One of the patients who. after having been afflicted with the liver 
complaint ./or eight or ten years, has experienced a perfect cure by following out 
the prrscriniinn of Dr. G., is S. Kirkham, co-author in the present work, who takus 
great pleasure in thus making known the merits of this extraordinary man, and in 
recommending all who are afflicted with tf is terrible disease, if possible, to &vai] 
themselves of his wonderful skill. 



on this point, being corroborated by the Doctor's Va. frienas 
who had prevailed on him to submit to the examination, and 
who were little .ess astonished than himself at the wonder- 
ful accuracy of the description given, the Doctor yielded the 
point, and at last acknowledged that the disclosure of his 
character and talents must have been made by the applica- 
tion of the principles of a science which he had hitherto rid- 
iculed as foolish and absurd. In confirmation of this state- 
ment, the following testimonial is presented : 

" I hereby certify that Mr. O. S. Fowler, a phrenologist, 
has this day, solely by the application of phrenological prin- 
ciples, described my character and mental operations more 
correctly than could have been done by my most intimate 
friends. I might even add, that he has told me all, and that 
my own astonishment and that of my friends at the minute- 
ness and the accuracy of his description, are very great. 

Baltimore, June 3, 1835. JOHN C. GREEN." 

The writer saw a journeyman printer in the office of John 
W. Woods, in Baltimore, who was partially deranged. His 
ideal, was very large ; and he was almost constantly either 
repeating passages from orations, &c, accompanied with 
much gesticulation, or delivering extempore speeches. Still, 
in the execution of his work, he showed no signs of mental 
aberration. Farther particulars may be learned of Mr. W. 

A lad about three years old, named Franklin Gibson, 
whose parents reside about three miles from the city, was 
examined and found to possess a most astonishing devel- 
opment of tune, and also of imitat. and time. When 
this development was pointed out, his brother stated, that 
" he could turn a tune before he could talk, or was a 
year old ; learned to play upon the piano-forU 1 without any 
instruction ; a fortnight after hearing a tune sung but once, 
could sing it from memory j could play the air of a tune upon 
the piano, and, at the same time, compose and sing a bass 
without making a discord ; and had not only never been 
known to make a discord himself, but evinced extreme 
sjnsitiveness when he heard others make one." Query 1. 
Is this extraordinary manifestation, the result of intuitive 
ta .ent, or of education ? 2. Is it caused by an extraor- 
dinary activity and power of a particular faculty of the 
mind, or is this phenomenon, wiiich vastly excels all his 
wher mental manifestations, and also trat of one child in a 



trillion, the product of that same mental power by which is 
manifested all his other mental operations? Let anti-phre- 
nologists, and all who deny the plurality of the mental facul 
ties, answer. 

The following is the testimony of the Rev Benjamin Kurtz, 
editor ol the Lutheran Observer, in reference to the exami 
nation of his two sons, as given editorially in his own paper. 

.Phrenology Tested. — We this morning witnessed a 
practical exhibition of the principles of phrenology, which 
was exceedingly interesting, and, in our view, furnished 
very strong evidence in favour of its claims to publick con- 
fidence. Mr. Fowler is at present engaged in delivering a 
course of lectures on this subject at the corner of Baltimore 
and Gay streets. His last lecture was attended among oth- 
ers by the editor of this paper, who, it may not be amiss to 
observe, has always been decidedly opposed to phrenology. 
After the lecture, we w r ere introduced to Mr. Fowler, and a